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Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Attention
Deficit
Hyperactive
Disorder
(ADHD)

Code: 43

Inattention: forgetful, loses things, difficulty


following instruction, misses important details,
rushes through things, careless errors, difficulty
staying on task, poor short-term memory recall,
organizational difficulties, etc.

- Provide students with fidgets


- Limit number of steps given at a time
- Allowing movement
- Set up routines
- Give student small responsibilities
- Work with parents if possible

- Alberta Education:
https://archive.education.alber
ta.ca/admin/supportingstudent
/diverselearning/adhd.aspx

Definition: Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder (AD/HD)
is a neurobiological
condition that can cause
inattention, hyperactivity
and/or impulsivity, along
with a number of related
difficulties, inappropriate
for an individuals age.
(Alberta Education)

Hyperactive: restless, fidgets, squirmy,


excessive talking, difficulty staying seated or
being quiet
Impulsivity: acting before thinking, difficulty
following rules or steps, blurting out, disturbing
others, impatience, difficulty managing
frustration, unsafe behaviour, etc.
Social-emotional difficulties: limited
confidence, poor team player, difficulty
understanding social cues, emotionally
overreacting, difficult managing anger.
Executive Functions: difficulty with
remembering details, delaying gratification,
self-monitoring, planning, organizing,
sustaining effort, focusing, evaluating, etc.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Anxiety

Code: 53

Demonstrates excessive distress out of


proportion to the situation. ( crying, physical
symptoms, sadness, anger, and frustration,
etc)
Repetitive reassurance questions. (What if
concerns, inconsolable, wont respond to
logical arguments.)
Headaches, stomaches, regularly too sick to go
to school.

Seating in the classroom: Seat the


student with anxiety away from the
rambunctious classmates so they are
more focused on their work rather
than feeling responsible for the class.
Class participation: Determine the
students comfort level when it
comes to certain questions. Use a
signal to let the student know when
you are going to call on them.
Class presentation: Consider
allowing student to present to you
one on one or have the student audio
or videotape the presentation.
Testing Conditions: Allowing
extended time on a test may help to
ease the pressure on a student with
anxiety.
Change in routine: Change can make
a student with anxiety nervous, try to
eliminate this for them themthemmuch
as

References:
http://www.worrywisekids.org
http://www.learnalberta.ca/con
tent/inmdict/html/anxiety_diso
rders.html
Book: Wemberly Worried by
Kevin Henkes

Definition: Anxiety
disorders are characterized
by an excessive and
persistent sense of
apprehension along with
physical symptoms, such as
sweating, palpitations,
stomach-aches and feelings
of stress. Anxiety disorders
have biological and
environmental causes, and
are usually treated with
therapy and/or medication.
Anxiety disorders can coexist with many other
disorders.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Autism

Code: 44

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Difficulties with social interactions.


Extent and type of difficulty varies.
Definition: Autism or autism Withdrawn
spectrum disorders are
Overly active and socially awkward
complex life-long
Selective attention
neurological disorders that
Resistance to change
affect the functioning of the Limited interests
brain. Individuals with ASD Obsessive behaviour
have developmental
Respond to stimuli in atypical manners
disabilities that can impact
Exhibit unusual physical behaviours such as
how they understand what
hand flapping, spinning or rocking.
they see, hear and otherwise Use objects in unconventional ways
sense, which in turn can
Unusual attachments to specific objects
result in difficulties with
Difficulty with language and non-verbal
communication behaviour
communication.
and relationships with other
people. ASD can range from
mild to severe and may be
accompanied by other
disorders such as learning
disabilities, anxiety,
attention difficulties or
unusual responses to sensory
stimuli.

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Provide Visual Support:


- Use photographs to show tasks,
placement of objects.
- Outline steps.
Structured Environment and
Instructional Tasks:
- Rugs, taped lines and signs can be
used to create physical markers.
- Use different coloured folders,
binders, bins to separate tasks or
subject
- Remove extra materials from desks
and tables.
Give Choices:
- Offer choices, materials, pee
partners, order of task completion
Chaining:
- Used for teaching multi step tasks
- Tasks are broken down into small
steps and only one is given at a time
Shaping Techniques:
- Give positive reinforcement for
small increments to shape a new
desired behaviour.

