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ilr GIJITAR METHOD


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Through this method I hope to open the door to a new type of harmonic technique and hnowledl
for the guitar. There has been a shormge of good constructional harmonic material that develops d
hand mechanically and increasesthe knowledge musically. All exercisespresentedin this volume have bec
carefully tested through years of teaching. Each one hasa definite purposefor developmentof the hanr
no metter how insignificant it may seemto the student.
The exercisesare given in condensedform to savespaceand also to encourageand develop independer
thinking on the part of the student. They are written in one key but are to be played in alt the keyr
as shown in the explanations accompanyingthe exercises.Think of the tonic of every k.y as "do'
Therefore if you are in E flat, consider the E flat as "do". Through this systemall keys are equal an
therefore you will not favor any particular key or keys.Someof the exercisesin this method are writte
in whole noteswith no dividing bar line but should be practicedat a slow even tempo. Succeedingvolumr
are in preparation for publication in the near future.
GsoncE VaN Eps

GENERALINSTRUCTIONS
HOLDING THE GUITAR
Holding the guitar correctly is a point that should be studied very carefully becausethere are man':
irnportant factors to be considered,the first of which is comfort. It is almost impossible to work freely i
you are trying to support or hang
on to the guitar with your hands.
The normal technicalities of the instrument are dificult and tiring
enoughwithout an awkward posture
to make them more rc. Flere is the
correct posture. Sit in ? straightback chair of medium height and
then crossthe left leg over the right
so that your left knee rests on your
right knee at the semetime keeping
your right foot flat on the floor.
Then place the body of the guitar
on your lap so that the lower hollow
6ts the left leg and the upper hollow
rests against the right side of your
chest.The body of the guitar should
be on an angle of approximately
twenty degrees in relation to your
torso and the scroll should be on a

level with your shoulder,but slightly forward. Never lean back in the chair,leanslightly forward alway
as this helps to hold the instrumentsecurely.After following theseinstructionsthe guitar shouldbalanr
on your lap by itself.(Fig.No. 1.)
-2-

IHE PICK AND WruST ACTION


Bring the right arm up until the elbow r$rs very lightly on the top edgc of the body. Thc cnd of
your hend should now be half way between the bridge and the end of the fingerboard. TbG inside of
the wrist should be approximately two inches above the string level. Fold the fingers of t{re right hand
under, but not rc far as to have them touch the palm of the hand. For example, wrep tJrc fingers of the
right hend eround a broom handle, bending tfie fingers from the firct and second joint.

After doing this

remove the hendle and noticc the position of the fingers. The result should bc the correct cutre. (Fig.
No. (2.)
Now plrce the pick on the f,,rst joint of the 6rst finger rc that the horizonal axis is perdlel to tlrc
back of your hand. Then plece tfie end of your thumb (approximatcly l/+

nch) on the pick so thet

tkre is a half inch of the pointed end showing. Do not hold the pick, too tightly .r it must be allowcd to
occillatc rather than bcnd. In a complete wrist action the wrist imitates a twisting motion with each stroke,
vcry much like flicking something off your hand. Sce that you use a quick and accurate stroke, eliminating
dl excessmovement becauseyou want the notes to sound simultaneously, not one by one. Vhen pleying
on inside strings use the next highest string as a pick-stop. The axis of your wrist should be directly ovcr
the highest note as the top note should predominate. In other words if you are picking the B, D, and G
rtrings as a triad, the axis should be over the B string with the result that the D string will sound sofdn
thc G string r litde louder, and the B string will be the loudest, w.hich is dynamically correct.

-t-

THE LEFT HAND


In studying this bootr it is necesary to bear the following frctors in mind as they will not be mcntiono
in the explanetions of the exercises. The fundamentals do not change in rhe difrercnt excrcises,but th
situatioru do. There is only one correct way to place the fngers on the fngerborrd. Drop your left hm
dovn alongsideyour body entirely relaxed. Now bring it up slowly leaving the fngers curved (slowl
twisting it counter-clockwise) until your ttrumb touches the neck halfway between the body and t*re nut
The thumb must ride rpproximately one-third of the way around thd neck from the bessside. Neve
Iet your thumb extend above the fingerboard level, and never let it travel more than halfway around th
curve of the neck. Your knuckles should be almost parallel to the side of the neck. Now plece you
fingers on the fingerboard in an arched position, not trying to finger anything, just letting them rest rheft
Slide your hand slowly up the neck toward the body. Vhen your hand touchesthe body of the instrumen
your elbow should be next to your torso. Now slide along the neck slowly with your elbow traveling r
just half the speedof your hand. This principle is similar to the hour and minute hand of a clock. I
this is properly applied you will notice the position of the hand will change very lirtle in relation to th,
neck. This is of Sreet importance in the development of mechanical perfection.

