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tym) i UD Drawing People yy PCr ee drawing a variety of figures and portraits The Art of Drawing People Edu ah as Da. es | 1] © 2008, 2011 Walter Foster Publishing, Inc. Photos on pages 8-9 © 2001, 2003 WFP. Artwork on page 10 © 2004 WFP, value scales © 2006 Diane Cardaci. Photos on page 11 © 2006 Diane Cardact, artwork © 2004 WEP. Artwork on pages 12-13 © 2006 Diane Cardaci. Artwork on pages 6, 14-15, 88-91 © 2001, 2003 WEP. Artwork on pages 16-17 © 1999, 2003 WFP. Artwork on pages 18-23, 64, 66-88, 92-93 © 1997, 2003 WFP. Artwork on pages 24, 26-41 © 2004, 2005 Ken Goldman. Artwork on pages 42, 44-63 © 1989, 1997, 2003 WFP. Artwork on pages 1, 4, 6, 96-123 © 2006 Debra Kauffman Yaun. Artwork on pages 3, 94, 124-139 © 2007 Debra Kaulfman Yaun. All rights reserved Walter Foster is a registered trademark, Digital edition: 978.1.61059-817-0 Softcover edition: 978-1-60058-069-7 This book has been produced to aid the aspiring artist. Repro- duction of the work for study or finished artis permissible Any art produced or photomechanically reproduced from this publication for commercial purposes is forbidden without written consent from the publisher, Walter Foster Publishing, Inc. wW98 765 The Art of Drawing People hd i/, i Ay CONTENTS IntRoDUCTION To DRAWING PEOPLE .. Tools & Materials 8 The Elements of Drawing 10 Basie Pencil Techniques n Other Ways to Shade 2 Learning to See 4 People in Perspective 16 Placing People in a Composition 18 ‘Adding Complete Figures 20 Beginning Portraiture 2 ANATOMY WITH KEN GOLDMAN «2. 25 Exploring the Torso: Front View 26 Exploring the Torso: Back View a7 Exploring the Torso: Side View 28 Exploring the Torso: Tips 29 Depicting the Arm: Front View 30 Depicting the Arm: Back View 31 Depicting the Arm: Side View 32 Portraying the Hand 3 Sketching the Leg: Front View 34 Sketching the Leg: Back View 35 Sketching the Leg: Side View 36 Drawing the Foot 37 Studying the Head & Skull 38 Capturing Facial Features 41 FACES WITH WALTER T. FOSTER. «...s.cecee0++ 43 People 4 Women: Profile 46 ‘Women: Three-Quarter View 48 Women: Frontal View 50 Men: Three-Quartet View 32 Elderly Women 34 Elderly Men. 36 People of the World 58 Developing Your Own Style 60 Male Faces o PEOPLE wiTH WILLIAM F, PoweLL. 65 Adult Head Proportions 66 Head Positions & Angles 7 Facial Features: Eyes 68 Facial Features: Noses & Ears 69 Facial Features: Lips 70 Facial Features: The Smile na The Profile n The Three-Quarter View B Child Head Proportions " Mature Faces Adult Body Proportions Child Body Proportions The Body Hands & Feet Clothing Folds Foreshortening ‘Movement & Balance Bending & Twisting Figures Sports Figures in Action, Children in Action Developing a Portrait Focusing on Foreshortening Applying Your Skills PEOPLE WITH DEBRA KAUFFMAN YAUN Understanding Facial Anatomy ‘Learning the Planes of the Face ‘Adult Facial Proportions Exploring Other Views Depicting Adult Features Capturing a Likeness 102 Life Drawing (Portrait) 103 Approaching a Profile View 104 Working with Lighting 106 Including a Background 107 Developing Hair 108 Depicting Age 10 Creating Facial Hair m1 Children’s Facial Proportions 42 Portraying Children's Features ne Drawing a Baby 116 ‘Choosing a Photo Reference 18 Indicating Fair Features Ro Replicating Dark Skin Tones 12 Understanding Body Anatomy 1 Adult Body Proportions 15 Hands 126 Feet vr Showing Movement 128 Foreshortening 19 Understanding Lighting 130 Life Drawing (Full Body) 132 Bridal Portrait 14 Children’s Body Proportions 136 Children in Action 137 Choosing a Pose 138 WORK er 0) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO DRAWING PEOPLE People are such interesting and varied subjects to draw. With this compilation of projects from some of the most popular titles in our How to Draw and Paint series, you'll find in-depth information on every aspect of drawing people. Featuring instruction from four accomplished artists, this book is filled with step-by-step demon- strations that show you how to re-create a range of people of differing ages and ethnicities. You'll find plenty of helpful tips on tools and materials, shading, and other fundamental drawing tech- niques, as well as important information about the influences of bone structure and musculature. And detailed examples of facial features, hands, and feet will help guide you through the most chal- lenging aspects of drawing people. With practice, you'll soon be able to capture amazing likenesses of family and friends in your pencil drawings! TOOLS & MATERIALS Dine ton fa, aa important om i itself. Even when you write or print your