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AIR DISTRIBUTION

SYSTEM
PRESENTED BY:
PRIYANKA YADAV
NEHA CHAUDHARY
DEEPIKA RUSTAGI
MOHAN SINGH
VATSALA SINHA

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DIRECT THE AIR FROM THE


AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT TO THE SPACE TO BE
CONDITIONED AND RETURN THE AIR TO THE EQUIPMENT.
MOST ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT OF AIR CONDITIONING.
IT CONSISTS OF :
FANS
DUCTWORK
OUTLETS
ELBOWS,BENDS,SIZE REDUCTION
DAMPERS,TURNING VANES

THE EFFICIENCY OF AN AIR CONDITIONING UNIT DEPENDS


ON THE PROPER DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF AIR
THROUGHOUT THE CONDITIONED SPACE.
THIS REQUIRES THE USE OF CORRECTLY DESIGNED
DUCTS,THE CORRECT TYPE AND SIZE REGISTERS AND
DIFFUSERS & FANS THAT WILL MOVE THE CORRECT
AMOUNT OF AIR AT THE CORRECT SPEED & PRESSURE.
A GOOD AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN THE CONDITIONED
ROOM SHOULD:
- SUPPLY THE CONDITIONED AIR AT CORRECT
TEMPERATURE.
- FREEDOM FROM DRAUGHT. CORRECT AIR
VELOCITY.

PROVIDE A TURBULENT,EDDYING MOTION WITHIN THE


ENTIRE OCCUPIED ZONE.
KEEP THE AIR NOISE LEVEL FROM THE SUPPLY
OUTLETS AND RETURN GRILLS BELOW THE
OBJECTIONABLE LEVEL.

FANS

USED FOR CIRCULATION OF AIR IN DUCT SYSTEM.


IT DRAWS THE RETURN AIR FROM CONDITIONED SPACE
THROUGH RETURN DUCT AND DELIVERS THE AIR AFTER
PASSING THROUGH COOLING COIL TO THE CONDITIONED SPACE.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF FANS :
PROPELLER FAN
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
PROPELLER : USED WHERE SUPPLY DUCT IS SHORT
OR NO DUCT, LIKE IN WINDOW AC. THEY PRODUCE AIR AT LOW
PRESSURE.
CENTRIFUGAL THEY HAVE LOW SPEED, QUITE OPERATION AND
LARGE CAPACITY.
THE TYPE OF FAN SHOULD BE SO SELECTED THAT IT CAN GIVE
TO THE AIR THE NEEDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE TO
OVERCOME TO THE OVERFLOW SETUP BY THE DUCTS AND TO
MAINTAIN DESIRED VELOCITY AT EXIT FROM SUPPLY GRILLS.

: IT CONSIST OF SCROLL- HOUSING FOR WHEEL AND SHAFT.


SHAFT AXLE FOR WHEEL
WHEEL - CYLINDRICAL & HAS MANY SMALL
RECTANGULAR BLADES ARRANGED IN
PARALLEL AROUND THE
CIRCUMFERENCE.

CENTRIFUGAL FANS ARE OF TWO TYPES


BACKWARD CURVED BLADES- CURVED IN DIRECTION OPPOSITE
TO THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF WHEEL.
FORWARD CURVED BLADES- CURVED IN DIRECTION OF THE
ROTATION OF WHEEL.

FOR EXHAUST OF AIR, i.e. REMOVAL OF AIR OUTSIDE,


PROPELLER TYPE OF FANS ARE USED.
FOR POSITIVE VENTILATION, i.e. INTAKE OF AIR, CENTRIFUGAL
TYPE OF FAN IS USED.

DUCTS

THE LAYOUT OF THE DUCTWORK SHOULD BE CAREFULLY


DESIGNED TO PROVIDE SMOOTH AIR FLOW.
MINIMIZE MOTOR POWER LOSSES, KEEP FAN & SYSTEM
NOISES TO A MINIMUM AND KEEP SPACE HEADROOM AS
HIGH AS POSSIBLE.
DUCTS ARE AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENT SHAPES:
CIRCULAR
RECTANGULAR
SQUARE.
THE CIRCULAR SHAPE IS PREFFERED BECAUSE IT MEANS
REDUCTION IN AMOUNT OF DUCT MATERIAL,DUCT
SURFACE,FRICTION & INSULATION.

DUCT MATERIALS : SHEET METAL


ALUMINIUM
FIBRE GLASS
PLASTIC
TILE / CEMENT.
DUCT FITTINGS: TO MAKE A DUCT SYSTEM, FITTINGS ARE
USED TO CHANGE THE SHAPE, SIZE OR DIRECTION OF THE
DUCTWORK.
UNNECESSARY AND COMPLICATED COMBINATIONS OF
FITTINGS SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
GOOD PLANNING PREVENTS WASTAGE OF MATERIAL,
INSTALLATION TIME & SYSTEM FRICTION.
FITTINGS ARE : TAKEOFFS, BENDS, ELBOWS, TURNING VANES,
REDUCERS,TRANSFORMATIONS,COLLARS FLEXIBLE
CONNECTIONS, DAMPERS, OFFSETS,ENDCAPS,STACK
FITTINGS,BOOTS, REGISTERS,FLOOR PANS ETC.