The fingers must be arched until just the tips rest on the strings so that they work .tp and down ham,
mer-frshion seating just back of the frets, not in between and not on top. Bend your left thumb back
slightly so that only the ball or fleshy
part touchesthe neck. Do not hug
the neck wirh the inner part of the
hand. It is necessaryto k*p

the

fingers suspendedover the 6ngerboard at all times. Do not let them


stand up straight, curl under thc
fngerboard, or wander in any fashion. The correct place is approximately one-half inch above the
strings for in this position they ere
alwaysready to operate.This grcatly
improves rccurecy of the fingers.
Here is a practical example of this
principle. If you suspenden object
above a designetedspot and dropped it, wouldn't your accuracy be far greater than if you stood a few fer
awey and threw the obfect at the spot? The wrisr musr be kept straight at all timesexcepr whcn executin
a very long reech.Your hand is like a pieceof machinery which can developmechanicaltrouble if thrown int
odd positions.Thoselittle push-rodsin the baclcof the hand that operate the fingers must have a straig[
course if expected to work properly. Besidesbeing correct, the straight-wrist posture is more comfort
able and nrtural when you ger usedto ir. (Fig. No. j.)
-1-

It is important to remember that the exercisesin this book should be practiced very legato. In order
to do so, the notes must be given their full value and must be connectedwith no pausebetweenthem. The
changesfrom formation to formation must be executedin the leastamount qf time. Do not stint the value
of the notes in order to give yougs3:lftirne to make the next formation. In making these quick shifts, do
not rush the tempo. Plant your fingers solidly and firmly on the fingerboard. After releasingthe pressure
on a formation get used to forming the next position while the hand is in motion. Do not wait until the
hand arrivesat the location before forming the fingers. This savestime and naturally goeshand in hand with
the legato principle.
The reasonlegato is being stressedso much is becauseit is the hardestform of phrasing for the guitar.
Stacatto, the reverse,is the natural form and therefore the easiestone. In practicing legato rememberto
re-apply the pressurefor each formation. Do not slide around holding the pressure,yet do not to to the
extreme by lifting the fingers too far off the strings during the change. Eliminate all waste motion with
the fingers. The closer they are to the fingerboard, the lesstime it takes to place them. The mechanics
of theseexerciseshave been carefully planned and tested.

THE ATTACKAND Dffi


A clean smooth technique dependsupon a good 6rm attack which is accomplishedonly when both
hands work in perfect unison. To fret a note or chord before picking it producesa poor tone and limits
the speedof the hand. In the correct attack the pressureis applied the instant the pick strikes the string.
Always aPPly the pressurequickly with a deliberate snap,like a trigger releasinga srrong spring. In the
exit of a note or chord, the pressurernust be releasedasquickly asit wasapplied becausea slow releaseproducesa bad buzzing sound, especiallywhen working on the lower strings.

The pressure releasernust be


straight up off the fingerboard and not slanting in the direction of the next position, otherwise a slurring
effect will be the result.

- t -

EXPLANATIONOF THE STRING CHART


In this method rhe strings rre listed in groups, or sets (seethe chart), and for eachset there is a symbol,
eirher numerical, alphabetical,or both. This system has to be usedbecauseof the many different locations
to plry rhe srme notations. For example,the C major triad with the first finger on the secondfret of the
B string, the open G string, and the secondfinger on the secondfret of the D string, can be played in three
different positionsirsing the samevoicing. In exerciseswhere the secondhalf is fingered in reverseof the
of the first, markings will apperr only in the first half. Set,pick, and finger markings remain good until
hrve no merkings,but are referredback to previousexercisesfor the fingchrnged. Someof the exercises
erings.

FINGERBOARD
CHART
Showing the different setsof strings rnd their symbols.
The x's designatethe strings usedin eachset.

l s t s e to f 3 ( l 1 3 )
2nd set of I (2lt)
l r d s e to f t ( l l t )
4th set of 3 (4!3)
lst set of 4 (ll4)
2nd ser of. + (214)
trd set of 4 (tl4)
lst set of broken t (llBl)
2nd set of broken I (2lBl)
lrd set of broken I (3Blr)
broken lst set of 3 (Blil)
broken 2nd set of I (B2i3)
broken 3rd set of t (B3lt)
Ist set of broken 4 (llB4)
2nd set of broken 4 (2184)
lst set of broken 2 (llB2)
2nd set of broken 2 (Z!BZ)
3rd set of broken 2 (llBZ)
4rh set of broken 2 (4182)
(All)

(Al2)
(Alr)

V I V r y I I I I I

-6-

WARNINGS

Remember to treat all the exercises,wntten and referred to, asseperatestudies. Do not skip over any
of them becauseyou will only have to come back to them later on, which is not the desiredcourse.Another
important point is che fact that learning and pracdcing a study are two different things. Vhen learning
an exerciseyou are teaching the fngers their respectivelocations. After that time you srarr pracdcing
to perfect what you have lerrned, which is the real prrctice. You.derive the most beneft from rn exercise
n'hen you can practice it for ten or fifteen minutes withour a break and with cornpararivelyfew errors.
A mismke is a bad habit becruse it makesyou corxtciousof that particular place *i,.r.".,

it may have oc-

cured. It is natural to conccntrate your efforts on that one place and by doing so, mistakesmay be made
in other places. To avoid this, practice an exercisevery slowly for a long time. This gives you time to think
of all the poina thus establishingthe foundation for a good, clean technique. This can only be had by
practicing slowly and gradually increasingthe tempo, at the slme time never practicing an excrcisefaster
than you can play it correctly.