- www.autismalberta.ca/aboutautism.

- www.autism.net/resources/sta
ff-corner/1716-bringingthem-back.html.
- www.archive.education.albert
a.ca/media/512925/autism3.p
df.
Kaveski, Walter. (2001).
Teaching Adolescents with
Autism: Practical Strategies for
the Inclusive Classroom.
Thousand Oaks California:
Corwin Sage Company .

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Cerebral Palsy

Code: Severe CP: Code 44


Spastic: Stiffness or tightness in the muscles
Mild To Moderate: Code 30
being relayed incorrectly through the
ECS: Code 58
damaged part of the brain.
Athetoid: Uncontrolled movements that
Definition: Refers to a group
occur, most noticeable when a person starts to
of disorders that result from
make a movement. Athetoid CP often have
injury to the developing
weak muscles and feel floppy when carried.
brain and can affect
Ataxic: This is the least common form of CP.
movement and muscle
Ataxic refers to the shaky, unsteady
coordination. Depending on
movements and often causes problems with
which areas are damaged, CP
balance.
can cause one or more of the Mixed: Many individuals will not have just one
following: muscle tightness
type of CP, but rather a mixture of Spastic,
or spasms, involuntary
Athetoid, and Ataxic. The rarest form of mixed
movement, difficulty with
CP is a combination of Ataxic and Athetoid.
gross motor skills such as
walking or running, and
difficulty with receptions and
sensations. Individuals with
CP may have cognitive,
speech and language
disorders, visual and hearing
impairments, and learning
disabilities. The parts of the
body that are affected and
the severity of impairment
can vary widely. CP is not
progressive, but can see to
change as the child grows.

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Speech:
- Use visuals
- Talk at a slower rate
- Use technology such as iPad that
uses text to speech and or speech to
text.
Fine Motor Skills:
- Pencil grips
- Paper with raised lines
- Stress balls
- Give students copies of notes
- Allow for oral tests
In general:
- Adapt the classroom layout/seating
arrangement to the students need.
- Seat student near an exit
- Give student time
- Have frequent brain breaks
- Work with the parents or
professionals involved
- Make tasks brief
Teach self- monitoring skills

Alberta
http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/cerebral_palsy.h
tml
http://alis.alberta.ca/videoplayer/
player.aspx?VK=3149
https://archive.education.alberta.
ca/media/825847/spedcodingcrit
eria.pdf

https://education.alberta.ca
/media/384968/makingadif
ference_2010.pdf

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Conduct
Disorder (CD)

Code: 42

Youth with CD have four main types of


persistent behaviour: aggressive conduct,
property damage or theft, lying, and
serious violations of rules.
They tend to be volatile, unpredictable,
confrontational, impulsive, distractible,
hyperactive, and disruptive, and engage in
attention-getting, limit testing, defiance,
challenges, disrespect, verbal abuse, blatant
rule violations, threats, and intimidation.
Usually they show non-compliance.
They have failed to develop reliable internal
controls, they often seem not to know right
from wrong

Meet with students and parents


early in the year to talk about how
the school can help.
Use start requests rather than
stop requests.
Describe desired behavioural in
clear and specific terms to reduce
misunderstanding.
Develop behavioural support plan
in which inappropriate behaviours
are replaced with appropriate
ones.
Make one request at a time, using
a quiet voice and when in close
proximity, using eye contact.
Maintain classroom routines

-Alberta Education. Supporting


Positive Behaviour in Alberta
Schools. http://education.
alberta.ca/media/697934/behavi
our-complete%20for
%20posting.pdf

Definition: A repetitive and


persistent pattern of
behaviour in which the basic
rights of others or societal
norms or rules are violated.
Manifestation of the
presence of at least three of
the following in the past 12
months
-Aggression to People and
Animals
-Destruction of Property
-Deceitfulness or Theft
-Serious violation of Rules

