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Gerundives

The gerundive
The gerundive is a verbal adjective that
is used to express necessity or
obligation. It is in the passive voice
They should be translated as something
must be verb-ed

The gerundive
So: Cartago delenda est=
Carthage must be destroyed

Forming the Gerundive

To form the Gerundive, simply take


the Present Stem from a verb and
add ndus, a, um onto it.

cf. Amanda, Miranda and agenda

Again, as with the Present Active


Participle, verbs of the 3rd-io and 4th
conjugations add an i to the stem
before the ndus, a, um
A good way to remember the ending is
from the word gerundive.

Forming the Gerundives


Steps to forming a Gerund
1.

Find the present active infinitive (the 2nd principle


part).

2.

Take off the -re.


1.

am

Add nd to the stem [remember -ie- for 3rd io and 4 C]

4.
1.

5.

am, amre, amv, amtum

ama + -nd

Add the 2nd/1st adjective endings


amandus/a/um

Practice
1.

genitive, singular, m, vide, vidre

2.

accusative, singular, f, rog, rogre

3.

ablative, singular, n, duc, ducere

4.

dative, singular, m, capi, capere

5.

nominative, singular, f, audi, audre

Practice
1.
2.

genitive, singular, m, vide, vidre


videndi
accusative, singular, f, rog, rogre

rogandam
3.

ablative, singular, n, duc, ducere


ducendo

4.

dative, singular, m, capi, capere


capiendo

5.

nominative, singular, f, audi, audre


audienda

Gerundives

We have already seen gerundives and have learned


that they should be translated as ought to be verbed.

In addition, they too can be used with caus, grti,


and ad to express purpose.

Exempla

Rmam vn matris videndae caus.


I came to Rome for the sake of seeing (my) mother.
Arma cpit ad pugnandum hostem.
He took up arms for the purpose of fighting the enemy.

Practice
1.

Lgts pcis petendae caus soci msrunt.

2.

Rmns erat voluntas bellrum gerendrum.

Practice
1.

Lgts pcis petendae caus soci msrunt.

2.

The allies sent envoys for the sake of seeking peace.

Rmns erat voluntas bellrum gerendrum.

There was a desire for the Romans of waging wars.