DUCT SYSTEM

LOW VELOCITY SINGLE DUCT: COMMONLY USED, SIMPLE ,


LOW COST.
LOW VELOCITY WITH ZONE CONTROL:FOR AREAS HAVING
WIDELY DIFFERING HEAT LOADS.
AIR WATER INDUCTION SYSTEM: USED FOR PERIMETER
APPLICATIONS. THE AIR DUCT DEMAND WATER PIPING RUN
VERTICALLY AT THE PERIMETER OF THE BUILDING.
FAN COIL UNITS: IT CONTAINS FAN,COIL, FILTER AND
CONDENSATE PAN.THE PIPING SYSTEM IS CENTRALIZED.
HIGH VELOCITY SINGLE DUCT : WHERE LESS SPACE IS FOR
DUCTING. IT REQUIRES SMALLER DUCT WITH TERMINAL BOX
TO CONTROL AIR VELOCITY AND NOISE LEVEL.

DUAL DUCT ALL AIR SYSTEM: PROPERLY MIXED HOT & COLD
AIR TO SATISFY ALL LOAD CONDITIONS. REQUIRE LARGE
SHAFT AREAS, EXPENSIVE.
SELF CONTAINED AIR CONDITIONING UNITS:
POOR AIR DISTRIBUTION PATTERN.
NOISY
NO HUMIDITY CONTROL
CHEAPEST
HIGH DEGREE OF PORTABILITY.

OUTLETS

AS PER APPEARANCE, FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE


THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF OUTLETS AND COULD BE
INSTALLED IN WALLS, CEILING, FLOORS.
REGISTERS:IT IS GRILL FITTED WITH A DAMPER TO CONTROL THE
QUANTITY OF AIR PASSING THROUGH IT.
- FIXED LOUVER REGISTER
- ADJUSTABLE LOUVERS.
DIFFUSER: CAUSE AIR TO ENTER THE ROOM IN MULTIPLE LAYERS.
GRILL :IS A COVERING FOR ANY OPENING THROUGH WHICH AIR
PASSES.
IT IS A OUTLET OR INLET HAVING NO DAMPER OR AIR CONTROL
DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING AIR.
CEILING OUTLETS MAY BE IN THE FORM OF DIFFUSERS, FANS, OR
PERFORATED PANELS & THE CONDITIONED AIR IS DISCHARGED AT
TH ECEILING LEVEL INTO THE ROOM.

Air Intake Louvers

Laminar Flow Diffuser

Double Louver Adjustable Grill

Round Diffuser

Spot Diffuser

Square Diffuser

Jet Nozzle

LOCATION OF OUTLETS

OUTLETS LOCATIONS ARE DETERMINED BY SHAPE, SIZE,


USAGE & LOAD CONCENTRATION OF THE ROOM.
ANOTHER CONSIDERATION IS WHETHER THE SYSTEM IS
USED IN A COOLING OR HEATING APPLICATION OR BOTH.
COLD DOWN DRAUGHT AREAS AND CEILING STRATIFICATION
MUST BE GIVEN SPECIAL CONSIDERATION IN HEATING
APPLICATIONS.
STRATIFICATION OF COLD AIR AT THE FLOOR AND STAGNANT
AIR AREAS MUST BE GIVEN SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN
COOLING APPLICATIONS.
SUPPLY AIR OUTLET REGISTERS & RETURN GRILLES ARE
SIZED ACCORDING TO THE MANUFACTURERS CATALOGUE,
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT -

AIR QUANTITY
DISCHARGE VELOCITY
LENGTH OF THROW
NOISE LEVEL.
THE OUTLETS ARE PLACED AT A HT. OF NOT LESS THAN
2m ABOVE THE FLOOR LEVEL NOR LESS THAN ABOUT
45cm FROM THE CEILING.
THESE SHOULD DISTRIBUTE THE AIR WITHOUT ANY
DROUGHT.
INLETS ARE PROVIDED FOR THE COLLECTION OF RETURN
FOUL AIR FROM THE CONDITIONED SPACE.

DAMPERS

IN AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM, ITS WORK IS TO CONTROL THE


AIR.
FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF DAMPERS:
AIR VOLUME IS REDUCED.
BY-PASS DAMPERS CONTROL & REGULATE THE AIR FLOW FROM
RETURN DUCTS AND INTAKE OPENINGS.
AIR IS DIVERTED IN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS.
MIXING DAMPERS MIX DIFFUSED VOLUMES OF AIR IN PROPER
PROPORTION.
INTAKE DAMPERS ARE USED AT OPENINGS OF AIR CONDITIONED
EQUIPMENTS.
RE-CIRCULATION DAMPERS CONTROL THE FLOW OF AIR FROM
EXTERIOR TO INTERIOR SPACES DURING NON-SERVICE.
DAMPERS ARE INSTALLED IN THE DUCTS AND ARE OPERATED
EITHER MANUALLY OR AUTOMATICALLY TO CONTROL THE
DIRECTION, VELOCITY AND VOLUME OF CIRCULATING AIR.

Grill Collar Damper Aluminium

Total Exhaust Valve

Flexible Duct Connectors