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Thematic Unit: Career Pathways


Krista Boddy, Adele Lonas, and Anique Sottile

Course Description
Student population: The class comprises of 12 adult immigrants from various nations, language
backgrounds and ages. The students are intermediate level ESL learners who have some
communicative ability in English.
Course title: English for Everyday Purposes
Course goals:
Students will develop real-world communicative competency in an English speaking
community (through demonstration of thematic target structures).
Students will utilize language strategies for smoother language immersion into their new
communities in a variety of real-life situations (e.g., job interviews, shopping, going to a
doctor, banking, civic life, etc.)
Students will demonstrate progress in the four sub-skills of English: listening, speaking,
reading, writing, as well as in vocabulary, pronunciation and discourse (through creating
personalized resumes, giving peer feedback/review, communicating in mock job
interviews with peers).
Focus: Adult immigrants seeking to learn strategies for communicating in English with the local
population. The syllabus is based on a topically designed textbook with other resources for
variation.
Length: 16 weeks, 75 minute classes, Tuesdays and Thursdays 6:00 pm 7:15 pm
Organization: Adult Basic Education program which supports immigrants in the community
wanting to learn English. Non-Profit community language center which is connected to local
workforce agencies and community colleges.
How unit fits into the course: This unit is meant to support adult immigrants with intermediate
knowledge of English in utilizing specific strategies to achieve employment in the community.
The previous unit dealt with interactions in the community such as going shopping and going to
the doctor. This current unit is divided into two parts, Reading and Writing (Part 1), and
Listening and Speaking (Part 2). Each part comprises of 4 lessons each.
Theoretical foundations: This program primarily employs the strong version of Communicative
Language Teaching methods, including Task-Based Language Teaching and Content-Based
Instruction. This approach incorporates authentic materials, collaborative learning, purposeful
communication practice, teaching of language functions, and highlights communicative
competence. The course lessons are designed to provide the four Strands of Language Teaching,
including meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning, and
fluency development in all four skills (Nation, 2009, 1). The role of the instructor in CLT is a

facilitator of activities who sets up communicative situations between the learners, who are given
more responsibility for their learning. In the CLT methodology, the learners interact in pairs,
groups, and as a whole class in cooperative learning. Learners are regarded as having valuable
knowledge to share with each other in negotiating meaning.
Description of Thematic Unit
Thematic unit title: Career Pathways
There are eight lesson plans listed below, which are organized into two parts. Part one
targets reading and writing skills, whereas part two targets listening and speaking skills, though
each lesson involves some development of all four skills. The focus of the unit is on developing
skills and strategies for seeking employment in the English speaking community. Lessons one
and two involve reading, identifying, and employing the components of job resumes and
categorizing the headings and structure of a job resume. Using this knowledge, lessons three and
four involves the creation of personalized student resumes for achieving future employment.
Lessons five and six develops student knowledge and practice in using target vocabulary and
syntax used in job interviewing. Lesson seven and eight provides useful practice for job
interviews through role-play and mock interviews with visitors/volunteers from nearby
businesses and/or industries.
Overall unit objectives:
Students will distinguish the content and formatting traits characteristic of basic resumes.
Students will learn useful strategies and target language for writing resumes.
Students will create a general resume to use for applying for jobs.
Students will work collaboratively in peer editing during resume workshop.
Students will recognize specific language items used during a job interview.
Students will produce key vocabulary and phrases needed in a job interview.
Students will identify contextual clues in order to determine appropriate responses in job
interviews.
Students will identify and learn appropriate strategies for clarification in communication
during job interviews.

References
Nation, I. S. P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. NY: Routledge.
Nation, I. S. P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking. NY: Routledge.

Unit Scope & Sequence


The following table presents the Scope and Sequence of the Career Pathways Unit. The
table is organized by Part 1, which includes lessons 1-4 (Reading & Writing Skills) and Part 2,
which includes lessons 5-8 (Listening & Speaking Skills). The Scope and Sequence table
includes specific vocabulary used in resumes and job interviews, as well as topics and concepts
covered throughout the unit. Additionally, it outlines learning strategies and main activities used
in each lesson.
Scope & Sequence
Lsn Part 1: Reading
& Writing
Skills
1

Categorizing
focused content
under basic
headings used
on resumes:
education, work
experience, and
skills and
abilities
Noticing highfrequency job
related
vocabulary
Identifying and
discussing skills
and abilities
related to past
and present
work
experiences

Vocabulary

Topics &
Concepts
Covered

Strategies

Main Activities

Words provided
by learners in
addition to:

Developing a
list of
education,
work
experience and
skills and
abilities to add
to resume

Brainstorming
Recognizing
Identifying
Recording
Defining
Categorizing
Evaluating
Analyzing
Creating

1. Brainstorming
on qualities of a
good employee

skills
abilities
managed
follow
operated
organized
train
cared for
high-stress
techniques
tight budget
preparation
sanitary
environments
experience

Identifying
common
language items
used in
resumes

2.Brainstorming
and categorizing
personal
information
relevant to
categories
included on a
resume
3. Recognizing
and identifying
useful
vocabulary on a
functional
resume

Developing an
understanding
of skills and
abilities
relevant to and
prioritized on
resumes

