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WWITrenchWarfare:

ExplorationinTechnology,EncounterwithDesperation,andExchangeofHumanity

ChristineDoan,AdaZhu
SeniorDivision
GroupWebsite

WorkCited
PrimarySources
PrimaryBooks
Fitzgerald,F.Scott.
TheBodleyHeadScottFitzgerald.TheBeautifulandDamned
.N.p.:n.p.,
1967.Print.Thesecondnovel,writtenbyF.ScottFitzgerald,exploresNewYorksociety
andtheAmericanEliteduringtheJazzAge.Thenovelunfoldedintoastoryoftragic
examinationofanunsustainablerelationshipandproblematiccultureoftheLost
Generation.Therefore,weappliedthebookonour"Desperation:LostGeneration"sidein
ordertoshowhowliteraturewasalsoaffectedbythewar.
Hart,Peter.
TheSomme:TheDarkestHourontheWesternFront
.NewYork:Pegasus,2008.
Print.ThisbookgreatlyhelpedourunderstandingoftheintricatedetailsoftheBattleofthe
Somme.Duringthatbattle,andlikewisewiththemanybattlesthatprecededandfollowed,
soldiersstruggledwiththedevastatingrealityofthehorrorsofwar.Somespecific
informationthatwefoundintriguingwasthefatalismthatthesoldierseventually
succumbedto.Theirencounterwithdesperationhadaffectedthemevenintheirsleep.
Theirattitudetowardwarshifted,makingthemvulnerabletotheiremotions,which
heightenedfeelingsofmoralityandhumanity.Theknowledgeandquotesgainedfromthis
bookwasusedinouranalysisandpageon"Desperation."
Hobbs,WilliamHerbert,andTheodoreRoosevelt.
TheWorldWarandItsConsequences
.New
York:Putnam'sSons,1919.Print.Scatteredthroughoutourwebsiteswereprimary
accountstakenfromthisbook.Wemainlyusedthisbookforourcomprehensionofhow

soldiersdealtwiththeirtraumaandguiltafterthewarwasover.Somequoteswerealso
takentoexplainthesituationsthatthesoldiersfacedoutonthefront.
Hobbs,WilliamHerbert.
TheWorldWarandItsConsequencesBeingLecturesintheCourseon
PatriotismDeliveredattheUniversityofPittsburghduringtheSummerSessionof1918
.
NewYork:G.P.Putnam'sSons,1919.Print.Hobb'sbookhelpedusanalyzetheeffectsof
therapidlyindustrializedweapons.Thisexplorationintechnologyhadtremendousimpacts
onnotonlythesoldierbutonthepioneeringofmodernizedweaponsaswell.Weused
multipleprimarysourceaccountsofsoldiersexpressingtheirshockandfearofthesenew
terrifyingweapons.
Persico,JosephE.
EleventhMonth,EleventhDay,EleventhHour:ArmisticeDay,1918,World
WarIandItsViolentClimax
.NewYork:RandomHouse,2004.Print.Persico'sbook
includedaplethoraofprimaryaccounts.Weusedanaccountinwhichasoldierexpressed
howhebelievedthatwarwasgallantandgreatonour"Desperation"page.However,he
realizedinthefaceofwarthatitwasanythingbut.Thisservedasproofforthedestruction
ofwarromanticism.Insideofcomingtofaceglory,thesoldiersencountereddesperation.
Philpott,WilliamJames.
ThreeArmiesontheSomme:TheFirstBattleoftheTwentiethCentury
.
NewYork:AlfredA.Knopf,2010.Print.Weextractedprimaryquotesfromthesoldierson
theSommefromPhilpott'sbook.Thequotesweselectedexpressedhowtheexplorationin
technologyproducedanartillerywarthatwasneverseenbefore.Thisnewmodeofwarfare
madethesoldiersquestionwhattheywerereallydoing.Thisbookgaveusprimary
evidencethatthenewmeansofmurderscarredthesoldiersbothphysicallyand
psychologically.

PrimaryWebsites
"ErnestHemingwayBiography~WorldWarI."
ErnestHemingwayBiography~WorldWarI
.
N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.2016.TheHemingwayResourceCenterprovideduswitha
succinctbiographyofErnestHemingway'slife,whichwasusefultousinquickly
understandinghowhereactedtohislifebackhomeafterthewarwasover.Hisencounter
withthehorrificconditionsofthesoldiersclearlyhadatremendouseffectonbothhislife
andhisattitudetowardslife.Weusedaprimaryquotefromhimonour"LostGeneration"
page.
"HistoryinDispute."
TrenchWarfare:DidTrenchWarfareLeadtoPointlessSlaughter?
N.p.,
27Feb.2002.Web.27Feb.2016.Theattitudeofthesoldiersbegantoalterasthey
realizedthattheyvulnerabletodeadlybombardmentsatanytime.Thedestructivepower
ofweaponsledtomassiveslaughtersonthewesternfront.Debateonwhethertrench
warfarehadledtopointlessslaughterwerediscussed.Weacknowledgedthatsoldiersin
thetrencheshadbeenviewedasvictims,powerlessintheextreme,caughtinthegripofan
impersonalwarthatdispenseddeath,simplywaitingtobedestroyed.
Simkin,John."SpartacusEducational."
SpartacusEducational
.N.p.,n.d.Web.16Dec.2015.
Thecasualtiesinthetrencheswerediscussedonthiswebsite.Wegotmostofourtimeline
eventsfromthiswebsite.Inaddition,wealsousedprimaryexcerptsfoundonthebottomof
thewebsite.CharlesChaplinlookedbackonhisexperiencewiththewarandconfessed
howtheyallthoughtthewarwouldbeoversoon.However,itwasquitetheopposite.
Desperationquicklytookoverandfatalismbecameprevalentamongstthesoldiers.