name, you are actually drawing! Ifyou organize the lines, you can make shapes; and when you carry that a bit further and add dark and light shading, your drawings begin to take on a three-dimensional form and look more realistic. One of the great things about drawing is that you can do it anywhere, and the materials are very inexpensive. You do get what you pay for, though, so pur chase the best you can afford at the time, and upgrade your supplies whenever possible, Although 3 ‘mark can be used for some type of drawing, youll want to make certain your magnificent efforts will last and not fade over time. Here are some materials that will get you off toa good start ything that will make a ‘Sketch Pads Conveniently bound eign ings. They ae patclry handy for making tick shetches and when drovng ors Youcan se large seth book nthe stu forlayng out paling. or take smal on wth Yu or eoring quick impressions ‘when you rae Smoot 10 meu tran paper teste ich ale he ot") fen sania cies, Work Station its a ocd ide to se up awk re that has god ihing ae enue ‘eam far youto work nd iy ou yer ols Of ous, an entire room with wack. sel td dang abe ise ut alyou ell eed a place by window fo mata lighting. When raving at ih you can use Sf white ight bulb nda coal we ho escent ight so that you have bath wa lows apd col is) eh Artist's Erasers rust ean be med nto Smal wedges an pois Drawing Papers torenove mais nvery Fortinahed wore ofan, tiny res Vn erases sing gle sheets of ae god for er aes Poe they remove peel rks traning paper's bes. Teyare mainte ina rang of suc tenures wala he paper ot rain pate and frac umes sre at presed, medium rain > (ols essa an uh we to ery rough. The ald pressed suae she most, Neral is of medium sooth oi makes 3 god swt rare Tortitlons Tse pape ferent eaving techies. sumps" ene ued ‘end a ster smal areas teeth ses to quty Blend age eas. Once thetorlos become ‘iy. simpty rb them ona cloth an here ready to agin ‘Charcoal Papers ha coatpaper and abies a0 dresvlabetnavarety ; of teres. Some he fi sucess ute s usty Knives Usiy eves ao cleat” ees) ae rat or teary eating ring tecture in our deags pers and mat bors These papers aso came ia You ato can use then avai of ols, which for sharpening penis. Can ad cepth an val (See the boxon page 9) Blades come na varity of Shapes ad sizes and are ‘sy inreanane, But be cae te bade ae 2 sharp as sages Incest your rings. GATHERING THE BASICS. You don't need a lot of supplies to start; you can begin enjoying drawing with just a #2 or an HB pencil, a sharpener, a vinyl ‘eraser, and any piece of paper. You always can add more pencils, charcoal, torillons, and such later. When shopping for pencils, notice that they are labeled with letters and numbers; these ind cate the degree of lead softness, Pencils with B leads are softer than those with H leads, and so they make darker strokes, An HB is in between, which makes it very versatile and a good beginner's tool. The chart at right shows a varity of drawing tools and the kinds of strokes that are achieved with each one, As you expand your pencil supply, practice shaping different points and creating different elfects with each by varying the pressure you put on the pencil. The more comfortable you are with your tools, the better your drawings will be! ‘ADDING Ow Unless you already have a drawing table, you may want to put- chase a drawing board. It doesn’t have to be expensive; just get ‘one large enough to accommodate individual sheets of drawing paper. Consider getting one with a cut-out handle, especially if you want to draw outdoors, so you easily can carry it with you, Spray Fix A uate “ses" a raving and rote it fom smearing, Some ass aod tng hae on perl rings because edt deepen the it shading an lin nate some dlcate ales. Home, oat works wel chareoaléavings. ate ‘alate in spray cansorin ots, but you pea 3 meath torizer to use bated Fate ‘Spray cans are more convenient, and heave ie sray and mere een coverage. NB AnH wth a harp pont produces cispines nd oles sed cont With round pl, you an make sighty 4, ~ lq at pint See at sketching Flat Fr wise stokes, use the sharp pont ofa fat B.A age, fa satch peels rest or nang re seas, bi the shy, ‘chased ede canbe ure to mak thin ines, Charcoal 48 cacti sot, so maes sdk mak ‘oe crumbly esi onthe paper. Some arts use wie ‘harcolpends for ending and ighteing aes intr ani, a cojon ont -_—_—_ prec_x rayon or Pe inti ate ay Sectoid Owe ane cnntc hod ‘Soin sieht anne aie go Colored pens Because Is wate sole, can be bended tha wet bash orth, SHARPENING YOUR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS AUitity Knife canbe seo fom erent