-Minnesota Association for


Childrens Mental Health. Fact
Sheet for the Classroom:
Conduct Disorder.
http://www.macmh.org/publicati
ons/fact_sheets/Conduct.pdf
-Center for Mental Health in
Schools at UCLA. Conduct and
Behavior Problems:
Intervention and Resources for
School Aged Youth.
http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfd
ocs/
conduct/CONDUCT.pdf

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Deaf and Hard


Hearing

Code: Code: Hearing


Disability- Code 55: 460
students in Alberta DeafCode 45: 330 students in
Alberta

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Conductive :
- When a sound is not transmitted well to the
inner ear
- Similar to a radio that plays only at a low
volume; there is no distortion of the sound,
but words are faint.
Definition: Students who
- Hearing aids are usually effective for making
are deaf or hard-of-hearing
meaning out of sound
have a diagnosis, from an
- May experience losses up to 70 decibels (i.e.
audiologist, which identifies
a dogs bark)
the presence and degree of
Sensorineural: Occurs when the inner ear or
hearing loss. The Canadian
cochlea is damaged or when there is damage
Academy of Audiology
to the pathway from inner ear to the brain
defines hearing loss as mild - Reduced ability to both hear sounds and to
(2640 decibels), moderate
understand speech clearly
(4155 decibels), moderate
- More severe and permanent have more
to severe (5670 decibels),
difficulty producing speech than those with
severe (7190 decibels) or
conductive loss
profound (90+ decibels). The - May experience balance problems as a result
degree of hearing loss does
of damage to their semicircular canal
not predetermine how
students function in auditory,
educational and social
situations. Students with a
moderate hearing loss may
function as deaf, but with
current technologies,
students with severe to
profound hearing loss may
function as hard-of-hearing.

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

- Establish eye contact before


speaking or signing directly to the
student. If a sign language
interpreter is required, talk with the
interpreter about appropriate
interaction practice
- Provide a variety of visual aids to
support learning
- Allow extra time for the student to
process and respond to information
- Use strategies to ensure that
questions or discussion from peers
is understood, such as repeating
what is said, and using appropriate
technology and/or planning with the
interpreter
- Check with the student to determine
the need for rest breaks after long
periods of speech reading or
instruction in sign language
Talk with parents and student to see
what works well with them.

http://deafalberta.ca/inform

ation-resources/deafpopulation/
http://www.learnalberta.ca/
content/inmdict/html/heari
ng_loss.html
http://www.learnalberta.ca/
content/inmdict/html/heari
ng_loss.html
http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/hearing_loss.ht
ml

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Depression

Code: 42

A student with depression will display

Movement Break
This quick and easy strategy could
give the student an opportunity to
improve mood and increase energy
through movement. Some ideas for
good movement breaks include:
Just Dance, Chain Reaction, Simon
Says.
"Today is not my Day"
This strategy is used in the
classroom when it comes to
assessment. If the teacher sets up
the expectation that the students are
allowed to have a total of three
passes on days where the are not in
the right mind set, they can come to
the teacher in the morning and say
" Today is not my Day". This
indicates that the student is taking a
pass on that day and will make up
the summative assessment at a later
date
Zen Corner

Alberta
-

Definition: Depression is
characterized by symptoms
such as persistent feelings of
sadness, hopelessness,
dejection and guilt,
withdrawal from activities
and people. Poor
concentration, lack of
energy, inability to sleep,
weight loss or gain, anxiety,
irritability or agitation,
and/or thoughts of death or
suicide.

three symptom groups:


-Mood: Feeling of sadness,
worthlessness, hopelessness,
inappropriate guilt, and disinterest in all
or almost all activities
-Thinking (Cognitive): Diminished ability
to concentrate, suicidal thoughts/plans.
-Body Sensations (Somatic): Excessive
fatigue, sleep problems, physical
slowness, decrease in appetite that may
lead to noticeable weight loss.
What it looks like in Schools:
-Self-deprecating comments.
-Defiance with authority figures and
difficulties interacting with peers.
Argumentativeness, pessimistic comments or
suicidal thoughts.
-Theft, sexual activity, alcohol or drug
use.
-Complaints of feeling sick, school

absence and lack of participation.