To start with, your practice periods would be a half-hour in the morning and a half-hour in the
afternoon'

Increase to forty-five minutes after a month's time. Build your prectice time up so that after

three months you are practicing in three forty-fve minute periods, and in 6ve month's tirne, in three one
-hour periods per day.

Never practice morc than an hour in one period, es thc mind becomesdull after

that time and is no longer reccptive. Three hours a day of the right kind of pnctice is suficient, though
more time will not hurt, providing you follow the rules just mentioned. After a concentreted hour of practice your mind, as well as your fingsrs and hand, should be tired.

In order to obtain the best results, do not rush through this book. Take three exercises(forms)
per week as regular lessoru. Each week take three more, while still pracricing the preceding
exercises,erc.
Keep building this way, never dropping an exercise,as you will need the technical as well as
the musical
lcnowledgecontained in all thesestudies to have a retdy technique.

-7-

WITH MAJOR CHORDS


Seebefore EX. 48
EX. I
The first exerciseis a harmonized major scalein triads using six di{ferent fingerings. The 6rst form il
on thesecondand first setsof three strings.(Seenotations hlow the staff.) The secondform of Ex. I i:
played entirely on the secondset of three strings. The third form is playedon the secondand 6rst ser ol
threestrings but variesfrom the first form becausethe cross-overis on a different note of the scale. Tht
fourth forrn is on the third, secondand first sets of three strings. The notation in all the forms of tht
first cxerciseis the samebut the fingerings are different in each one, and should be practiced as separat(
exercise.s.You will notice that the first four forms of Ex. I are long forms which cover quite a bit of tht
fingerboard.The fifth form is more condensedand the sixth form is the most condensedform of this harmothe notesareof equa)
nieed scale. This first exerciseis written in wholenotes with no division of barsbecause
value and shouldbe practiced very slowly. Ex. I and all im forms should be played in all the keys, madt
possibleby the six different fingerings, as follows:
lst

forrn-from

C.rptoF

2nd form-from

C .tp to C sharp (D if possible)

lrd form-from

C,rptoF

4th form-from

A flat up to D flat (D if possible)

Ith form-frorn

AflatuptoE

tith form-from

F sharp up to C sharp

It is necessaryto becomefamiliar with all theseforms as they will be referred to often.


F O R MT

FORM 3

-8-

FORU T

EX. 2
Ex. No. 2 is t preparetory exercise. This form of picking is termed arpeggio picking.

To get ac-

quainted with this form'for the right hand, it is used on ollen strings so that you have to concentrltc only
on trhepick and wrist action. It should be developedto rcund even dynamically and steadyrhythmically.
To explain the pick and wrist action in Ex. 2 is dificult as we do not actually pick each string individually.
The pick passesover eachstring and accentsit with a slight kick, which is more of a pulsadon. The reason
for this is thet rsing the pulsation principle you will be eblc to meintrin a steady tcmpo and you ryill not
strihe two strings at oncc, as you might do if you were just forcibly pushing the pick acrossthe strings. In
other words it should have a smooth but deliberete effect. If and when you do strike two strings together, you will know that you're not "pubating" properly, if at all. In the down strokcs, use the next
highest string as r pick stop. In the up strohcs,you will not need a stop es the pick returns in in upward
modon.

-9-

Ex. I
This is tfie harmonized scde combined with the arpeggio picking and it should be practiced in six
f,ngerings,the 6rst of which is shown in the exercise. The other five are to be found in the forms of Ex. l.
Prectice all six forms as sepante exercises. You will notice that at the beginning of each measureyou will
find a triad in parenthesiscombining the notes in that meesure. This showsthat it is a chord formation and
is not a single string fingering. Practice this exercise in all its forms slowly. Also make sure that the notes
re of equal value, as the tendency is to skip over the last note in each meerurein order to ger to the next
position in time. Practice all theseexercisesas legato as possible,which will necessitatea quick accurare shifr
from one pcition to another.

EX.4
In this cxercisethe major scale (harmonizedin common triads) is shown in sequenceform, three
steptsup and return on the first triad, then, on the second triad, etc., ascending;the reverse,descendir'g.
This is elso to be practiced using the five other fingerings as found in Ex. l, and in all the heys. Practice
it very slowly and maintain an even tempo. Ex. 4 is to be practiced later on rsing the arpeggio picking.

-10-

EX. t
Care musr be taken in maintaining an eyen tcmpo, as every other measureis in arpeggio picking and
as you
the natural tendency is to hurry the whole nores. Count four beats for the firct measureiust
would for the second measure. Also practice in all the fingerings found in the Ex. l, and in all the lseys.

EX. 6
is similarto Ex. i, in the fact that it is arpeggio piclcing combined with the whole note
Thisexercise
triad. The sameprinciplesareto be applicd.

EX. 7
This exercisedevelopsjudgemenr of distancewith the left hand. Note that the gap betweenthe first
ju-P. Care shouldbe taken
and the secondtriad is an ocravewhich when played in the long form is a long
hazin makint sure that the fingers light surely and firmly. In the condensedform you do not have the
ard of a long iu*p berween first and second triads, but crossingover the setsof strings to iump the octave presen6a dilferent problem as this must be done cleanly. This is to be played in all six fingerings and
in all the keys asfound in Ex. l. Later employ arpeggiopicking.
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-ll-

218

EX. 8
A rhphmic

form of the scale. Vhen prrcticing bear in mind all thc previous exple'.etions end warn.
ingF. Notc that thc scale goes through e rhythmic cycle, which is vcry finc practicc as the "hdf-time'
providcs a breatfiing spcll bcfore the next burst of speed. To bc practicd in all the differdnt fingerings an<i
Leys.

