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BIOSENSORS

Presented by
Dr. Harman
Multani

BIOSENSORS
Biosensor - biological sensor.
A biosensor

is a device for the detection of an analyte that combines a


biological component with a physiochemical detector component.

Analyte : The compound which has to be sensed or the presence of

which has to be determined.

Sensor: An analytical device which functions to analyse a sample


for the presence of a specific compound
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COMPONENTS OF BIOSENSOR
A biosensor

mainly consists of two parts


(i) A Biological part: enzymes,antibodies
etc.. interacts analyte particles a

Physical change .
(ii) A Transducer part: collects
information from the biological part,
converts, amplifies and display them.

PARTS OF BIOSENSOR

In principle, any biomolecule or molecular


assembly that has the capability of recognizing
the analyte can be used as a bioreceptor.

FATHER OF BIOSENSORS
Professor Leland C Clark Jnr 19182005

First Description of Biosensor


Clark and Lyons proposed the concept
for measuring glucose levels in 1962

The first commercially successful


glucose biosensor using Clarks
technology was the Yellow Springs
Instrument for the direct
measurement of glucose in 1975
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GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS
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History Of Biosensors

1916:First report on immobilization of proteins :adsorption of


invertase on activated charcoal

1922: First glass pH electrode

1956 : Clark published his definitive paper on the oxygen


electrode.

1962: First description of a biosensor: An


electrodre for glucose (Clark)

1969: Guilbault and Montalvo First potentiometric


biosensor:
urease immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea

1970:Bergveld Ion selective Field Effect Transistor (ISFET)

1975: Lubbers and Opitz described a fibre-optic sensor with


immobilised indicator to measure carbon dioxide or oxygen.

amperometric enzyme

1987

Blood-glucose biosensor launched by


MediSense Exactest

1990

SPR based biosensor by Pharmacia BIACore

1992

Hand held blood biosensor by i-STAT

1996

Launching of Glucocard

1998 Blood glucose biosensor launch by LifeScan


FastTake

1998 Roche Diagnostics by Merger of Roche and


mannheim

Current
nanotube, etc

Boehringer

Quantom dots, nanoparicles, nanowire,

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CLASSIFICATION OF BIOSENSORS

Transducer
Mode

of interaction

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On the basis of Transducer


(i) Electrochemical Biosensor
(ii) Optical Biosensors
(iii) Electronic Biosensors
(iv) Piezoelectric Biosensors
(v) Gravimetric Biosensors
(vi)Pyoelectric Biosensors

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Various

possible combinations of biocomponents and


transducer techniques

electrochemical

detection - used prominently

Advantages:
low detection limits - small samples volumes.
simple, low cost and in situ analysis .

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Analyte + Biosensor

CHEMICAL

Converted

Signals

Amplified

Displayed

ELECTRICAL

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MODE OF INTERACTION
Catalytic Biosensor

Biological material(enzymes)+Analyte

Modification of Analyte

New chemical compound


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Affinity Biosensor

Analyte+Biomolecule

Biological molecule: Antibodies,nucleic acids etc.

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ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF
A BIOSENSOR:
(i)Specificity: specific to the analyte .

(ii) Durability: withstand repeated usage.


(iii) Independent nature:not affected by
temperature, pH etc.
(iv) Stability in results
(v) Ease of use and transport

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MECHANISM OF ACTION
Biomolecule

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APPLICATIONS OF BIOSENSORS
Clinical diagnosis and biomedicine
Farm, garden and veterinary analysis
Process control: fermentation control and analysis
Food and drink production and analysis
Microbiology: bacterial and viral analysis
Pharmaceutical and drug analysis
Industrial effluent control
Pollution control and monitoring
Mining, industrial and toxic gases
Military applications

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BIOSENSORS FOR THE DETECTION OF


FOOD BORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

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MAJOR FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS


DETECTED BY BIOSENSORS
Campylobacter
Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus cereus

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Electrochemical

biosensors, has been


proved to be a promising method for
foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection
Due to its
Portability
Rapidity
Sensitivity
On-the-spot Detection
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Different Types Of Bioreceptors


Used In
Electrochemical Biosensors

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Antibody sensors
Biosensors

based on directly
immobilizing antibodies on the surface of
an electrode for the detection of bacteria

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The

antibody sensor can be


used to detect E. coli O157 by
using anti E.coli antibodies.

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NUCLEIC ACID SENSORS


In

the case of nucleic acid as


bioreceptor
identification of a target analytes
nucleic acid is achieved by
matching the complementary base
pairs that are often the genetic
components of an organism.

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Any

self-replicating microorganism can


be easily identified. Nucleic acid based
biosensors for rapid and selective
detection of Bacillus anthracis

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Bacteriophage Sensors
Can

recognize specific sites on the


bacterium surface to which they bind and
inject genetic material
The recognition is highly specific, it can be
used for the typing of bacteria

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ADVANTAGES
Rapidly

and selectively detect target

bacteria.
Can tolerate variety of harsh conditions,
such as under acidic or basic pH changes
etc..
Shows excellent specificity for target
bacteria E. coli including
Salmonella,Listeria
monocytogens,Campylobacter species.
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LECTIN BIOSENSORS
Plant or Animal Glycoproteins.
Bind selectively and reversibly with
polysaccharide components of bacterial
cell surface
Used for detection of E.coli

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MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR
A microbial

biosensor is an analytical
device that immobilizes microorganisms
onto a transducer for the detection of
target analytes.

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Bacteria

and Yeasts make up majority of


the microbes that are used in Microbial
Biosensors

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List of Microbes used in Microbial


Biosensors
Yeast
B.

subtilis
T. candida
P. putida
K. oxytoca
B. subtilis (heat killed)

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Serratia

marcescens
Pseudomonas sp.
P. putida
B. Licheniformis
G. suboxydans
C. tropicalis
A. niger
S. ellipsoideus
G. oxydans
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E. coli K12 0
Recombinant Moraxella
Recombinant P. putida
S. cerevisiae
T. ferrooxidans
P. fluorescents
Pseudomonas and Archromobacter

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Detection Based on Metabolites Produced


by Bacterial Cells as a Result of Growth
This

method is suitable for growth of


Listeria monocytogenes

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New Generation Biosensors


Nanomaterials

and Microfluids are


emerging subdiscipline in chemistry used
in impedimetric biosensors to amplify
detection signal and achieve lower
detection limit

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Nanomaterials

Microorganism

Electrode

Au NPs

Sulfate-reducing
bacteria

foam Ni electrode

Fe3O4 NPs

Campylobacter jejuni

GCE

Au NPs

Salmonella Spp.

GCE

TiO2 nanowire bundle

Listeria monocytogenes

Au microelectrodes

reduced graphene
sheets

Sulfate-reducing
bacteria

GCE

aluminum anodized
oxide (AAO) nanopore
membranes

E. coli O157:H7

Au electrode

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Nanomaterials

Microorganism

Electrode

alumina nanoporous
membrane

E. coli O157:H7

Platinum electrode

carbon nanofiber (CNF)


nanoelectrode array
(NEA)

E. coli

magnetic nanoparticles

E. coli O157:H7

IDAM

magnetic nanoparticles

E. coli O157:H7

IDAM with microfluidic


flow cell

ITO

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Biosensors for viral detection


Studies

have been going on for use of


biosensors in detection of some viruses
like influenza virus; hepatitis B virus.

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Detex Pathogen Detection Technology

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