4. Analyzing
sentence
structures in
sample
functional
resumes
5. Developing a
full list of skills
and abilities to
use in a resume

Locating
missing key
vocabulary

Words provided
by learners in
addition to:

Recognizing
content and
structural

Recognizing
Identifying
Comparing

1. Free writing
about positive

relevant to
resumes
learned in
Lesson 1
Recognizing the
structural
features of
resumes.
Applying highfrequency job
related
vocabulary
Developing a
preliminary
personalized
resume

Creating
resumes based
on notes from
previous
activities

skills
abilities
managed
follow
operated
organized
train
cared for
high-stress
techniques
tight budget
preparation
sanitary
environments
experience
customer service
built
supervised
assisted provided
maintained
promoted
scheduled

features of
resumes

See vocabulary
list for lesson 2

Developing
resumes based
on previous
day's work

Applying
constructive
criticism
Typing resume
in word
processor

Identifying
common verbs
and adjectives
used in
resumes

See vocabulary
list for lesson 2

3. Compare and
contrast the
language
features of a
resume
compared to a
letter or essay

Developing a
preliminary
personalized
resume based
on education,
work
experience,
and skills and
abilities

Evaluating
sequence and
organization of
resume
Evaluating
vocabulary
and selected
verbs

past work
experiences
2. Information
Gap targeting
verbs used in
resumes

Contrasting
the sentence
structure of
resumes with
the letter genre

Peer
evaluation
based on
checklist

Peer evaluation
using a
checklist for
evaluating
sequencing and
sentence
structures

Contrasting
Designing
Reflecting

4. Developing a
resume based on
previous
activities

Evaluating peer
work
Communicating
constructive
feedback

Evaluating and
applying peer
feedback

1. Begin
organizing and
outlining resume
components
2. Peer
evaluation with
checklist

1. Peer
workshop
2. Edit resumes
3. Begin word
processing of
resume in
computer lab

Lsn Part 2:
Listening &
Speaking Skills
5

Identifying
conceptual
clues through
focused
listening tasks
Sub skills:
comprehension
of specific
vocabulary
items in audio
recording and
dictation

Vocabulary

Topics &
Concepts
Covered

Strategies

Main Activities

abilities
skills
achieved
improved
motivated
trained
supervised
resolved
customer service
dependable
cooperative
strengths
weaknesses

Common
vocabulary
used in a job
interview

Organizing
Distinguishing
Sequencing
Identifying

1. Listening to
job interview

Sequencing
and turntaking of a job
interview
Formal job
interview
etiquette

2. Speaking
through
communication
and cooperation
to perform
sequencing task
3. Listening to
job interview
and completing
Cloze activity
4. Employing
listening skills in
dictation
exercise

Speaking
practice in
negotiating
meaning and
using strategies
to overcome
breaks in
communication

repeat
rephrase
slow down
negotiate
clarification
accent

Discourse
practice of
listening and
speaking during
mock job
interviews
Negotiating
meaning of
input and

Asking for
clarification in
job interview

Negotiation
Clarification
Identifying
Connecting
Sequencing

1. Speaking
practice using
negotiation
expressions
2. Listening to
identify,
connect, and
sequence
interview
questions

Work
experience

Listening for
sequence of
interview and
turn-taking
process
7

Formal job
interview
etiquette

3. Cooperative
brainstorming
Employing
vocabulary from
lesson 6 in
spontaneous role
play with peers

Formal job
interview
etiquette
Work
experience

Negotiation
Clarification
Managing
output anxiety

1. Speaking to
develop
accuracy and
fluency in
responding to
spontaneous
interview
questions

correcting
output

Asking for
clarification in
job interview

2. Listening for
content in
questions to
appropriately
respond

Addressing
communication
breakdowns
using strategies
of asking for
clarification

Practice using
job/work
vocabulary in
spontaneous
communication
with volunteer
businesses in
mock job
interviews

Employing
vocabulary from
lessons 1-7 in
real-time
practice
interviews

Formal job
interview
etiquette

Negotiation
Clarification
Managing
output anxiety

1. Speaking to
refine accuracy
and fluency in
responding to
spontaneous
interview
questions
2. Listening for
content in
questions to
appropriately
respond

LESSON 1
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will distinguish the content and formatting traits
characteristic of basic resumes.
Language Objectives: Students will be able to
Understand and categorize information under Education, Work Experience, and Skills
and Abilities.
Notice high frequency vocabulary used in descriptions of Education, Work Experience,
and Skills and Abilities.
Identify the same categories of Education, Work Experience, and Skills and Abilities in
sample resumes, as well as notice the high-frequency vocabulary from the descriptions in
the sample resumes.
Develop lists of skills and abilities of their own to put on a resume
Materials to take to class: dry-erase markers, 12 copies of vocabulary list, 12 copies of sample
resumes
Equipment needed for class: projector, doc cam
Assignments to collect: none
Special room arrangements: none
Warm-up: Brainstorm (10 min.)
Purpose: To introduce the topic of creating resumes and relate it to prior student knowledge
and/or experience.
Procedures:
1. Write the following questions on the board. Discuss with the whole class. Write student
responses on the board.
2. Has anyone had any experience with applying for a job in the US? Is anyone looking for
a job now? If so, please share your experiences with the class.
3. After discussing the first question write a second question on the board. Discuss with the
whole class. Write student responses on the board.
4. If you were to hire someone for a job, what questions would you ask them to help you
decide if they would be a good employee? Write student responses on the board.
5. If you were applying for a job, what do you think the employer would want to know
about you? Write student responses on the board.
Transition: Now that we have some ideas on what information employers might be looking for,
let's look at how to organize that information to be able to create a resumean account of your
qualifications and experience to give to potential employers.