"TanksandWorldWarOneHistoryLearningSite."
HistoryLearningSite
.N.p.,n.d.Web.06
Jan.2016.ThisarticleprovideduswiththeconsoftheusageoftanksinWorldWarOne,
andspecificallyinthetrenches.Weextractedaprimarysourcequotefromthiswebsite,
whichcanbefoundonthe"Backfire"page.Fromthiswebsite,wecametotheconclusion
thattheinventionofmoderntankswerenotnecessarilyhelpful.Evenwhengiven
advancedtechnology,soldiersrunningthetankswereunabletouseittotheiradvantage
becauseofthelackofinstructionandknowledge.Whileanexplorationintechnologywas
made,itdidnotmatterbecauseitwasnotusedtoitsfullpotential.
"TrenchWarfareWWI."
TrenchWarfareWWI
.N.p.,n.d.Web.16Dec.2015.Weextracteda
primaryquotebyRobertGravesin1915fromthiswebsite.ItconsistedofGraves
describinghisfriend'sbreakdownandhowthewardestroyedtheirhopesandfaith.Itwas
verymuchanencounterwithdesperation.Despairandterrorsdamagedthesoldiersin
morewaysthanweaponsevercould.Weplacedthequoteinthe"Desperation:Living
Conditions"page.
"WorldWarI."
:WorldWarI
.N.p.,3Jan.2010.Web.16Dec.2015.Thequotewetookfrom
thiswebsitewassaidbyaBritishprivate.Weuseditinour"Desperation:Living
Conditions"page.Itdemonstratedthedisgustingconditionsthatthesoldiershadtosurvive
through.Rodentswereprevalentandratsevenstartedtofeastondeadflesh.Afterthe
soldiers'encounterwithdesperation,theyneverseparated.Thehorrorsfollowedthem
everywhere,evenintheirsleep.
"WWIWarGases."
WWIWarGases
.N.p.,n.d.Web.06Jan.2016.Aprimaryquoteregarding
thehorrorsofpoisonousgasonthebattlefieldwastakenfromthiswebsite,asalongwitha

picturethatweincludedinour"Technology"page.Fromthiswebsite,wegraspedthe
importanceofpoisonousgas.Whileweknewitplayedaroleinbringingthedeathsof
countlesssoldiers,thiswebsitegaveusinsightonhowitpsychologicallyaffectedthe
soldiers.Thefearsandterrorsexpressedbytheprimarysourcesmadeusunderstandthe
gravityofthesituation.

PrimaryImages
Arthur,Max.
ForgottenVoicesoftheGreatWar:AHistoryofWorldWarIintheWordsofthe
MenandWomenWhoWereThere
.Guilford,CT:Lyons,2004.Print.Weselecteda
photographofsoldiersaidingoneanotherfromthebookandappliedittoour"Humanity:
Empathy"pageinordertohighlighttheexchangeofhumankindthatwascarriedoutasa
resultofthewar.Soldiersgottoknoweachotherverywell,sharingcommondangersof
thenature,andtheybegantorescueoneanotherevenwithdreadfulwounds.
"TheBattleofTheSomme1916."
TheBattleofTheSomme1916
.N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.
2016.TheBattleoftheSommeisfamouschieflyonaccountofthelossof58,000British
troopstherefore,theexperiencesthatsoldiersencounteredwasgreat.Weapplythe
photographonthe"Desperation:LivingCondition"inordertodisplaywhatsoldiers
neededdealwithinthetrenches.Thebattlebroughttremendousdeathsandcasualtiesjust
inafewdays,leavingthesoldierswoundedphysicallyandmentally.
"ChristmasTruce1914:WhenWWIShowedHumanity."
TheDenverPost
.N.p.,n.d.Web.05
Jan.2016.Thethreemenholdinghandsintheimagedemonstratehowhumanityand
compassionstillexistedamongtheslaughterduringtheGreatWar.Bothhumanityand
compassiontowardpeacewererevealed,softeningthefightingspiritandsearchingfor
mortality.Atransitoryperiodofpeacewasachieved.Despitetheirdifferentlanguagesand
cultures,theopposingsidesexchangedgifts.Therelaxationofhostilitiessoonspread
amongthesoldiers.Throughtheimage,wereceivedasenseofcooperationandconnection
betweenthesoldiers,believingthathumanspiritwasabletolessenviolenceandhostility.