Give all students an outlet to recollect


their thoughts and feelings.

https://open.alberta.ca/dataset/ee
2ccea8-97fe-41a1-aa11ed9f21421364/resource/225515
85-a8d1-4b54-bdc37b21067cdaa7/download/36560
41-2015-Special-EducationCoding-Criteria-2015-2016.pdf
https://myhealth.alberta.ca/Healt
h/Pages/conditions.aspx?
hwid=aba5372

http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/depression.html

https://education.alberta.ca/ment
al-health/components/

http://alberta.cmha.ca/mental_he
alth/depression-what-is-it-whatdo-do/#.VrFZ1ng-BmA

Additional
http://www.ascd.org/publication
s/educationalleadership/oct10/vol68/num02/R
esponding-to-a-Student'sDepression.aspx
www.teenmentalhealth.org
-Mental Health and High School
Curriculum Guide.pdf
http://www.psychiatry.org/patien
ts-families/depression/what-isdepression

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Down
Dyndrome

- Code: Mild Cognitive or - Have learning delays to some degree ad can

Teaching Strategies

Hand Gym: Develops motor skills.


Multiple boxes containing different
Intellectual Delay: Code
be characterized physically by a slightly
activities. Different activities help
51
more flat face, shorter neck, slanted eyes,
with different motor skills.
small
ears,
and
loose
joints
along
with
low
- Moderate Cognitive or

Yoga: Helps focus on building


muscle
tone.
Intellectual Delay: Code
muscle strength and flexibility. Can
50-60%
of
students
with
down
syndrome
will
52
plan a series of yoga exercises as a
also have problems with vision and hearing.
- Hearing Disability: Code
brain break or a class.
- Have heart defects and many have breathing Painting or Drawing: Can be
55
problems that might require air tubes.
- Visual Disability:
therapeutic for calming the mind, but
Development of muscle strength, muscle
Code 56
also helps with hand-eye
memory, motor skills, and intellectual ability is
- Communication
coordination skills.
slower than the majority of the population.
Disability: Code 57
Partner Puzzles:Helps with social
Physical or Mental
interaction and motor skills. Brian
Disability: Code 58
break or as a daily activity.
Low Intensity Strength Building:
Definition: Down syndrome
Could be used in physical education
is a set of physical and
or a movement break.
mental traits caused by
Different writing assignments or test
abnormal gene development
can be helpful as well.
that happens in utero.
Normally, a person ha 46
chromosomes, but most
people with down syndrome
have 47 chromosomes.
Having extra or abnormal
chromosomes changes the
way the brain and body
develop.

Links and Sources


http://www.edss.ca
http://www.upsdowns.org
http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/down_syndrome
.html

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

FASD

Code: 44
Definition: Fetal Alcohol
Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
is an umbrella term used to
describe the range of
disabilities that result from
prenatal alcohol exposure. It
is the leading known cause
of developmental disability
in Canada. The medical
diagnoses of FASD include:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
(FAS); Partial FASD (pFAS);
and Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder
(ARND). You may find
FASD sometimes referred to
as Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol
Effects (FAS/FAE) in older
literature.

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Evident throughout the spectrum, a child


with FAS, pFAS or ARND will have
abnormal brain function which includes
impairment in at least three of the following
brain domains:

https://education.alberta.ca/medi
1. Routine: Have a set routine in your
a/464617/supporting_positive_b
class. It can also be helpful to have
ehaviour_classroom.pdf the daily class schedule posted in
the classroom. Also have classroom Supporting Positive
rules posted around the classroom, Behaviour in Alberta
as well as on the students desk.
Schools
2. Checklist: A useful tool to have