EX. e
Another sequenceforrn of the harmonized scale-the reverseof Ex. 4.

In the sevenrh measureo

this exercise,the second triad should be played not only with a Barre of the fourth finger as marked, bur
also with Barresof the third, secondand first fingers alternately.

In the last measure the second triac

should be practiced using the third set of three strings and also the fourth set. Later employ arpeggic
pickirig.

( also 3rd,2nd & tst fingcrs )

-t2-

EL IO
This cxerciseshould be pncticed crrcfully as it is very confusing becauseof the finggrins chengin
within itself. Practicc in dl L,eys. Later cmploy arpeggiopiching.

EX. tl

(Two forms)

To be practiced very slon'ly, paying strict attention to the medrings. Later employ arpeggio pictrin,
FORU I

lt

EX. 12 (Three forms)


This exerciseis in two sharpsbecausethat is the lowest form of the harmonized scale on the guiter
After all the forms have been perfected join them up with the harmonized scale an ocrave higher an,
prectice without a break. You witl then be able to run two octavesin the harmonized scale. Later emplo,
erpeggiopicking.
FORU I

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ElC lt

(Two forrns)

The first form was espccially designedfor strengthening the third and fourt'h fingers. The recond form
is difficult in the high register and therefore good practice.

EX. 14 (Three forms)


This exercisehas a definirc purposeand should bepracticedvery slowly and carefully. The upper (mc.
lodic) Iine is in half notes while the two lower voices are in whole notes. Make sure they sustain their fuli
value. Practiceall three forms equally asthe purpose throughout this method is balancedrechnique.
FORU I

t1

EX. lt

(Two forms)

This is practically the sameasEx. 14, the difference being that in this exercisewe modulate a half tonr
up and a half tone down at each two-bar phrase. Practicein all keys.Go from one key to anotherwithour
a stoP.
F O RU

t6
FORM

l5

-14-

EX. 16 (Three forms)


This exercisemust be pncticed very carefully as we introduce a new principle in the first two forms
"breaking" (or flattening from an arched position)
of the 6rst joint of the fingere. In
which is the
the first form at the secondand third measuresr/ou flatten the fint joint of tfie second 6nger to produce
the addednote, which brings this principle into the classification of a fifth 6nger.

It is 1 very dificulr

maneuver becausethe finger that is doing the flattening must sustain another note during the process. In
the second form, in the firct and last mersures,the third finger doesthe flattening which is alrc vcry dificult. This flattening principle must be practiced methodically as it must be reliable rhythmicelly and should
be done with a snap. Do not skip over this principle as it is very important. Prectice very slowly. The
third form does not employ dris principle but should be practiced just as carefully.

l6
FORM 2

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to
FORIf, 3

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to

EX. lZ (Two forms)


This is the modulating form of Ex. 16. The sameprinciples should be epplied, mating sure that thc
point of modulation is clean and distinct. Do not slide the left hend in the modulation It shouldte a fast,
accunte change. The pressureshould be releascdfor just a fraction of a secondduring thc change.Precticc
in all keys.
FORU

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213
F O RU 2

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EJ(. 18 (Four forms)


This exercisc,a combination of cxerciscs14 and 16, producesthe major scelebuilt on the tonic chord.
Tlre two lowcr voiccs must sustain for their full veluc. This exercise should be precticcd in ell teys,
which is made pcsible by the differenr fingerings.

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FO RU 2

FORU 3

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FORM +

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EX. re
A maior arpeggio study in triads which takes in all the consecurivesets of three strings. Practice
a
Iegato as possible,without slurring. Vatch the markings carefully as the fngerings ere constantly
chang.
ittg. To be played in ell keys, and later employint arpeggiopicking.
l-

I
i

EX. 20
A veriation of the major scalewith the top voice in quarter notes and the bottom voices
in wholr
notes. Be very careful in this excrciseas the finger flattening principle will be
doubly hard There arr
no markings in this exercisebecauseit should be practiced using the four different forms
found in Ex. l g
Practicc in ell keys.

ny n y
80

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-16-

EX. zt
This is a lower form of the rneior scale built on the tonic chord. It should be practiced up to tihcLey
of C.

lat.fi
Ex.22
A variation of Ex. 21. Apply the same

a
EX. 2l (Three forrns)
This major exercisewas especiallydesignedto strengtlren

To be practiced in all

keys.
FORU I

1)

IJ

28

IA

FORT 2

29
218

roRu I

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IJ

28

E'x.24
A modulating form of Ex. 2t, in which the same principles are to be applied. Practice usint all the
forms found in that exercise.

4u

EX. 2'
A variationof Ex. 24, to be practicedutilizing the fingeringfound in Ex. 23, jnst asyou did in in
Ex.24 above.