"ChristmasTruceof1914."
History.com
.A&ETelevisionNetworks,n.d.Web.05Jan.2016.
Theimageillustrateshumanity'slongingforpeaceduringWorldWarI.Itwasthesoldiers
whodeclaredanunofficialtrucetheybegantorecognizeoneanotherashumansrather
thanenemies.Basedontheimage,welearnedthatsoldierswhohadbeenkillingeachother
wereseekingashredofhumanityinordertoescapethehorrorsofwar.
Combs,Marianne."AllIsCalm:TheChristmasTruceof1914."
AllIsCalm:TheChristmas
Truceof1914
.N.p.,20Dec.2007.Web.05Jan.2016.DuringWorldWarI,thesoundsof
riflesfadedinanumberofplacesalongtheWesternFrontinfavorofChristmas
celebrationsinthetrenches.Asparkofhumanityandgenerosityappeared,leadingtoan
unofficialceasefirebetweenthetwocountries.Aftertheshootingceased,soldierscameout
ofthetrenchesandbegantogreeteachotherandexchangegifts.Theimagedepictsa
soldierwhohadreceivedChristmaspresentsonChristmasEve.Humanitywasshown
whenthesoldiersplayedsoccerandenjoyedtheholidayswithmenwhoweretheirdeadly
enemies.
"ConditionsontheWarFrontWorldWarI."
ConditionsontheWarFrontWorldWarI
.N.p.,
n.d.Web.27Feb.2016.Thelivingconditionthatwasshownfromthevisualexpressesthe
desperationsoldiershadtodealwith.Livinginthetrenchesduringthewarwastoughand
requiredcourage,whilefoodwasscarce,andstayinghealthywasdifficult.Soldierswere
oftenterrifiedoutoftheirminds.Deathanddiseasescontinuedtoloomoverthem.
"ErnestHemingwayBiography."
Bio.com
.A&ENetworksTelevision,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.
WeputErnestHemingwayon"Desperation:LostGeneration"pagebecauseheisoneof
themostfamousnovelistinthe20thcentury,akeypartofthe"LostGeneration."He

referredthethelackofpurposeordriveresultingfromthehorrificdisillusionmentfeltby
thosewhogrewupandlivedthroughthewarasthe"lostgeneration",revealingthesordid
natureofthelivesoftheyoungintheaftermathofthewar.
"FacesofBattle."
BBCNews
.BBC,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Accordingtothephotograph,even
thoughthevaluesofpatriotismandcouragebegantodisappear,thesoldierswere"forced
tosmile."Theylaughedandlookedrelaxedgroupsoffriendswereformedbythesoldiers
duringthewar.Insteadofbeingdemoralizedbythedestructivewar,soldierswereableto
evokeasenseofhumanitythroughtheirdailyencounterswithoneanother.
"Firstworldwar.com."
FirstWorldWar.com
.N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.2016.Dailydeathsinthe
trencheswerecommontothesoldiers,andpilesofcorpseswerejustthrowntotheside.
Ratswouldcomeoutatnight,eatingthedeadbodiesandrunninginthetrenches.By
displayingtheimageofasoldiersittingnexttoadeadbodyon"Desperation:Living
Condition"page,areflectionofthelivingconditioncanbemade,showingthemiserable
livesofthesoldiers.
Fitzgerald,F.Scott,andMatthewJ.Bruccoli.
TheGreatGatsby
.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.Print."The
GreatGatsby"referstothelossofinnocenceinsocietyafterWWI,inwhichthegreatwar
hadchangedeveryone'sperceptionoflife.Thenoveldisplaysthatlifewasdominatedby
thepursuitofmaterialwealthandsocialposition.Wechosethisnovelandputitonthe
"LostGeneration"pagebecauseitencompassestheideaofthelossofpurposethatwas
prominentamongwritersinthe1920s.
"GermanKnightsCrossHolders.,Etc.Photographs."
GermanKnightsCrossHolders.,Etc.
Photographs
.N.p.,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Thephotographillustratestheencounterof

desperationduringtheGreatWar,inwhichsoldierswereallshakenandexperiencedthe
horrificconditioninthetrenches.Notonlytrenchfever,butalsoshellshockswereall
resultofthedeplorableconditionthatsoldiersneededtoencounterduringthewar.
Hall,ZoeDare."CartoonistWhoseOldBillSketchesBoostedMorale."
TheTelegraph
.
TelegraphMediaGroup,n.d.Web.07Jan.2016.BruceBairnsfather'sOldBillcartoons
helpedtoliftspiritsonthefrontline.Weappliedthesixcartoonsfromthewebsitetothe
"Desperation"pagebecausethesecartoonswereabletodescribewhateverydaylifeinthe
trenchesconsistedof,provokingasenseoflonelinessanddehumanization.Throughthe
soldier'sexperience,theytrulyencounteredthevalueoflifeandthedesperationthatwas
left.
Hart,Peter.
TheSomme:TheDarkestHourontheWesternFront
.NewYork:Pegasus,2008.
Print.Onlythosewhohadfoughtinthewarcouldunderstandthebrutalityofthewar,
leavingthemdisillusioned.Sincethenextnewsetofsoldiersdidnotexperiencethewar,
thelessonsthatwerelearnedfromWWIwerequicklyforgotten,leadingtoanotherseries
ofhorrificbattles.Theimagefromthebookentailsthecommanderstryingtopusheven
morepressureonthesoldiersandpersuadedthemtofightagainsttheenemiesmore
vigorously.
Hemingway,Ernest.
TheSunAlsoRises
.NewYork:Scribner,1996.Print.Thewardamagedthe
hopesofcountlessindividuals.Thepeoples'senseofrightandwronghadbeendestroyed.
Thenovelalsoencounterstheideaof"LostGeneration."Wewanttohighlighthowdueto
thislossofhope,manywritersturnedtofictionalstoriesthatcriticizedthepostwarculture.

