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Protein Synthesis

A protein is a string of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids in


human protein. Each amino acid is coded by a set sequence of genetic
code. This is made up of four bases: A (adenine), T (thymine), G
(guanine) and C (cytosine). These bases are complimentary, and are
held together by hydrogen bonds. They bond A to T and C to G.
Protein synthesis makes use of the complementary nature of DNA. In
the first stage, transcription, the DNA in the nucleus is unzipped. This
allows single RNA bases to attach in order to create a strand of mRNA
(messenger RNA). Once complete, the mRNA strand leaves the
nucleus to enter the cytoplasm via the nuclear pore.
RNA is similar to DNA, but has two distinct differences.
1. Instead of having the bases thymine, it is replaced by Uracil, U.
2. RNA is only one strand.
The second stage of protein synthesis, transcription, occurs in the
cytoplasm. Here the mRNA attaches to the ribosome. This organelle
moves along the mRNA strand decoding it into base triplets, a codon.
Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. A chain of amino acids,
called a polypeptide, is created by tRNA (transfer RNA) codons.
tRNA are found free in the cytoplasm. Each tRNA codon has an amino
acid attached to it which they bring to the ribosome. The tRNA bonds
complimentary to the mRNA. Once the amino acids have linked up, the
tRNA then leaves to collect another amino acid.
Once the polypeptide chain is complete, it will fold and twist or join
other polypeptide chains to form a protein.

Protein Synthesis
A _____________ is a string of _____________ _____________. There are
_____________ amino acids in human protein. Each amino acid is
_____________ by a _____________ sequence of _____________ _____________.
This is made up of four _____________: A (_____________), T (thymine), G
(_____________) and C (_____________). These bases are _____________, and
are held together by _____________ _____________. They _____________ A to
_____________ and _____________ to G.
_____________ _____________ makes use of the complementary nature of
DNA. In the _____________ stage, _____________, the DNA in the nucleus is
_____________. This allows _____________ RNA bases to _____________ in
order to create a strand of mRNA (_____________ RNA). Once complete,
the _____________ strand leaves the _____________ to enter the
_____________ via the nuclear _____________.
RNA is _____________ to DNA, but has two distinct _____________.
1. Instead of having the bases _____________, it is replaced by
_____________, U.
2. RNA is only _____________ strand.
The _____________ stage of protein synthesis, _____________, occurs in the
_____________. Here the mRNA attaches to the ribosome. This
_____________ moves along the mRNA strand _____________ it into base
_____________, a codon. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. A
chain of amino acids, called a _____________, is created by tRNA
(_____________ RNA) codons.
_____________ are found free in the cytoplasm. Each tRNA codon has an
amino acid attached to it which they bring to the _____________. The tRNA
_____________ complimentary to the mRNA. Once the amino acids have
_____________ up, the tRNA then leaves to collect another amino acid.
Once the polypeptide chain is complete, it will _____________ and
_____________ or join other polypeptide _____________ to form a protein.
20
Adenine
Amino Acids
Attach
Base
Bases
Bond
Bonds
C

Chains
Coded
Complimentary
Cytoplasm
Cytosine
Decoding
Differences
First
Fold

Genetic Code
Guanine
Hydrogen Bonds
Linked
Messenger
mRNA
Nucleus
One
Organelle

Polypeptide
Pore
Protein
Protein Synthesis
Ribosome
Second
Set
Similar
Single

T
Thymine
Transcription

Transfer
Translation
Triplets

tRNA
Twist
Unzipped

Uracil