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WITH MINOR CHORDS


EX. 26
Starting a harmonized minor scale study in six different forms. Pay closeattention to the markings
'V'atch
in these forms as they are yery confusing and dificulc
the movement of all the fingers closely.
Give this exercisethe sametreatment as Ex. l, such as arpeggiopicking, erc. Practice in all keys.

lh* r[el**r[8

-18-

EX.27 (Six forms)


This is a different form of the harmonized minor scaleand should be given the sametreitment rs Ex.
26. Always berr in mind the legato practice and the use of the six different fingerings. Practice in etl
keys.
FORM I

27

FORM 3

2l

FORU T

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27

FORM 5

27

FORM 6

27

-19-

EX. 28 (Three forms)


This is a lower form (itt pitch) of the harmonized minor scale.Practice very crrefully as some of
the fingerings,though correct, are confusing. Practice this also with the arpeggio picking and in all keys.
FORU I

*13

EX. 29 (Three forms)


Another low form of the harmonizedminor sclle. It shouldbe given the samerreatment asEx. 2g.
FORU I

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{13

2 ltt

-20-

EX. to (Six forms,p


A different hermonizationof tfie minor scde which, lile the otlrer scde studics, is in sir for
To be given the sametreatmcnt asEr. l.

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FORU 2

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-2t-

EX. tl

(Six forms)

The harmonized mihor scale built on the tonic chord. To explain this more clearly in caseof doubt,
it is written in the key of D minor (using accidentals),using the tonic triad only, asharmony. Practice eacl
form carefully as each fingering presentsdilferent hazards. This exerciseis to be practiced in all keys.

FoRut

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FORM 3

-22-

EX. ,2
A lower form of the harmonizod minor scalebuilt on the tonic chord. Apply the same principles ir
this exerciseas in the previous on6.

a
TB

FORM +

-2t-

CHORDS
WITH SEVENTH
EX$ " &, t4
Buift on thc scventh arpeggio which tekcs in the entire fingerboard. Theseexercisescannot bc playod
in ell rhe keys in thcir original form but crn be moved up and down the fingsrboard by leeving out thc
first measurewhen descendint (if too low) and leaving out the fifth measurewhen ascending (if too high).
Ex. ll

is in one form and Ex. 34 is in four forms. Practice the fingerings in Ex. 33 tuing the same no-

tation as in Ex. ]4.

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FORU 3

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EX. rt
A short svenrharpeggio in triads. You will notice that the fingerings in this exercise fell right under
the hand. P.y special arenrion to the markings es this exerciseuscsalternate picking, which means that
the secondand fourth triads in the measureare played with up-strokcs. Practice in ell'keys, descending
chromadcaIy.
^ n

F r

t6

-24-

EX'. t6 (Three forms)


A long scventharpeggioin trieds. Vhen the fingerings in all three forms are learned,start practicing
them with alternatcpicking, rs in Ex. 3f. Also practiccwith rrpeggiopicking.

8 g

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FORU 3

3
t

86

EX,. t7 (Two forms)


This is the first of a seriesof stretching exercises, You will notice that the middle note remains the
same while the other two voicer move around the middle voice in chromatic tentlu. This is the first exercisc
using a broken set of three strings. (Sce page 6). Pay close attention to the set marlsingsunder the staff
in all theseexercises. Practice in all keys in srraight down strokes,then with arpeggio picking. Be careful
in the larter as you have ro jump over a string with the pick. This must be done smoothly.
FORM I

{ o

t7
roRu 2
E7
-2t-

*fie

tl e

EXS. 18 E t9
Ex. ]8 is in one form rnd Ex. 39 is in two forms. Give theseexercisesthe sametreatment.as given Ex.
3 7 Practicein all keys.

/i
t8

'$il, 'h;
FORM T

tfi=

tho

til5

rtt

tfiu

{>

ild

he

fiu

89
roR[t s
89

2+
alns

'7o, rtt

til5

EX. 40 (Two forms)


Contrary motion is introduced in this stretching exercise. This comesmore under the headingof hand
gymnastics. C-onstantpractice of rhesetwo forms will definitely increaserhe spread of the fingers, parricularly in the first form.

Though dissonantin spors, it is correct. Practice in all keys which is mrde pos-

sible by the two forms.


FORM T

6\

40
FORM 2

40
EX. 4l (Two forms)
This is relatedto Ex. 40 inasmuchasit is a stretching exercisewith similar srrucrure. The sameprinciples are to be applied.
FORU t

,lt
FORII 2

tl
313
EX. 42 (Two forms)
Contrary motion is again employed in this exercise. Observeall markings carefully.
ktYt'
F O R MI

12

Practice in all

r,x.4,
This is the samenotation asEx. 42, but

, $ o tho

:g

Apply the sameprinciples.

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,tg
Brla

ri

,ilo

l e

BTB

F'X.44 (Two forms)


Introducing a new type of picking which is very hard ro gauge, therefore it will develop accuracy
with the pick. Although this exerciseis written in 8th triples, practice very slowly at firsr. Note the new
set markings under the staff. They refer to the chart on page 6. Pay specialattention ro the mechanics

Az-T

3Fz

v n

FORII 2

A2

tu
I
Alg

EX. 4t

Alg
octave higher. Practicein as many keys rs possible.

Same notation as in Ex.