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"IntroductiontoGreatWar."
PBS
.PBS,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Youngmenhadfacedwiththe
destructionofthenotionsofwarfare.Seeingpointlessdeathsonsuchahugescale,many
lostfaithintraditionalvalueslikecourageandpatriotism,eventuallybecomingreckless
andaimless.Theimagedisplayssoldiersmarchingintheland,seekinghelpanddesiringto
escapetherealityofthewar.Therefore,weexhibitedtheimageinthe"Desperation:Lost
Generation"pageinordertoexpresstheideaofhowmenwereallshakenbythedisasterof
thewar.
OneHundredYearsAgo
.Digitalimage.
OneHundredYearsAgo
.N.p.,n.d.Web.5Jan.2016.
ChemicalweaponswerealsointroducedduringWorldWarI.Thechemicalwarfare,such
astheusingofphosgeneandchlorine,playedamajorroleduringthewar.Throughthe
illustration,weobservedthatthegasmasksmadethesoldiersbecomemerciless,andthis
meansofmurderdehumanizedtheopposingside.
"RadiganNeuhalfen'sWebLog."
:WorldWarI
.N.p.,03Jan.2010.Web.05Jan.2016.The
advancementintechnologywasmoreharmfulthanbeneficial.Soldiersfromthetrenches
alwaysencountereddangerousenemyshells,destroyingtheirfacesandkillinghundredsof
people.Cosmeticsurgerythusbecameamedicalpracticeduetothenumeroushorrific
injuries,anditstechniquesweresoonadoptedbythescientists.
"RatsandtheTrenchesofWWI."
DeBugged
.N.p.,11Nov.2011.Web.27Feb.2016.The
visualthatshowsasoldierholdingaratandwassurroundedbymanyratsdisplaysthe
horribleconditionofthesoldier.Weapplythisimagetothe"Desperation:Living
Condition"becauseitillustratestheconditionthatsoldiersneededtoexperienceinthe

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trenches.Soldierscouldeasilybedefeatedbyanillness,andratswouldplaguethemen
withdisease:tauntingsleepingsoldiers,creepingoverthematnight.
"SpartacusEducational."
SpartacusEducational
.N.p.,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Theimage
displaysthreefoursoldiersposinginatrenchfloodedwithmudalmosttowaistheight.The
livingconditioninthetrencheswereterrible,inwhichthetrencheswerehardtodigand
keptoncollapsinginthewaterloggedsand.Becauseofthenarrowplace,soldierswere
boundtogether,aidingoneanotherinthetrenches.
STEMPEL,John."GreatWarCentenary."N.p.,04May2014.Web.7Jan.2016.Thesite
providedimagesofthewoundedsoldierswalkinginthedirtytrenches.Thedescriptionof
thelongnightsinthetrenchesexhibitedasenseofhorrorandloneliness.Themedical
stationwasfullofwoundedsoldiers,whosufferedfromdiseaseandinjuredbythe
bombshells.Webelievedthattheseimagescouldclearlydisplayedthedestructionofthe
war.
Taylor,Alan."WorldWarIinPhotos:Technology."
TheAtlantic
.AtlanticMediaCompany,11
May2014.Web.17Feb.2016.Themachineguncametodominatethebattlefieldsduring
WorldWarOne.Wenoticedthatthecrudemachinegunscouldshoothundredsofrounds
ofammunitionaminuteandkilledhundredsofpeoplejustinashortamountoftime
casualtieswerehuge.Manysoldiersbarelygotoutoftheirtrenchbeforetheywerecut
down.
"TrenchConditionsTrenchRoutine|CanadaandtheFirstWorldWar."
CanadaandtheFirst
WorldWarTrenchRoutineComments
.N.p.,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Bothmoralityand
civilizationareinevitablyforgotteninwar,assoldiersbecomedesperatetosurviveand

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losetouchwiththeirhumanityduringthewar.Theimagefromthe"Humanity:Empathy"
pagedepictsthreesoldiersreadingnewspapertogether.Becauseofthewarandthedangers
theyneededtoface,soldierswerephysicallyandpsychologicallyconnectedwithone
another,andonlythosewhoexperiencedthewarknewwhatthewarreallybroughttotheir
lives.
UnitedStates.NationalParkService."FranciscoG.MontealegreCollection."
NationalParks
Service
.U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior,27Feb.2016.Web.27Feb.2016."DestroyThis
MadBrute"isWorldWarIposterthatservedasadvertisementsfortheenlistmentcenter.
IthighlightedtheantiGermansentiment,andGermanMilitarismwaspersonifiedasa
terrifyinggorillawithahelmetlabeled"militarism"holdingabloodyclublabeled"kultur".
"TheWarList."
HistoryNet
.N.p.,10Feb.2012.Web.02Mar.2016.Despitethesoldiers'desire
tostopfighting,commanderscontinuedtoorderthemtoruthlesslymurdertheopposing
sides.Weplacedtheimageofauthoritativecommandersinordertohighlighthow
influentialandpowerfultheywereduringwartime,forcingthesoldierstofightwithout
consideringthemoralityofthebattles.
Willson,Brian."TheImportanceOfTheDecember1914ChristmasTruce."
PopularResistanceOrg
.N.p.,24Dec.2014.Web.02Mar.2016.Humanitywasrevealed
duringtheChristmasTrucein1914manyofthesoldierschosetoexchangepresents,such
ascigarettesandplumpuddings.Thephotographthatweusedon"Humanity"page
displaysthehumanspiritthatservedasaresurgenceofalongestablishedtradition,
bringingjointooneanotherduringthefestiveholiday.