Activity 1: Recording and categorizing personal information relevant to prospective employers


(20 min.)
Purpose: To build on and record the meaning-focused output discussed during the warm-up in
order to categorize the content into categories relevant to work resumes: education, work
experience, and skills and abilities.
Procedures:
1. Ask students to record in writing information about themselves that employers might
want to know about them. (5 min)
2. Ask students as a class to define the categories: education, work experience, and skills
and abilities, and to give examples of output they recorded.
3. Ask students to categorize their personal information under one of the three categories.
4. In groups of three, students then read aloud the information they have recorded and
categorized, and provide each other with feedback on their decisions.
5. Have students make any important revisions to their categories based on the feedback.
6. Collect the work to use in the next class (for Lesson 2, Activity 3).
Transition: Now that we have recorded and categorized our own personal information that an
employer might want to know about us, were going to look at new vocabulary that is often used
to describe experiences related to the same categories of education, work experience, and skills
and abilities.
Activity 2: Vocabulary (20 min.)
Purpose: To review and introduce new vocabulary necessary for describing and understanding
information in a job resume.
Procedures:
1. Direct students' attention to the Warm-up activity and to their notes from Activity 1
(Warm-up activity should be left written on the board.)
2. Ask the following questions, What words are used most frequently to describe ones
education, work experience and skills and abilities? What verbs are used most
frequently?
3. Have the students circle these words in their notes from Activity 1 and allow them to
come to the board and circle the words in the warm-up.
4. Then have the students write down the words they do not know on a sheet of paper
(without their names on it) and collect them.
6. Then, hand out the vocabulary list and ask the students to underline the words they do not
know on the list. (see Appendix A)
7. Vocab Mapping. Together as a class, go through the vocab list and the words on the
papers the students submitted. Ask the students to help categorize the words under
specific headings based on similarities. Write the categories on the board. The teacher
will discuss the meanings and definitions of new vocabulary words and write them on the
board so the students can copy them down onto the vocabulary list hand-out.

Transition: We have talked about what kind of information employers want to know, how to
organize that information, and some vocabulary that is commonly used in the information. Now
we will look at some sample resumes.
Activity 3: Read and analyze sample functional resumes (see Appendix B) (20 min.)
Purpose: To provide meaning-focused input of sample resumes for students to use as a template
in preparing to create their own resumes.
Procedures:
1. Using the doc cam, show the class two sample functional resumes (one for a cook, one
for a childcare worker)
2. Ask the class to note each heading of the resumes (one at a time) and the details provided
in each.
3. Ask, Why is it important to put your address, phone number and email address on the
top of the resume? Have students answer.
4. Go through the vocabulary of the resumes asking if anyone notices what part of speech
the sentences under Skills and Abilities begin with. Ask, Why should we use verbs to
describe our skills and abilities? If students cant answer, explain that it helps define the
actions they are skilled in.
5. Explain that even though some students may not have as much formal education as
others, that their work experience and abilities are important and can help them find
employment.
Transition: Now that we have analyzed some sample job resumes, we will discuss in pairs our
skills and abilities from past work experiences.
Closing: Discuss and record other skills and abilities with a partner (5 min.)
1. Have students choose a partner to discuss their past work experiences.
2. Ask them to specifically talk about skills and abilities they learned from jobs.
3. Ask them to write down 4-5 skills/abilities in their notebooks for the next class.
Homework: If students dont complete the closure task during class, ask them to prepare their 45 skills and abilities for homework before the next class.

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LESSON 2
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will develop a further understanding of resume features and
apply this knowledge to create their own personalized resumes.
Language objectives: Students will be able to
Understand and identify common verbs and vocabulary used in resumes
Notice the differences between language features used in writing a resume and a letter
Develop their own general resume
Materials to take to class: Dry erase markers, 12 copies of sample letters, 12 copies of sample
resumes (6 of each kind), 12 copies of cloze resumes (6 of each kind), 12 copies of Venn
diagram
Equipment needed for class: doc cam
Assignments to collect: Homework assigned from the day before personal skills and abilities
Special room arrangements: None
Warm-up: Free-write and read aloud (10 min.)
Purpose: For students to produce content-focused written output describing their best work
experience, to then share with two classmates.
Procedures:
1. Explain to students that the purpose of a free-write is to share or express all your thoughts
about a named topic in writing, and that grammar and spelling are not important.
2. Ask students to take out a piece of paper, refer them to the questions on the board: What
was your best work experience? What happened? How did it make you feel? Why?
Provide an example.
3. Ask students to spend the next five minutes writing down all their thoughts regarding
their own best work experience.
4. After time is called, direct students to read their free-write aloud to a second classmate.
Transition: In the last class, we recorded and categorized information related to our education,
work experience and skills and abilities that might be of interest to an employer. We then noticed
vocabulary that appeared frequently in what we wrote down, and compared it to vocabulary that
appeared frequently on a sample resume. Now, were going to review the verbs from the resume
samples.
Activity 1: Review verbs used in sample resumes under Skills and Abilities by information gap
cloze activity (see Appendix C). (15 min.)