Links and Sources

http://fasd.alberta.ca

hard and soft neurological signs


students stay on track with what
Provides you with a chart
(including sensory-motor)
they need to get done each class.
that allows you to see
brain structure (head circumference or
3.
Breakout
rooms/Quiet
Place:
Have
where students with FASD
size, magnetic resonance imaging)
somewhere available for the
may be, academically and
cognition (IQ)
student to go when they are
emotionally, at certain
communication (both receptive and
overwhelmed.
ages.
expressive)
4. Red Light/Green Light Block:
https://archive.education.alberta.
academic achievement
Have the student paint a block with ca/admin/supportingstudent/dive
memory
one end green, one end red, and the rselearning/re-defining.aspx executive functioning (common sense)
middle yellow. When the student is
This strategy guide offers
and abstract reasoning
working well, they can have the
ideas, actions and
attention deficit/ hyperactivity
block on their desk with the green
adaptive behaviour, social skills, social
strategies to support
side up. If they begin to feel
communication.
frustrated, they can put it to the
students with FASD.
Confirmation of maternal prenatal alcohol
yellow side. If a student is having a https://archive.education.alberta.
meltdown this would be shown
exposure is required for a diagnosis of FAS,
ca/admin/supportingstudent/dive
using the red side.
pFAS and ARND.
rselearning/fasd.aspx- Gives
5. Seven Habits: Use the Seven Habits background information on
of Highly Effective People to
FASD, as well as how to
encourage the student to reflect on teach students with FASD
his/her actions. Using the Seven
(strategies, developmental
Habits can help students to be an
strategies, etc.)
independent learner and a good
http://www.faslink.org/strategies
leader.
_not_solutions.pdf - Supporting
resource for education care
givers and educators on
managing behaviours associated
with FASD.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Giftedness

Code: 80

Characteristics/ Behaviours

-Unusual alertness, even in infancy


-Rapid learner;
Definition: Gifted
-Excellent memory
individuals are those who
-Unusually large vocabulary and complex
demonstrate outstanding
sentence structure
levels of aptitude (defined as -Advanced comprehension of words, metaphors
an exceptional ability to
and abstract ideas
reason and learn) or
-Enjoys solving problems,
competence (documented
-Often self-taught reading and writing skills
performance or achievement -Deep, intense feelings and reactions
in top 10% or rarer) in one or -Highly sensitive
more domains. Domains
-Thinking is abstract, complex, logical, and
include any structured area
insightful
of activity with its own
-Idealism and sense of justice at early age
symbol system (e.g.,
-Concern with social and political issues and
mathematics, music,
injustices
language) and/or set of
-Longer attention span and intense
sensorimotor skills (e.g.,
concentration
painting, dance, sports.)
-Preoccupied with own thoughtsdaydreamer
-Learn basic skills quickly and with little
practice

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Content:
- Make activities more complex.
-Modify Outcomes
-Extend beyond the program of
studies.
- Increase variety.
Process:
- Pre-test
-Learning Contract
-Real world application
-Inquiry Process
-Create opportunities for higher
thinking.
Product:
- Provide choice
- Apply real life problems
- Encourage different targets
- Incorporate higher order of
thinking.
Physical and Social Environment:
- increase access to technology.
- Flexible grouping
-Create opportunities for group work.
Assessment:
- Incorporate self assessment
-Incorporate creativity

www.education.alberta.ca/me
dia/464612/chapter-10-giftedmad-2010.pdf
www.education.alberta/media/
464613/the-journey-ahandbook-for-parents2004.pdf
www.corwin.com/upmdata/32712_Sousa_(Gifted_Br
ain)_ch1.pdf
www.nagc.org
www.teachersfirst.com/gifted_
spot.cfm.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Intellectual
Disabilities

CODE: ECS=30
1-12= 50-53

Disorder Characteristics
Intellectual disability involves impairments of
general mental abilities that impact adaptive
functioning in three domains, or areas. These
domains determine how well an individual
copes with everyday tasks:
CONCEPTUAL
includes skills in language, reading, writing,
math, reasoning, knowledge, and memory.
SOCIAL
refers to empathy, social judgment,
interpersonal communication skills, the ability
to make and retain friendships, and similar
capacities.
PRACTICAL
centers on self-management in areas such as
personal care, job responsibilities, money
management, recreation, and organizing school
and work tasks.