4

.3

fi

.3

46

Adg

'r3

3
z'mX

I
All-

EX. 46 (Two forms)


Contrary motion is again employed. This exercisesurts on the seventhtried, goesthrough a progression
which resolves to a more open voicing of the Eameseventhand retracts. Practice slowly in all keys.
FORM I

40

FORU 2

33
8X'.47 (Two forms)

The lower three notesof this exerciseare identical with Ex. 46, but we have addeda stationary nore on
top which makes it necessa
ry for this to be pnc ticed es a new and separateexercise. Observe all markingr
carefully and practice slowly in all keys.
rORUt
6
17

FORU 2

17

WITH DIMINISHED
CHORDS
EX..ft
Starting the diminished study of this volume. These first two exerciscson the diminishcd trird are
very important. As you know thc diminished chord relrcar itself every four frets. Therefore it is neccssary
to have e good foundation in order to judge the distance betwcen triads. You will notice the fingering remains the samethroughout this exercise. The jumps should be fast and accurate with tfie fingerc rclidly implanted each time. In other words, look out for slides. The first finger should rest just above the fourth
string, not riding it, but suspendeda little ebove the string. prac tice slowly.

. R

Sq- $* ,h,,s.3 tfr

EX. 49
The semeprinciples apPly in this exerciseas in Ex. 48 except for the finger ,suspension,which is reversed. This time the first, secondand third fingers do the worh, and the fourth finger is poised just abovc
the firct string. You rnay have to spend a lot of time on these firct two diminished exercisesto get the
two idle fingers to lie in readiness. This is important and musr be practiced until perfecc

EX IO
You will notice in this exercisewhy thc finger training in Exs. 48 and 49 is necessrry. Those exercisesare combined in this one, in . one for one order. The first and fourth fingers should alternate like thc
endsof a rocker trm. In other words the first finger should remain down until the fourth comesdown, but
make sure therc are never four notet sounding not even for t fraction of a second. Vith this fingering
the exercisecan bc playcd very tegeto. Down strokes should be u$d throughout until thoroughly acquaintcd with the exerdise,aftcr which time alternate picking should bc usod,with the up-strokes falling on the
secondand fourth triads. Observeall markings carefully end prlcrice slowly.

-28-

EX. il
Our prcvious diminishcd fingerings pley rn importrnt part in this cxercisc, which is iri cyclcs wirh scycn
MerhinF will h fourd in thc first cycle onl1' rs the set rnd fingering mrrhings rrc
thc same rn t{re rcrt of the cycles. Prrcticc with down-strokcs until thoroughly rcqueinted with thc excr-

trieds in each cyclc.

cisc, thcn usc elternetc piclitrt, rs cxplaind in Ex. t0.

Precticc slowly.

6t

EX. t2
The cycles in this exerciseare divided by " bar line. Notc the similarity to Ex. fl.

The first cycle

tos up the scale, the secondcycle is the revereeof the 6rst a hrlf tone higher, and the third cycle is the
reverseof the seconda helf tone higher; the result being chromatic diminished arpeggios. Fingerings will be
found in the 6rst two cyclesonlh rs the rest us the same as these. Vhen thoroughly ecquainrcd with
this exercise,employ alternate picking. Pnctice also with arpeggio picking.

EX. ,'

A rethcr unusual fingcring is inroduced in this exercisewhich will heve to be practiced retionally rs it
Make surc thrt all the fingers except the secondrrc arched. Don't be alermed if the firsr

is tiring rr first.

joinr of the second finger aches slightly while it is lerrning to berr the strain. The fingering remains tht
slme ascendingundl the octave is reeched,then reyersesrnd remains thc same descendinguntil thc startinl
point is reached.

v.

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freJ ri^*=
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EX. 14
A variation and developmentof Ex. 13 in which you to up and down the scalechromatically. Th,
explanationof the precedingexerciseis to be applied.

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EX. tt
---'The

diminished scelewhich ascendsdifferently than it descends. Read the notes carefully as they
"ear". You may have dilficulty in forming the as'
may sound wrong at firsn Don't depend on your
cending formation. To avoid this, over-spreedrather than under-spreadyour fingers. The descending
In the second form, the rscending fingering is dilf,cult and the third finger ma;
be sluggish,so practice trhisform yery slowly to provide time for concentration on the movement of thar
fingering is lessdificult.

lLd

finger.
FORUT
55
FORM 2

55

,*)

,hJ

EK. '6
The chrometic diminishcd scelein this forrr is one of thc m6t dilficult scrciscs ro far, inrsnruch .s you
havc to plry two notes in succcssionwith thc firrrt 6nger. Thc dificulty hcrc fu in matrng th6c two noalt
ound as though thoy rcrc frycrcd with tro fngers insteed of one. T}is can bc done by melint thc moycmcnr very fast without

tlfttios or slurring. Prectice slowlv.


V
n
ffi

60

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,Im IE IN

ir-il

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ilJ
r.....--l

EX. t7
In this exercisc the top linc is in quarter notes and tfie harmonic structgrc is h wbolc notc3. Mahe surc
the whole notqt ere held for their full vdue. Chccl, once in e while to make sure dl three notcs in dE trind
are rcunding. Th$ exerciseincrerses the reach of the fourth finger.