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Purpose: To provide students with language-focused learning in a collaborative task in which


students have partial information and need to ask for more information to complete the resume.
Procedures:
1. Split the class into two large groups. Group One is given the complete sample resume of
the cook, but the incomplete sample resume of the childcare worker. All the verbs that
begin each sentence under Skills and Abilities on the childcare workers resume are
missing. Group Two is given the complete sample resume of the childcare worker, but
the incomplete sample resume of the cook. All the verbs that begin each sentence under
Skills and Abilities on the cooks resume are missing.
2. Explain that the task is for someone from Group One to pair up with someone from
Group Two to complete the missing verbs for each resume.
Transition: Now that we have reviewed some common verbs used in resumes, we will look at
the differences between the features of resumes and the features of letters or paragraphs.
Activity 2: Compare/Contrast (20 min.)
Purpose: To help students understand the differences in language features used in writing a
resume as opposed to writing a cover letter.
Procedures:
1. Place students into groups of three.
2. Hand out a sample cover letter and a sample resume. (The cover letter will be for the
purposes of recognizing and identifying language use, features, and format. Therefore,
the cover letter will be below the language level to avoid distraction in comprehension)
(see Appendices D and E).
3. Ask the students to place the sample letter next to the sample resume and look for
similarities and differences between the two.
4. After about five minutes, hand out a Venn diagram template and ask the students to fill it
in while asking the following questions (see Appendix F).
5. Ask questions regarding the following similarities and differences: page layout, sentence
structure, verb usage and placement, tense, topics
6. After about 10 minutes, place the Venn diagram handout under the doc cam and review
the Venn diagram together as a class.
Transition: We have recognized and identified some similarities and differences between a
resume and a letter. Now you will begin work on your own personal resume.
Activity 3: Writing a preliminary resume/ work history. (25 min.)
Purpose: To guide students through the beginning process of writing a preliminary work history/
preliminary resume.

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Procedures:
1. Explain to the students that they will use the categories and the vocabulary learned in the
prior class, and what theyve learned about language features specific to resumes to
rewrite the information they recorded yesterday, in the form of a preliminary resume.
2. Pass out the information they recorded and categorized in the prior class, and the handout
with the predetermined resume categories (see Appendix G).
3. Then, instruct students to decide which are the two most recent events relevant to
education and their work history and write those events under the two categories,
beginning with the most recent. Remind students to apply the language features learned,
relevant to resumes.
4. Instruct students to decide which are their three most important skills and abilities (that
they wrote about in the prior class) and then write them under the skills and experience
category, in order beginning with the most important.
5. Explain to students that for homework they will complete the preliminary resume by
continuing to list their education and work history in order from more recent to less
recent, and their skills and experience in order from more important to less important.
Remind students to continue employing the vocabulary and language features learned
that are characteristic of resumes.
6. Ask students to bring the completed handout to the next class to use it to develop their
resume.
Transition: Today, weve looked more closely at the specific language and formatting features
of a sample resume, and weve practiced applying those features to begin constructing our own
resume. Now, well do a second written reflection on your experience today in class.
Closing: Written reflection (10 mins.)
Purpose: For students to reflect as a group on the process of understanding the resume genre and
applying the features of the genre.
Procedures:
1. Ask students to gather in groups of three to discuss and then respond in writing, to the
question on the board.
2. Questions: How do the features characteristic of resumes here in the U.S. compare and
contrast to the features of resumes/curriculum vitae in your home country?
3. After time is called, collect the writing.
4. Thank the students for their hard work today.
LESSONS 3 & 4 are not fully developed

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LESSON 5
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will distinguish language items and learn the basic
foundational discourse content and organization of that content used in job interviews.
Language objectives: Students will be able to
Organize and arrange proper sequences of a job interview
Distinguish specific language items and vocabulary used during a job interview based on
context
Listen for and identify contextual clues to reconstruct the content of the job interview
Materials to take to class: dry-erase markers; 12 copies of interview transcript; 4 copies of
transcript cut up and reorganized; 12 copies of vocabulary items; 12 copies of cloze transcript of
interview; audio recording of interview and appropriate audio playing device
Equipment needed for class: Audio player with speakers or computer DVD player with
speakers
Assignments to collect: none
Special room arrangements: place desks in groups of three for later group work
Warm-up: Discuss your previous experiences of job interviews (10 min.)
Purpose: To introduce the topic of job interviews and terminology used in English
Procedures:
1. First put the class into small groups (you pick or let them choose)
2. Ask the following questions and write them on the board, "Have you ever had a
job interview in the past, either in your first or second language? Ask, What questions
did the interviewer ask you?"
3. Give the groups about 5 minutes to discuss their experiences with one another.
4. After 5 minutes, ask for volunteers from each group to share.
5. Ask if anyone is currently seeking employment and has any job interviews scheduled. If
so, ask them if they feel prepared.
Transition: This lesson is going to explore a job interview in English. We will look at the
transcript to identify the sequence of the interview and to identify the vocabulary, specific words
and phrases, used in interviews.
Activity 1: Listen to and discuss the job interview (15 min.)
Purpose: To provide meaning-focused input and language-focused items in authentic way for
students to practice listening for information.