Depends on the student. Different


http://www.learnalberta.ca/con
strategies will work for different
tent/inmdict/html/severe_cogn
students.
itive_dis.html
Modifications, adaptions, and

alternate courses may be required.


http://www.learnalberta.ca/con
Differentiation: Assess the students
tent/inmdict/html/mild_cogniti
abilities and create alternate forms of
ve_dis.html
course work to help accommodate
http://www.learnalberta.ca/con
them.
tent/inmdict/html/mild_cogniti
Pre assessment: Know what the
ve_dis.html
student can or cant do before putting http://www.learnalberta.ca/con
them in a situation.
tent/inmdict/html/moderate_c
Ongoing Assessment: Continually
ognitive_dis.html
assess students progress even after
diagnosis.

Definition: An intellectual
disability (also commonly
referred to as a
developmental disability
among other terms) is,
simply stated, a disability
that significantly affects
one's ability to learn and use
information. It is a disability
that is present during
childhood and continues
throughout one's life. A
person who has an
intellectual disability is
capable of participating
effectively in all aspects of
daily life, but sometimes
requires more assistance than
others in learning a task,
adapting to changes in tasks
and routines, and addressing
the many barriers to
participation that result from
the complexity of our
society.

Links and Sources

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Learning
Disability

Code: 54

Impairment of written expression:


Problems with how letters are formed.
Problems with fluency. Spelling difficulty.
Difficulty with word choice.
Impairment in Math:
Trouble with number sense. Difficulty with
memorization. Difficulty with accurate or
fluent calculation and math reasoning.
Impairment with non-verbal communication:
Difficulty with visual spatial, auditory
processing, Language, motor skills, social,
and behavioural.
Impairment with reading: Difficulty with
phonological and phonemic awareness, word
recognition problems, word attack skills,
fluency, comprehension, main ideas, context
clues and trouble rhyming, syllable recognition,
segmenting, and blending.

Collaboration: Working together


with students, school staff, and
parents.
Ongoing Assessment: Ongoing
monitoring is important even after
diagnosis.
Individual Program Plans:
Framework for developing individual
programs based on the students
needs.
Transition planning: Planning to help
the student with transitions from
grades.
Clear and specific instructions:
Students may need extensive
instruction to help them succeed in a
classroom environment.

Edmunds, A. & Edmunds, G.


(2014). Special Education
in Canada (2nd Ed.). Don
Mills, ON:
Oxford University Press.

Definition: Learning
disorders affect the
acquisition, organization,
retention, understanding or
use of verbal or nonverbal
information. Learning
disabilities result from
impairments in one or more
processes related to
perceiving, thinking,
remembering or learning.
Learning disabilities are due
to genetic and/or
neurobiological factors or
injury that alters brain
functioning in a manner
which affects one or more
processes related to learning.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R.,


Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A.
(2007). Learning

Disabilities: From
Identification to
Intervention. New York, NY:
The Guilford Press.
Hallihan, D. P., Kauffman, J.
M. & Lloyd, J. W. (1999).

Introduction to Learning
Disabilities
(2nd Ed.) Boston, MA:
Allyn & Bacon.
Learning Disabilities

Association of Canada at
www.ldac-acta.ca
Winzer, M. (2008). Children
with Exceptionalities in
Canadian Classrooms, (8th Ed.).
Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Obsessive
Compulsive
Disorder

Code: 42

Repeatedly washing hands, using antibacterial wipes or hand-sanitizer


Protecting what is perceived as clean
space -- personal desk or locker, other
personal property
Avoiding touching dirty surfaces that others
may have touched, including any commonarea objects such as doorknobs or desks,
shared supplies, lab equipment, computer
keyboards, paints, paste, soap, cafeteria trays,
etc.
Avoiding contact play or sports -- either
because of a fear of catching a disease or fear
of contaminating another student
Avoiding the use of school washrooms
Seeking reassurance that they (students with
OCD) or others are not sick or dirty
Refusing to share items or supplies with
others
Refusing to eat in the cafeteria
tables)