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"WorldWar1."
WorldWar1
.N.p.,n.d.Web.02Mar.2016.Becauseofthedangerofthewar,
soldierswereemotionallyconnectedwithoneanother.Theysoughttosecureeachothers'
lives,evenattheriskofdying.However,thecommandersfailedtoexperiencethe
exchangeinhumanityandkeptpushingthesoldiersintofurthertensionsbetweendifferent
enemies.
"WorldWarIHistory."
History.com
.A&ETelevisionNetworks,n.d.Web.05Jan.2016.While
WWImayhavebeenthewartoendallwars,italsoservedasthebeginningofmany
militarytechnologies.Thepicturedepictstheintroductionoftanks,whichcamefroma
developmentofvehiclesthatcouldcrossdifficultlandbyusingcaterpillartracks.We
foundoutthattheexplorationoftechnologyleadingtotankswasusedeffectivelyinorder
tobreakthroughtheenemylines.
"WorldWarPropagandas."N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.2016.Weputthispropagandaonthe
"Desperation"pageinordertodisplayhownationalismwasusedasatooltoencourage
mentojointhearmy.Fightingforthecountry,accordingtoordinarymen,wasapatriotic
behaviorhowever,theyfailedtoacknowledgethelonglastingdisastrouseffectsofthe
war,leavingthemdestroyedbythewar.

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PrimaryVideos
"WW1WarNeuroses."
YouTube
.YouTube,27Sept.2012.Web.16Dec.2015.Informationof
warneurosesanddisorderwasdiscussedinthevideo.Wefoundoutthatbytheendofthe
war,thereweremorethan80,000casesofshellshock,mostshellshockvictimswere
treatedharshlyandwithlittlesympathybecausetheirsymptomswereviewedasasignof
weakness.Thisvideoprovidedtheimpactoftheshellshock:ithelpedacceleratethe
expansionofknowledgeinpsychiatry.Weappliedthisvideoto"TheScarsofTrench
Warfare"pagetoshowthedestructionofthewar.

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SecondarySources
SecondaryInterviews
"Hemingway,theFitzgeralds,andtheLostGeneration:AnInterviewwithKirkCurnutt."
InterviewbyAllieBaker.
TheHemingwayProject
.N.p.,n.d.Web.Thisinterviewwith
KirkCurnuttbyAllieBakerwasparticularlyusefultousbecauseitgaveusinsightabout
Hemingway'slifeafterheservedinthewar.Hesufferedfromtraumaticexperiencesthat
hesawduringthewar,includingaplethoraofbleedinganddyingbodiesashewasan
ambulancedriver.WeusedquotesfromKirkCurnuttonour"LostGeneration"page.
Liulevicius,VejasG."Dr.VejasGabrielLiulevicius."Emailinterview.Nov.Dec.2015.Our
interviewwithDr.Liulevicius,thedirectoroftheCenterfortheStudyofWarandSociety
andaprofessorattheUniversityofTennessee,wasincrediblyinsightfulregardingthe
topicofexplorationintechnology.Hediscussedtheimpactofmoderntechnologyonpast
notions.Fromthisinterview,weconcludedthattrenchwarfarebecameaturningpointfor
theexplorationoftechnology.Inaddition,healsohelpedusgrasptheconceptofthe
ChristmasTruceandwhatpushedthesoldierstohaveanunofficialceasefire.Itwasa
primeexampleofanexchangeofhumanity.
Strauss,Lon."Dr.LonStrauss."Emailinterview.Dec.2015.Dr.Stauss,aprofessoratthe
UniversityofKansas,examinedthepsychologicaleffectofWWI.Heansweredour
questionsregardingthesoldiers'encounterwithdesperation.Accordingtotheinterview,
weconcludedthatcountrieswereaggressiveinthewakeofWorldWarI,andhealso
discussedtheshellshock,whichwasaconditionthatwasdevelopedbymanysoldiersin

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thetrenchesduringthewar.Hefurtherprovidedasummaryofhisopiniontowardsthe
ChristmasTruce,whichdisplayedanevidenceofhumanity.
Tooley,Hunt."Dr.HuntTooley."Emailinterview.Nov.Dec.2015.Dr.HuntTooleyfrom
AustinCollegeansweredourquestionsregardingtheimpactoftheexplorationin
technologyduringtheGreatWar.Hegaveusnewperspectivesabouttheadvancementof
technologyandthefrontlinesthatweprobablywouldnothavethoughttoconsider
otherwise.Healsodiscussedhowtheeconomyplayedaroleintheexploration.Webased
halfofouranalysisontheinformationgainedinthisinterviewforthetechnologysection.
Wealsolearnednewfacts,suchastheexplorationintechnology'simpactonmedical
cosmeticsandsurgery.