Ths 6ngcr will have a tcndency to

lay fat when it should be archod. This may bc a strein at first but it cen bc dwclopod tfuough work.

dnJ*J JJil4n Jd+J


67

EX. t8 (Two forms)


This is the fint diminished chord exercisc in open voicing. It is necesary to *"deeden" I string. This
is taken care of by the fingering. For instence, in the first form thc D string (IV) is stoppcd from vibrating with the second6nger while that 6nger is uscd for thc note on the A (V) srring. Practice slowly and observeall markings.

roR

frJ J r

58

'1.e. The pick


strikes that sFing, but thc tclt hand 6ngcr docs not lct it $und

-tl-

clcerty.

EX. t9
This exercisc combincs opcn voicing with cloeed voicing.

Obscrye ell martings and prectice dowly

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J $ J+=

J =+

E)C 60 (Two forms)


In this exercisc the moving voice fu in the middle of the structure, which prGrnts a dificulty as th
up-stroke must pick, the middle notc while the two ouaide notcs arc sounding. Make sure you do no
deedcn either of the snsteining voices with the up-strohc. Thrs is accomplbhcd s follows: After rfie dowr
-stroke the pick should travel in a small returning arc eround thc upper string so you will not touch i
end stop its vibretion.

Thcn with the dcccnditg backward motion the pick will strike thc middle nor

sefely. Use a cornplcrc wrist actiort.

toRx t

oo

$=

il5

toBx g

oo

Ex. 6l
The general strucnrre of this excrcise is idcnticd to Elc 50. Th
rnd thc fiogetiog.

Apply the seme principles.

gr8

-r2-

diffcrcnce lics in thc noving voict

Ex. 62
This is the samein every respectto Ex. 6l except that it is on the second"broken set of three" instead of the third set and t$erefore pitched higher. Apply the same principles.

2lB3

EX. 6}
This is the sameasEx. 62 cxceptthat it is on the first"brokenset of three". The sameprinciplesto
be applied.
{>

ilg

63

EX. 64
The preceding three exercisesare combined in this one, covering the entire finger-board.

Practice

very slowly and make sure the middle voice is clear and crisp. After this exerciseis well practiced and you
are thoroughly familiar with it, try changing the cross-overpoints.

$e
r$5
3iB3

EX. 6t

The moving voice is again found in the middle of the structure, making this exercisesimilar to Ex. 64.
By now you should be familiar with this type of picking.

-tt-

EX. 66
A greet lmount of accuracy for tJre right hand b developcd in this exercisethrough the type of pick.
ing employed-After you havercunded the first and second notes in the meesure,the third rnd fourth fingen
of the left hand should be right above the frets reedy to drop into ptace. In other words, have the fngen
formed before the two fingers drop and make sure they come down together f,rmly. Do not merely lay then
down but snap t{rem down hammer-fashion simulmneorsly with rhe pick stroke. Give the notes their
ful
vrfrre and practice slowly.

80
I

EX. 67 (Two forms)


You should be familiar with the 6rct half of each measurein this exercise,but inasmuch as the seconc
helf in new' practice the whole exerciseas an entirely new study. Even when you arc familiar with botl
trouPs it will still take considerablepractice to combine them correctly.

3lB3

-r4-

HK. 6t
This is prectically the same .s Ex. 67 znd should be givcn thc samc trcatmcnt. You may have di6'
culry in susteining the bass nore while thc other fingers are performing. This is overcomc by conccntretion and e little more prcssure on that onc notc. Practice slowly.

EX. 6e
This exerciseis in contrary motion, going from r clced to m open form of major chord, and then returning.

It offers r greet amount of variety in finger formation which develops accuncy and agility.

Practice chromatically up and down the fingerboard.


naj.

n{or

erb

ri

EX.. z0 (Two forms)


This study is beneficial in more weys than one as it developslccuracy, agility, and timing. In thr
last half of the second measure the middle triplet triad is sounded with en up-stroke. Melse sure al
three nores sound. In the firct form, the first triplet in the last half of the second measuresholld be prac'
ticed using thc 6rct, second, third and fourth fingers elternately. The proper way to do this is to usc thr
fourth finger the first time through, the third finger the secondtime, etc. Do not apply this in the secont
form becausethe fingering will not mrtch.

Precticeslowly in all keys.

FORU I

zo
n

trORM2

zo

-tt -

EK 7l

(Tro

formr)

Thc frlt

fornr of thir crercisc was dcdgncd to dcvctop thc third and fourth 6ngers, end thc a3co11
form for thc fourth f,og"t donc. Practicc slowly at first in dl L.yr. Vhcn spccd is developod in thes
two forms, thc top linc becomesa moderatc trill.

I,j

'oBur ,tJ.:l ,j -J
-^L g J rJ'J 'r1 , J *J,J.J3 J
7l
toBf 2

lr

EX.72
This is Ex. 7l invertcd.