14

Procedures:
1. Play recorded job interview asking students to focus on listening for meaningful language
(e.g., introductions, work experience, skills and abilities).
2. After it ends, ask if there were any words or phrases they didnt understand and address
them.
3. Play the interview a second time after providing the transcript of the job interview (see
Appendix H). Ask the students to pay special attention to the sequence of the interview.
Think about what order it follows.
4. Ask them if the transcript helped them comprehend more language items. Explain that
unfortunately they wont have a transcript to follow in their own job interviews, but by
the end of this unit, they should feel more confident in using the language items
they have learned.
Transition: (After collecting the full transcripts.) Now, I will provide you with the transcript of
the interview in mixed order and you will put the interview in order of sequence. Please get in
groups of three.
Activity 2: Sequence the job interview (15 min.)
Purpose: To help students recognize the typical sequence of a job interview.
Procedures:
1. Pass out the cut up interview to each group of three to place in correct sequence.
2. Explain that they are going to place the interview in correct sequence based on the turn
taking order of interviewer and job seeker (interviewee) and will use their recognizing
skills to seek out the questions and responses.
3. After 10 minutes, pass out the original transcript and ask the groups to compare their
sequence to the transcript of the job interview. Ask if all the groups sequenced the
interview in the correct order? If not, what was difficult about determining the order?
Transition: Now that you know more about the sequence of a job interview, we are going to
practice listening for specific key words used in job interviews.
Activity 3: Cloze activity with job interview (20 min.)
Purpose: To provide more meaning-focused input and language-focused items for students to
specifically listen for.
Procedures:
1. Provide students with handouts of specific vocabulary items used in the interview (see
Appendix I).
2. Ask students to put the transcript away. Play the same job interview recording and ask
students to just listen to the interview for the target vocabulary.
3. Pass out Cloze worksheet (see Appendix J) and play interview a second time telling
students to listen for the specific words to fill in the missing places. (Repeat once more)

15

4. Review as a class the cloze worksheet and vocabulary items. Ask students to identify
context clues to determine the meaning and use of those vocabulary items.
Transition: Now that you have focused on specific language used in a job interview, I am going
to test your understanding of the content of the interview by focused listening.
Closure/Evaluation: (15 min.)
Purpose: To conclude the lesson and allow students to reflect upon interviewing.
Procedures:
1. Place learners in small groups to answer the following questions on the board.
2. Ask learners to discuss three important things that an interviewer should ask, as well as
three important things that a job-seeker should tell the interviewer. Are there any
questions you can think to ask the interviewer about the company or position?
3. Discuss ways that you can thank the person for interviewing them.

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LESSON 6
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will learn strategies for clarification in formal contexts
and consider appropriate answers to interview questions.
Language objectives: Students will be able to
Identify and learn expressions used in formal context to ask for clarification in an
interview
Connect the answers to corresponding interview questions by identifying related content
Negotiate and practice possible answers to similar interview questions
Materials to take to class: Practice Negotiation activity; cut-up slips of interview Q & As;
interview questions list; downloaded video of clarification strategies in use; whiteboard
markers.
Equipment needed for class: doc-cam and projector, computer.
Assignments to collect: none
Special room arrangements: chairs set in a semi-circle to allow movement in the initial
activity
Warm-up: Watch the video clip and listen for the expressions used by the protagonist to ask for
clarification. (15 min.)
Purpose: To introduce the expressions and vocabulary for Activity 1, and focus on appropriate
strategies for clarification in an interview.
Procedures:
1. Contextualize the video clip: What do you say when you dont understand something in
a conversation? How does what we say depend on the situation?
2. Play the video clip and ask students to listen for expressions used to ask for clarification
in a formal context.
3. Ask the students to share the expressions they identified, and/or highlight others that are
similar.
4. Make a list of the expressions on the board andinclude additional expressions if
necessary.
Transition: Now that weve identified and looked at typical expressions used to ask for
clarification in conversation, you will have the opportunity to practice these in pairs.
Activity 1:Practicing negotiation by utilizing appropriate expressions. (15 min.)

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Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to provide students an additional opportunity for
speaking and to develop fluency. In this task, students will practice the appropriate expressions
needed in an interview when faced with a breakdown in communication.
Procedures:
1. Working in pairs, students will be given 8 communication breakdown scenarios on a
sheet of paper (see Appendix K). On another sheet of paper students will be given
negotiation expressions (see Appendix L).
2. One student will read a scenario and the other student will respond with the
appropriate expression.
3.Half way through the exercise the students will switch roles.
Transition: We have gone over some phrases that you can use when you need more
clarification or understanding in an interview. Now, we will now focus on the kinds of questions
that might be asked in an interview.
Activity 2: Identifying, connecting, and sequencing interview questions and answers (15 min.)
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is for students to identify the content of interview
questions, and through negotiation and discussion, connect the interview questions to the correct
answers. The students will negotiate the possible order of those questions during an interview.
Procedures:
1. After putting the instructions on the doc cam, each student will receive a slip of paper.
One half will receive an interview question, and one half will receive the answer to one
of the questions (see Appendix M).
2. Students will compare their slips through conversation, and pair up with the related
question or answer. Encourage students to use the strategies learned from Activity 1.
3. Once all of the answers have been paired with the corresponding questions, the students
will negotiate as a class what the likely sequence of the questions would be in a typical
interview based on the content of each question. For example, if the question asking how
he/she heard about the job would come before or after the question asking what
managerial experience they have.
Transition: You matched up specific interview questions and answers by focusing on the
content, and then decided as a group what a logical order might be for those questions in a
typical interview. Now, were going to brainstorm what your own answers might be to specific
interview questions.
Activity 3: Brainstorming and sharing answers to specific interview questions (20 min.)
Purpose: The purpose of the activity is for each student to negotiate and understand the content
meaning of interview questions, and share with a classmate how he/she should and/or would
answer common interview questions.