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SecondaryBooks
Bull,Stephen,andAdamHook.
WorldWarITrenchWarfare
.Oxford:Osprey,2002.Print.
Basedonthebook,Dr.Bullwroteoftheinfantryweaponsin1914andhedescribedthe
useofavariationoftheMaximmachinegundesign.Byreadinghissummaryofthe
examinationoftrenchwarfaretactics,wediscoveredthattheAlliedhadattemptedtobreak
thestalemateoftrenchwarfarebythe'bigpushes'of1916forseveraltime,andusedthis
pieceofinformationinthe"Technology"page.
Ferguson,Niall.
ThePityofWar:
.NewYork,NY:Basic,1999.Print.In"ThePityofWar",
writtenbyNiallFerguson,theauthormadeanargumentthatwarwasnotinevitableand
wasEngland'sfaultforbringingoutthewar.Weunderstoodmorethroughthechartsand
graphsthatwereprovidedbythebookandfoundoutthatover200,000soldiersdiedinthe
trenchesoftheWesternFrontinWorldWarI.Theappallingwarwasunpredictable,and
theconsequencesofusingadvancedweaponsweredevastating.
Hochschild,Adam.
ToEndAllWars:AStoryofLoyaltyandRebellion,19141918
.Boston:
HoughtonMifflinHarcourt,2011.Print.HochschildanalyzedthehistoryofWWIand
declareditasasenselesscarnagewithitsmyriadtragedies.Hemainlyfocusedonthe
criticsofwar,andsummarizedtheGreatWaronthequestionofloyaltyandrebellion.
Humanityandcomradeshipwerealsoshownfromhisdescriptionofthesoldier'saction
therefore,werelatedthefactsto"Impact"page.
Ousby,Ian.
TheRoadtoVerdun:WorldWarI'sMostMomentousBattleandtheFollyof
Nationalism
.NewYork:Doubleday,2002.Print.Ousby'sbookhadaprimaryfocuson
howwarromanticismwasdestroyedduringthefirstworldwar.Hisanalysisgreatly

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affectedourownanalysisonthewar.Weusedmostoftheinformationgainedfromthis
bookinourpagesondesperation.Onethingthatshockeduswasthatonthelastdayof
war,commandersstillsentouttheirmeninordertocrushtheopposingsidecompletely.
Wefoundthattobecompletelyabsurdandupsettingbecauseofhowmanypeoplecould
havebeensaved.Itdemonstratedtoushowthehigherauthoritiesdidnotcareabouttheir
soldiers,andthatwasafocalpointinouranalysisaswell.
Rawling,Bill.
SurvivingTrenchWarfare:TechnologyandtheCanadianCorps
.Toronto:Uof
Toronto,1994.Print.Productsandimpactsofthehorrorsofwarweredescribedbythe
author.Wewereabletoprovidetheideaoftacticalsystemandmilitarystrategiesinour
"Technology"pagebecauseRawlingprovidedinformationabouttheweaponsand
destructionthroughawiderangeofsources.Weacknowledgedthatthesoldierswereeager
totakecontrolovertheirweaponsandplaces.RawlingtracedtheevolutionontheWestern
Frontandadoptedinformationoftacticalsystemthatwasusedduringthewar.
Stone,Norman.
WorldWarOne
.NewYork:Basic,2009.Print.AnexcerptfromStone'schapter
ontheimpactoftheGreatWarwasplacedinour"Aftermath"page.Stone'sexplanation
wasusefulbecauseherelatedthetopictopresentissues.Ithelpedsignificantlywithour
overallimpactanalysis.Theexplorationintechnologywasaturningpointinhistory.

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SecondaryWebsites
Bajekal,Naina."SilentNight:TheStoryoftheWorldWarIChristmasTruceof1914."
Time
.
Time,24Dec.2014.Web.16Dec.2015.Wefoundthiswebsiteusefulbecauseitused
vividdescriptionstoprovidedasenseofhumanitythatmanypeoplethoughthad
disappearedduetothebrutalityofwar.Wecametobelievethatthesoldierswishedtostop
thefightangohomesoon.Thissitealsodescribedtousofhowthetrucebegan:two
nationsbothsangthesamecarolinthemiddleofawar.Germansoldiersemergedfrom
theirtrenches,callingoutMerryChristmasinEnglish,andlatertheirenemiesalsocame
outtogreetthem.Thistrucecouldberememberedasarepresentationofhopeand
humanity.
"BattleoftheSomme."
H100WeRemember
.N.p.,n.d.Web.16Dec.2015.TheBattleof
Somme,whichwasfoughtin1914,wasoneofthefamousbattlesduringWW1.According
tothewebsite,2,000heavygunbombardmentsoccurred,leadingtomassslaughters.We
appliedtheinformationfromthesitetoour"Desperation"pagebecauseitrevealedthe
inhumanityandhorrificconditioninthetrenches.Theencounterwithdesperationamong
thesoldierswasunimaginable,andonlythosewhohadexperiencedbeforecould
comprehend.
"FirstTrenchesAreDugontheWesternFront."
History.com
.A&ETelevisionNetworks,n.d.
Web.16Dec.2015.Thecontentinour"Inception"pagemostlyconsistedwithinformation
givenonthiswebsite.Wefoundfundamentalinformationonthestartoftrenchwarfareand
howmuchitprogressedthroughoutthefouryears.Fromthiswebsite,weconcludedthat
thestartoftrenchwarfarewasconsequentialforWorldWarOne'sexplorationin
technology,encounterwithdesperation,andexchangeofhumanity.