It develops thc third and fourth fngerc for long range accuncy. Be ver
cereful in plecing ihe fourth f,nger each dme as it may derden thc next string. The piclcing is very touch
in thfu excrcisees you have to crocsover the triad and sound the D string wirh an up-strole. practice
chro
matically up and down the fingerboard. practice slowly.

rL y n

EX. 7t (.Forr for:rs)


This exercise is built on half t{re scale and is, in general, good for developing the hand. you wil
notice that tfie wrder structure is in thirds. Make them clcer and lcgato. The third form is particularl'
vrlueble for the hand as you Play the exerciscwithout thc uee of the first finger.

Practice slowly in al

keys.
N)BU I

),y)n J

7a
toBx 2

#'J:I,Y\ ,)nb),J

78

,cr1 * J ,J

t8

?3

, J r b ): J , a )

n V , n

FOBU 8

FORI

J,il:J $)

"J.^1L,T
a

J'ilNJ
,b).J

J,il:J,a)

A variation of Ex.7l

for developing a long and accurrte reaclu

,,J-I,I ,I ,'lJ.J,J,J .J,J,V),J


rb),J,J J rJ,v),J r

.bJrJ

) . J , J, J

EX'. 7t (Two forms)


This is identical with Ex. Zl but an octeve lower. More prcssurehas to be epplied when playing on the
lower strings in order to obtain a clear tone. Practice carefully

EX. 76 (Two forms)


Identical with Ex. 7!, but an octave lower. Practice slowly in all keys.

-t7-

i-.

EJX.77 (Four forms)


A variation of the last hdf of the mrjor scale. Forms ! and 4 arc identical in notetion but en ocrrvc
lowcr than forms I and 2. Practice elch form up and down the fingerboard rs frr as posible without using
opcn strings. Practice slowly at frst.
roRt 2

?J'I:J'I?J-JC;

EX. 7r
This is a verietion of the major scale. Practice aslegato espossible. Pmctice up to the key of F,

. J - ) , J ? J- Ji , J

t8

EX. 7e
This is another variation of the rnajor scele,pleyd on the lower sets. After this is practiced, use tht
fingerings fourrd'in Ex. 76 with this notetion, then use the notrtion in Ex. 76 with the fingerings in thir
exercise. Practice down to key of F.

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ft

m;fl) JD?ffi

--

tfi)-rJn rT)-

3E

EX. 80
The augmentedchord with the whole tone scale as a melody. Form I is on one set while Form 2
"scts three". You will notice in Form 2 thrt the patterns on the fingerboard are all relrted
of
takesin all
and closelylocated. Practicevery legatomaking the cross-overquickly rnd accurately. Prcctice Form
2 chromatically up and down'the fingerboard.
FOB

80
FOBM 2

80

EX. 8r
This exerciseis very bcnefcial becauseof the wide variety of fingerings and hand gymnastics.Pay
closc attention to the fingerings and markings and do not try to practice it too fast. Benefit is derived
from an exerciseonly when you cln go through it without stopping, no matter how slowly you have to go
in order to do so.

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ala
2

:l

{ ,

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J-bJ lhl

213

fi

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-j

na)

{ J I J s.1Jnl

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2lB3

3lB3

Ex. iz
Individual control of the fingers is developed in this exercise.In the first measurethe third and fourth
fingers play the rwo upper voices in quarter notes while the first and second fingers sustain the lower
voicesin whole nores. Be careful that the presure on the lower notes doesnot decreasebecauseof this
movement of the third and fourth fingers. In the secondmeasure,the fourth finger sustainsa triad while
the first, second and third fingers play the lowest voice. Practice slowly so that the last chord in the
secondmeasurecan be rcunded in tempo; smoothly and evenly. Play in all possiblekeys chromatically
upanddownthefingerboard.

82

f 'f 'T ,br

NOTE

Go back through the book now, taking all exercisesin which down-strokesonly were usedand practice
In
them using up-strokes. Then practice them using up and down strokes alternately. \||ARNING:
crosein6,the strings with the pick, make sure the up'-strokesare playedjust 1s quickly asthe down strokes.
Try to make them sound alike.

-t9-

---

ETUDESTUDY
The purPoseof this short etude is to show the practicalapplicationof someof the fingeringsan(
exercisesin the method. After studying you u,ill readily seewhich exercisesand fingeringshavebeer
combinedin forming this etude.
You should try writing one of rheseevery week, applying the following rules. Limit yourself to i
certain number of exercises(five or six for example), varying the value of the notes any way you wisl
without changing the fingering. You can use any part of the exercisesselected,from the smallestpart t(
the whole exercise. Tty to vary each etude from the rest. Rememberyou can not milk any of the ex.
ercisesdry, asthere is always a new way to twist them around. Keep them as simple as possibleat first, for
if they become too complicated it will be di{ficult to resolvethem properly. Later on when your know.
ledge and experiencehas been built up gradually through the constructionof the simpler forms, you will
be able to resolve more dilficult situations.
Solidity and construction should be the foremost thoughts. Keep them harmoniousand melodic. Do
not exPect too much at first in developint thesestudiesas it takestime and work to be able to write even
a fairly Soodone each weeh. After constructing an etude write it out and saveeachone,soyou will be eblc
to check on your Progress.One of the best featuresof this study is the fact thar you can seeyour comF)sition on PaPer, thereby enabling you to study it thoroushty. This study brings our and developsyour
individuality, at the same time teaching you ro write along practical lines for the guitar.

v n n n
2l.1

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-40-

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