18

Procedures:
1. Students receive a handout with a list of interview questions. In pairs, they discuss the
content of the questions, and identify unknown vocabulary (see Appendix N).
2. After using context clues and/or a dictionary to define the unknown vocabulary, students
discuss which of the strategies for clarification they just learned that they could use if
they dont understand a word in an interview.
3. Next, with their partner, students share how each would/should answer the question to
provide the interviewer with the desired information.
4. Next, students write down their possible responses to each of the questions.
5. Students then share in pairs with each of the other groups their answers to the interview
questions.
Closure/Evaluation: Class Discussion (10 min.)
Purpose: To close the lesson and consider other possible questions they can prepare to be asked
during an interview based on their past experience or predictions.
Procedures: As a class, ask the students for other questions they have been asked or predict they
might be asked in an interview. If anyone wants to volunteer to share about an experience they
have from a job interview, this is a nice opportunity to let them share.

19

LESSONS 7 & 8 are not fully developed


LESSON 7
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will be able to apply their knowledge of job interview
vocabulary and sequencing in mock job interviews.
Language objectives: Students will be able to
Employ job skills vocabulary in spontaneous role play of mock interviews
Perform formal job interview etiquette and politeness strategies
Negotiate meaning and clarify misunderstandings in verbal communication

LESSON 8
Pre-lesson inventory
Overview of lesson goals: Students will be able to complete mock interviews utilizing practical
vocabulary related to employment in accurate and fluent communication with actual employers
in the community who have volunteered to participate.
Language objectives: Students will be able to
Fluently respond in spontaneous mock interviews with real employers in real-time
Accurately communicate practical job related vocabulary, background experience, and
job skills
Negotiate meaning and clarify misunderstandings with native speakers during
spontaneous mock interviews

20

Appendix A
Lesson 1, Activity 2: Resume Vocabulary
Skills
Abilities
Managed
Follow
Operated
Organized
Train
Cared for
High-stress
Techniques
Tight budget
Preparation
Sanitary
Environments
Experience
Customer service
Built
Supervised
Assisted
Provided
Maintained
Promoted
Scheduled

21

Appendix B
Lesson 1, Activity 3: Two samples of functional resumes
Rodrigo W. Garza
2002 Front Range Way, Fort Collins, CO 80525
RWGarza@gmail.com
970-668-5555
Skills and Abilities
Twelve years kitchen experience in multiple settings
Works well in high-stress work environments
Uses many cooking techniques and different recipes
Follows sanitary, safe work, and current food standards
Plans and orders food based on a tight budget
Manages and trains kitchen staff in specific cooking and food preparation tasks
Work Experience
2013-Present: Kitchen Manager, The Northern Hotel, Fort Collins, Colorado
2005-2013: Head Cook, The Chop House, Denver, Colorado
2003-2005: Line Cook, City Cafe, Denver, Colorado
Education
Community Adult English Center, Fort Collins, Colorado - Present
Juarez Technical High School, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, Diploma 2005

Maria E. Gonzales
1524 Vine Way, Fort Collins, CO 80523
MariaEdithGonzales@gmail.com
303-587-7777
Skills and Abilities
Over 20 years of childcare service
Operated private day care of 10 children between ages of 10 months - 13 years old
Cared for children with special needs and physical disabilities
Managed and trained part-time care workers
Organized weekly play time activities for ages 3 - 10
Work Experience
2008-Present: Childcare Worker, Sunshine House, Fort Collins, Colorado
1995-2008: Private Home Daycare Owner, Denver, Colorado
1991-1995: Childcare Worker, Little Smiles Daycare, El Paso, Texas
Education
Community Adult English Center, Fort Collins, Colorado - Present

22

Appendix C
Lesson 2, Activity 1: Two samples of functional resumes used in cloze information gap
Rodrigo W. Garza
2002 Front Range Way, Fort Collins, CO 80525
RWGarza@gmail.com
970-668-5555
Skills and Abilities
Twelve years kitchen experience in multiple settings
_________ well in high-stress work environments
_________ many cooking techniques and different recipes
__________ sanitary, safe work, and current food standards
________ and ________ food based on a tight budget
___________ and _________ kitchen staff in specific cooking and food preparation tasks
Work Experience
2013-Present: Kitchen Manager, The Northern Hotel, Fort Collins, Colorado
2005-2013: Head Cook, The Chop House, Denver, Colorado
2003-2005: Line Cook, City Cafe, Denver, Colorado
Education
Community Adult English Center, Fort Collins, Colorado - Present
Juarez Technical High School, Juarez, Mexico, Diploma 2005