20

"Firstworldwar.com."
FirstWorldWar.com
.N.p.,n.d.Web.06Jan.2016.Thissiteprovided
informationaboutthecasualtiesandlifeinthetrenches.Theconstantshellfiredirectedby
theenemybroughtrandomdeath,andexplosionswerecommoninthebattlefields.The
imagesthatweredepictedfromthewebsiteillustratedasenseofhorrorandsavagery.We
foundthiswebsitevaluablebecauseitofferedadetailedaccountofhowtheintroductionof
advancedtechnologieshadalsocausedagreatnumberofdeathsduringthebattles.Asa
result,weusedthiswebsiteforour"Aftermath"pageinordertorevealtheimpactsof
powerfulweaponsthatwereintroduced.
Flank,Lenny."WorldWarOne:LifeandDeathintheTrenches."
DailyKos
.N.p.,18Sept.
2013.Web.16Dec.2015.Descriptionsofbothlifeanddeathinthetrenchesweregiven
fromthewebsite.Itnotonlydescribedhowtypicaltrencheslookedlike,butalsoprovided
informationaboutthelivingconditionthatwasexperiencedbythesoldiers.Wediscovered
thatwarromanticismwasalsodestroyedbecauseofthebothphysicalandpsychological
scarsthesoldierscarriedalong.Undertheconditionsoftrenchwarfare,the
dehumanizationofopposingsidesspreadquickly.
"GermansIntroducePoisonGas."
History.com
.A&ETelevisionNetworks,n.d.Web.16Dec.
2015.Informationaboutexplorationintechnologywasprovided,discussingtheuseof
poisonousgasandtheintroductionofgasmasks.Welearnedthatthefirstmajorgasattack
wasdonebytheGermany,devastatingtheAlliedline.Astheuseofpoisonousgasbecame
morefrequent,moresophisticatedmaskswerealsointroduced.Weusedtheimagesand
quotesfromthewebsiteinour"Technology"pageandconcludedthatpoisonousgaswasa
fearedweaponduringthewar,andthemasksmadethesoldierslookinhumane.

21

Hemingway,Ernest.
AFarewelltoArms
.NewYork:ScribnerClassics,1997.Print."AFarewell
toArms"waswrittenbyErnestHemingway,whowasdeeplyinfluencedbyhis
experiencesatwar.Consideringtobepartofthe"LostGeneration,"Hemingwayfelt"lost"
afterwitnessingthehorrorsofWorldWarI,losingthefaithintheinstitutionsofWestern
civilization.Thisinformationwasvitaltoasectionofour"LostGeneration"pagethatwas
dedicatedtoErnestHemingway.
"Hemingway'sParis."
:June2006
.N.p.,30June2006.Web.27Feb.2016.Inordertoescape
thedepressionthatresultedfromtheFirstWorldWar,writerssuchasErnestHemingway
begantomigratetoParissincetheParisianculturalscenewasmorepermissiveof
literature.WelearnedthatthegroupofwriterswhomovedtoParisbelievedthatAmerica
wasintolerant,materialistic,andunspiritual.
Jones,Nigel."LifeandDeathinFirstWorldWarTrenches."
TheTelegraph
.TelegraphMedia
Group,30May2013.Web.16Dec.2015.Basedontheinformationithasprovided,we
usedthewebsiteforour"Desperation:LivingCondition"page.Wewerehorrifiedbythe
realityofthefoodandenvironmentinthetrenches.Verminincludingratsandlicewere
verynumerous,anddiseasewaseasilyspreadbythem,Morethanabout3millionsof
soldiers,accordingtotheresearch,diedduetothediseases.
Lilies,Jordan."StoriesofChaplin:WorldWarI."
RSS
.N.p.,7Oct.2014.Web.16Dec.2015.
JordanLilesprovidedquotesfromthesurvivedsoldierstoportraythehorrificdifficulties
thesoldiershadencounteredinthetrenches.Theinformationfromthewebsitewasapplied
to"Desperation"pagebecauseitexplaineddistressanddisorderthesoldiershadsuffered.
Thesoldiersinthetrenchesexperiencedtraumatizingbombardmenteveryday.

22

"TheLivesofSoldiers."
AlphaHistory
.N.p.,2014.Web.16Dec.2015.Primaryquotationswere
listedbythiswebsite,whichdiscussedthepsychologicaldistressthesoldiershadto
encounter.Therefore,weorganizedthequotesunderthe"Desperation"pageinorderto
displaythehelplessnessanddisruptionthatwerecarriedoutbythewar.Thestimulating
andrealisticdescriptionexhibitthefrighteningconditionsthateachsoldierneededto
experienceinthetrenches.
"TheLostGeneration."
TheLostGeneration
.N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.2016.Fromthiswebsite
wewereabletogaininformationaboutvariousLostGenerationwritersandartists.We
usedaquoteabouttheLostGenerationmovingtoParisbecauseoftheirdistasteat
America'scultureonour"LostGeneration"page.Thiswebsitewasalsohelpfulinaiding
ourcomprehensionofwhytheLostGenerationwassopronetobealcoholics.
Nater,Adrienne."Death,Dying,Grief,andMourning."
ErichM.Remarque,AllQuietOnthe
WesternFrontDeathofFrenchSoldier
.N.p.,2008.Web.16Dec.2015.Thearticlewas
excerptedfromthefamousnovel,"AllQuietontheWesternFront".Thewelldeveloped
phrasesoutlinedalltheresponsesofthesoldiersduringthewar.Griefandmourningwere
conventionalresponsesfromthesoldiers.Weappliedthequotesfromtheextracttoour
"Desperation"pagesothatthepsychologicalresponsecouldberevealed,connectingto
soldier'sencounterwithdesperation.
"NobelLecture."
LordBoydOrr
.N.p.,2014.Web.16Dec.2015.Notonlythehistoryofwar,
butalsothepowerofsciencewasdiscussedinthearticle.Sciencehasadvancedduringthe
war,givingmankindmorepowersovertheforcesofnature.Wefoundtheinformation
necessaryindiscussingthepageof"Technology"and"Backfire."Weanalyzedtheuseof