RELABEL Help the student


recognize that the intrusive obsessive
thoughts and urges are the result of
OCD. For example, train yourself to
say, "I don't think or feel that my hands
are dirty. I'm having an obsession that
my hands are dirty." REATTRIBUTE
Help the student realize that the
intensity and intrusiveness of the
thought or urge is caused by OCD; it is
probably related to a biochemical
imbalance in the brain. Tell yourself,
"It's not meits my OCD,"
REFOCUS Work around the OCD
thoughts by focusing your attention on
something else, REVALUE Do not
take the OCD thought at face value. It
is not significant in itself.

Alberta sites:

Definition: The essential


features of ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder are
recurrent obsessions or
compulsions that are
severe enough to be time
consuming (i.e. they take
more than 1 hour a day)
or cause marked distress
or significant impairment.
At some point during the
course of the disorder, the
person has recognized
that the obsessions or
compulsions are
excessive or
unreasonable

http://www.ementalhealth.ca/Al
berta/Obsessive-CompulsiveDisorder-OCD-in-Children-andYouth-Information-for-Parentsand-Caregivers/index.php?
m=article&ID=8876
https://myhealth.alberta.ca/Healt
h/Pages/conditions.aspx?
hwid=hw169097
http://www.macanxiety.com/spe
cialist-treatment-services-incanada/alberta/
http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/obsessive_comp
ulsive.html
https://lethbridge.cmha.ca/menta
l_health/obsessive-compulsivedisorder-ocd/

Other sites:

International OCD
Foundation https://iocdf.org/expertopinions/

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies

Links and Sources

Oppositional
defiant
disorder
(ODD)

Code: 42

A pattern of angry/irritable mood,


argumentative/defiant behaviour or
vindictiveness Often loses temper Often
Touchy/easily annoyed
Often angry and resentful
Argues often with authority
figures/adults
Actively defies or refuses to comply
with adult rules regularly
Often deliberately annoys others
Often blames others for his/her
mistakes
Has been spiteful or vindictive at least twice
in past 6 months

Anticipate difficulty with anger


control. Be proactive in recognizing
triggers.
Create a behaviour support plan in
collaboration with the
school/jurisdictional team, parents
and, if appropriate, the student.
Be aware that students with ODD
tend to create power struggles. Avoid
these verbal exchanges.
Avoid making comments or talking
about situations that may be a source
of argument.
Provide clear, specific expectations
for behaviour that the student can
follow.For example, I will follow
directions.
Be clear on what behaviours are not
negotiable and what consequences
will follow.
Be consistent with consequences.
Use start requests rather than
stop requests.
Make one request at a time, using a
quiet voice and, when in close
proximity, using eye contact.
When appropriate, offer a choice (e.g.,

Alberta Education. Supporting


Positive Behaviour in Alberta
Schools. http://education.
alberta.ca/media/697934/behavi
our-complete%20for
%20posting.pdf
Minnesota Association for
Childrens Mental Health.
Fact Sheet for the Classroom:
Oppositional Defiant
Disorder.
http://www.macmh.org/public
ations/fact_sheets/ODD.pdf
Center for Mental Health in
Schools at UCLA. Conduct and
Behavior Problems:Intervention
and Resources for School Aged
Youth.
http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfd
ocs/conduct/CONDUCT.pdf

Definition: Oppositional
defiant disorder (ODD) is a
condition characterized by a
persistent pattern
of aggressive and defiant
behaviour and a need to
annoy or irritate others.
Common
behaviours include frequent
temper tantrums, frequent
arguing with both peers and
adults, intentionally
annoying others, blaming
others for own mistakes, and
appearing
angry and vindictive.

Exceptionality

Defintion/Code

Sensory
Processing
Disorder

Code:
Definition:

Characteristics/ Behaviours

Teaching Strategies
-

Links and Sources