Maria E. Gonzales
1524 Vine Way, Fort Collins, CO 80523
MariaEdithGonzales@gmail.com
303-587-7777
Skills and Abilities
Over 20 years of childcare service
__________ private day care of 10 children between ages of 10 months - 13 years old
_________ for children with special needs and physical disabilities
____________ and _____________ part-time care workers
______________ weekly play time activities for ages 3 - 10
Work Experience
2008-Present: Childcare Worker, Sunshine House, Fort Collins, Colorado
1995-2008: Private Home Daycare Owner, Denver, Colorado
1991-1995: Childcare Worker, Little Smiles Daycare, El Paso, Texas
Education
Community Adult English Center, Fort Collins, Colorado - Present

23

Appendix D
Lesson 2, Activity 2: Sample cover letter
May 7, 2015
Department of Management
Nice Stay Inn
1520 S. Main St.
Longmont, CO 80500
Dear Department Manager,
I am applying for the full-time position of Hotel Maintenance Staff at Nice Stay Inn. I
found your job post online from Craigslist. I would like to work for a quality hotel such as Nice
Stay Inn.
I have over ten years of experience working in cleaning and maintaining properties in the
area. I have managed properties and owned my own cleaning business as well. I am a hard
worker and have never missed a day of work. I always arrive on time for my shift. My past
employers and clients told me I have great customer service skills. Please see my work
experience in the attached resume.
I can be reached at 970-489-9999 to set up an interview. I look forward to hearing from you!
Sincerely,
Joe Smith

24

Appendix E
Lesson 2, Activity 2: Sample resume
Joe Smith
2000 S. Howes St., Fort Collins, CO 80523
970-489-9999
joesmith@gmail.com

SKILLS AND EXPERIENCE

Customer service and management


Built successful business with long term customer relationships
Managed and supervised cleaning staff
Eight years of experience in property management

EDUCATION

Associates of Arts (May 2000): Front Range Community College, Fort Collins, CO
Diploma (May 1995): Fort Collins High School, Fort Collins, CO

WORK HISTORY
Private Business Self-Employed, Northern CO
Ran successful private cleaning business for over four years
Supervised and managed five temporary employees
Provided outstanding customer service to clients
Maintained scheduling and bookkeeping

2012 Present

Mountain Rental Properties Loveland, CO


Managed six properties rentals, leases
Provided constant maintenance for all properties
Maintained company bookkeeping records

2005 2012

25

Appendix F
Lesson 2, Activity 2: Venn Diagram
Compare and Contrast Language Features and Formatting

Resume

Cover letter

26

Appendix G
Lesson 2, Activity 3: Preliminary Resume (handout)
Name:________________________
Address:______________________
______________________________
______________________________
Telephone:____________________
Email:________________________
Skills and Experience

Education

Work History

27

Appendix H
Lesson 5, Activity 1: Job Interview Transcript
Job Interviewer: Good morning! My name is Frank and I am the company HR director. I look
forward to getting to know more about you.
Job Seeker: Thank you Mr. Baker, I appreciate your time.
Job Interviewer: Oh, please call me Frank.
Job Seeker: Okay.
Job Interviewer: Now, tell me about yourself.
Job Seeker: Well, I have worked at many hotels and restaurants all my life. I have good
customer service skills.
Job Interviewer: I like to hear that! Can you tell me more about that?
Job Seeker: Sure, I am motivated by customer's satisfaction. If people are unhappy, I do
everything I can to make the service better.
Job Interviewer: Great! How have you resolved a problem in your job?
Job Seeker: Well, I once had an upset customer complain about his room service. I asked the
customer how the service could be improved. He wanted the food delivered faster. I achieved
better success by having the kitchen staff trained in cooking the meals in a shorter timeframe.
Job Interviewer: Wonderful! It seems that you have supervised others in your previous
experience. Can you tell me more about your abilities in supervising others?
Job Seeker: Yes, I have supervised cooks, servers, chefs, cleaning staff, and front desk workers.
Job Interviewer: That sounds great! What are some of your other strengths?
Job Seeker: Well, I am dependable, cooperative, and I like working with people.
Job Interviewer: I like your answers! Now, what are some of your weaknesses?
Job Seeker: Well, I haven't earned my college degree yet, but I want to take night classes so I
can work on that. I also want to fix every problem, and sometimes I have more problems than I
can handle at once. I am trying to learn to delegate my duties so I am not overwhelmed.
Job Interviewer: Okay, well, I have some other things I need to get back to, so I will have to
end this interview and thank you for your time.

28

Job Seeker: Oh, thank you for taking the time to meet with me today, Frank. I look forward to
hearing from you soon!