23

gasmasks,tanksandartilleryinordertohighlightthecasualtiesthatwerecausedbythe
advancementoftechnologies.
"TheOrganisationCulturalLegaciesoftheChristmasDayTruce&TheAccringtonPals."
Fromthelighthouse
.N.p.,5Jan.2015.Web.16Dec.2015.ThelegacyoftheChristmas
Trucewasdiscussedinthewebsite.Althoughthetrucehadonlylastedforawhile,its
legacyprovideduswithhopeandinspiration.Afterreadingthearticle,wewereimpressed
bythecommunicationbetweenthetwoopposingsides.Theywereabletocooperateand
talkabouttheirfamilies,eventhoughtheywerejustenemieswhotriedtokilloneanother
justseveralhoursbeforetheceasefire.Hence,weappliedtheinformationtoour
"Humanity"pageinordertoshowthatthesoldiersstilledprovokedasenseofhumanity
ratherthandehumanization.
"PropagandaasaWeapon?InfluencingInternationalOpinion."
TheBritishLibrary
.N.p.,n.d.
Web.07Jan.2016.TheBritishLibraryprovideduswithgoodpropagandapostersthatwe
placedinour"Desperation"page.Fromthiswebsite,werealizedthatpropagandawasa
contributortothefalseglorificationaboutwar.Itmadeitseemlikeitwasthebestthingto
dothatfightingforyourcountrywasanobledecisionandeveryonewasdoingit.Of
course,thepropagandadidnotcomeclosetodescribingtherealnatureofwar.Thisonly
madethesoldiers'encounterwithdesperationallthemoredevastating.
Remarque,ErichMaria,andA.W.Wheen.
AllQuietontheWesternFront
.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.Print.
"AllQuietontheWesternFront"isanotherbookthatexemplifiestheideaof"Lost
Generation."Itanalyzedhowsoldierswerecorruptedbythedisasterofthewar,andhow
soldiersweresodepressedduetotheirlossofhumanityandmorality.Thisbookwas

24

importanttousbecauseitconnectedalltheaspectsofthetopicswetriedtohitwithour
website.
"ThisSideofParadiseBookReview."
VandegriftVoice
.N.p.,n.d.Web.27Feb.2016."This
SideofParadise"detailsthelifeofthepassionateyouthAmoryBlaine,andhisquestfor
loveandgloryashebecomesolder.ThisnovelportraystheLostGenerationafterWWI
anddescribeslifeatPrincetonasboringanddisillusioned,justlikehowtheveteransof
WorldWarIfeltafterthewarwasfought.Weusedthisconnectiononour"Lost
Generation"page.
"TrenchWarfare:DidTrenchWarfareLeadtoPointlessSlaughter?"
GaleGroup
.N.p.,n.d.
Web.Trenchwarfare'sstalematewasexplainedinthissite.Wefoundithelpfulbecauseit
describedtoushowexplorationsandadvancementswaswerenotalwaysagoodthing.We
usedquotesfromthiswebsiteontheand"Backfire"page.GaleGroupalsodiscussedthe
soldier'sdailyroutineandhowtraumatizingitwasforthemonthefrontlines.Weusedthe
informationfromthispagetowritetheanalysisforthe"Desperation"page.
"TheTrenches:SymboloftheStalemate."
PBS
.PBS,n.d.Web.16Dec.2015.Thetrenches
weredescribedasthesymbolofstalemateinthissite.Itprovideddetailedinformation
abouttheorganizationoftrenchesandNoMan'sLand,whichseparatedthetwoopposing
sides.Havingseenthispieceofinformationashelpful,wedecidedtoapplytheknowledge
toour"Desperation:LivingCondition"page.
"WhatReallyHappenedintheChristmasTruceof1914?"
BBCNews
.BBC,n.d.Web.16Dec.
2015.AfteroneofthememberhadwatchedavideoabouttheChristmasTrucein1914,we
begantosearchforinformationaboutthisevent.Thiswebsitewasabletoanswerour

25

question:WhatreallyhappenedduringtheChristmasTruce?Itsymbolizedthetruceasa
peacefulescapefromthedevastatinglyviolentwar.Wealsoacknowledgedthatgenerals
becamebelligerentbecausetheyfearedthatmenwouldthenquestionthewarand
uprisings.

SecondaryImages
"WorldWarI19141918."
HSCModernHistory
.N.p.,n.d.Web.Weusedadiagramfromthis
website.Thediagramdemonstratedandlabeledseverallinesinthetrenches.Itwasuseful
becauseithadeverythingthatweneededtoexplainpointoutinvisualterms.Itisthe
secondpictureonour"Inception"page.