29

Appendix I
Lesson 5, Activity 3: Specific vocabulary items in job interview:
abilities
achieved
improved
motivated
trained
supervised
resolved
customer service skills
dependable
cooperative
strengths
weaknesses

30

Appendix J
Lesson 5, Activity 3: Cloze worksheet of job interview (12 target vocabulary items are
missing)
Job Interviewer: Good morning! My name is Frank and I am the company HR director. I look
forward to getting to know more about you.
Job Seeker: Thank you Mr. Baker, I appreciate your time.
Job Interviewer: Oh, please call me Frank.
Job Seeker: Okay.
Job Interviewer: Now, tell me about yourself.
Job Seeker: Well, I have worked at many hotels and restaurants all my life. I have
good
.
Job Interviewer: I like to hear that! Can you tell me more about that?
Job Seeker: Sure, I am
by customer's satisfaction. If people are unhappy, I
do everything I can to make the service better.
Job Interviewer: Great! How have you

a problem in your job?

Job Seeker: Well, I once had an upset customer complain about his room service. I asked the
customer how the service could be
. He wanted the food delivered faster.
I
success by having the kitchen staff
in cooking the meals in a
shorter timeframe.
Job Interviewer: Wonderful! It seems that you have
experience. Can you tell me more about your

others in your previous


in supervising others?

Job Seeker: Yes, I have supervised cooks, servers, chefs, cleaning staff, and front desk workers.
Job Interviewer: That sounds great! What are some of your other
Job Seeker: Well, I am
people.

, and I like working with

Job Interviewer: I like your answers! Now, what are some of your

Job Seeker: Well, I haven't earned my college degree yet, but I want to take night classes so I
can work on that. I also want to fix every problem, and sometimes I have more than I can handle.
I am trying to learn to delegate my duties so I am not overwhelmed.

31

Job Interviewer: Okay, well, I have some other things I need to get back to, so I will have to
end this interview and thank you for your time.
Job Seeker: Oh, Thank you Frank, for taking the time to meet with me today. I look forward to
hearing from you soon!

32

Appendix K
Lesson 6, Activity 1: Practicing Negotiation (Part I)
Scenarios (examples will not be included in actual activity)
1. Anna is in an interview where the interviewer has changed topics in the middle of his
question. This confused Anna and she is not sure what he is asking. How can Anna ask
for clarification?
(example of student answer) Could you repeat the question please?
2. Joe is being interviewed by a woman who speaks very fast. He is having trouble
understanding her and has asked her to repeat questions several times. What can Joe say
to improve the communication between them?
(example) Could you please slow down?
3. Mary is in an interview where the interviewer has an accent that is different than what she
is used to. Mary was just asked a question. She thinks she understood the woman but she
wants to be sure. What could she say?
(example) Did you say ?
4. An interviewer has just asked John a question. There were several words in the question
that John did not know. He heard the question clearly but does not understand it. What
can John say?
(example) Could you rephrase the question please?
5. The interviewer has just asked Rose a very long question and she is having trouble
remembering everything the interviewer asked. What can Rose say to the interviewer so
she can hear the question again?
(example) Could you repeat the question please?
6. Mike is in an interview where the interviewer talks a lot and his questions are often
unclear. Mike thinks he knows what the interviewer just asked him, but he is not sure.
What can Mike say so he can be sure?
(example) I understand you to be asking about is that correct?
7. Sarah was just asked a question by the interviewer. Then, someone came into the room
and spoke with the interviewer. After the person leaves, Sarah thinks she remembers the
question but wants to be sure. What could she say?
(example) Did you say ?

33

8. An interviewer just used three words that Brian did not know. Brian heard the question
but he did not understand it. What can Brian say?
(example) Could you rephrase the question please?

34

Appendix L
Lesson 6, Activity 1: Practicing Negotiation (Part II)
Negotiation expressions:

Could you repeat the question please?

Could you rephrase the question please?

I understand you to be asking about is that correct?

Did you say ?

Could you please slow down?

35

Appendix M
Lesson 6, Activity 2: Matching interview questions to their answers.
6 Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Can you tell me a little about yourself?


How did you hear about the position?
Why should we hire you?
What are you looking for in a new position?
What are your greatest strengths?
Describe a time you demonstrated leadership skills.

6 Answers:
1. I live in Fort Morgan, and have lived in the U.S. for twelve years now. Im married and I have
a ten year old son. I have been a stay-at-home mom, but now that my son is older I am interested
in working again.
2. I heard about the position from a neighbor. She saw the job listing on Craigslist and told me
about it.
3. I think you should hire me because Im a very dedicated person in everything I do. I am very
persistent in learning new things, and I enjoy working and being around people and meeting
people. I like to share my ideas and also listen to other peoples ideas.
4. Im looking for an opportunity to learn, to invest my time and effort and interest in helping my
coworkers, and an opportunity to share my ideas and be encouraged to grow in my work.
5. My greatest strengths are my dedication and persistence, and my openness to others, and
ability to communicate well.
6. Recently, my husbands father became ill. He can no longer live alone so I offered to locate a
rehabilitation center for him for when he gets out of the hospital, and then to view and choose a
nursing facility and to interview part-time companions for him.

36

Appendix N
Lesson 6, Activity 3: Interview Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Can you tell me about yourself?


Why do you want this job?
Tell me about a challenge or conflict youve faced at work and how you dealt with it.
What are your greatest strengths?
What type of work environment do you prefer?
How would your boss and co-workers describe you?

Reference for lesson 6 activities:


The Daily Muse Editor. (2015). How to Answer the 31 Most Common Interview
Questions. The Daily Muse. Retrieved from https://www.themuse.com