points (seed, fat ha at posible wth a oe ry ent sharpened the oie at gh ange tothe pnd shat ard aways tapen ay om you, ‘aking of ent weed and graphite a tine [ASandpaper Block wl icy hone te ea ito ny shape you wish alo wl snd down Some the oad. The er the gto th paper, the mare conti Table he resting pit Ral the enc in you gers ven shaping keep the shape even Rough Paper i wonder for smoothing the pant nae tapering wth stnpper This sis eat wayo eat ery fie pit rsa deta. ‘Again, Wis important to gel the pen wie hang a sharpen he ea vey THE ELEMENTS OF DRAWING rawing consists of three elements: line, shape, and form. The shape of an object can be described with simple one-dimensfonal ine. The three-climensional version of the shape is known as the object's “form.” In pencil drawing, variations in value (the rela- tive lightness or darkness of black or a color) describe form, giving an object the illusion of depth. In pencil drawing, values range from black (the darkest value) through different shades of gray to white (the lightest value). To make a two-dimensional object appe three-dimensional, you must pay attention to the values of the highlights and shadows. When shading a subject, you must always con- sider the light source, as this is what determines where your highlights and shadows will be. ‘MoviNs FRom SHAPE TO FORM, ‘The fist step in creating an object is establishing a line drawing or outline to delineate the flat area that the object takes up. This {is known as the “shape” of the object, The four basic shapes— the rectangle, circle, triangle, and square—ean appear to be three-dimensional by adding a few carefully placed lines that suggest additional planes. By adding ellipses to the rectangle, circle, and triangle, you've given the shapes dimension and have begun to produce a form within space. Now the shapes are a cylinder, sphere, and cone, Add a second square above and to the side of the first square, connect them with parallel lines, and you have a cube Rectangle Gite otter pe Triangle Sware [ADDING VALUE TO CREATE FORM, A shape can be further defined by showing how light hits the ‘object to create highlights and shadows. First note from which direction the source of light is coming, (In these examples, the light source is beaming from the upper right.) Then add the shadows accordingly, as shown in the examples below. The core shadow is the darkest atea on the abject and is opposite the light, source. The cast shadow is what is thrown onto a nearby surface by the object. The highlight is the lightest area on the object, ‘where the reflection of light is strongest. Reflected light, often overlooked by beginners, is surrounding light reflected into the shadowed area of an object, Reed et os saw as sad shal hte Peflced sadon Tigh as shaw as shadow CREATING VALUE SCALES Justasa musician uses a musical scale to measure a range of notes, an artist uses a value scale to mea sure changes in value. You can refer tothe value scale so you always know how darkto make your dark ‘values ang how light to make your highlight, The Scale also serves as a guide for transitioning from lighter to darker shades, Making your own value scale wll help familiarize you withthe diferent vaitions Tn value Work om light to dark, adding more and ‘more tone for successively darke values (as shown {upper igh). Then creat a blended vale scale {shown a ower righ). Use a tortion to smudge and blend each value int its neighboring value from light to darko create a gradation BASIC PENCIL TECHNIQUES ‘ou can create an incredible variety of effects with a pencil. By using various hand positions and shading techniques, you can pro- duce a world of different lines and strokes. If you vary the way you hold the pencil, the mark the pencil makes changes. It’ just as important to notice your pencil point. The point is every bit as essential as the type of lead in the pencil. Experiment with different hand positions and techniques to see what your pencil can do! GrippinG THE PENCIL “Many artists use two main hand positions for drawing. The writing position is good for very detailed work that requites fine hand con- trol. The underhand position allows for a freer stroke with more arm movement—the motion is almost like painting, (See the captions below for more information on using both hand positions.) Using the Writing Postion Tsai poston provides the most coro Theaccu- Using the Underhand Position Fick up he pec wth yourhand oer, ding the se nes that result ar pafecferrendering fe deals and aces, Whenyour perc between the thumb nid ing: the renin lingers can rest logs the ‘ands ithis positon place aclean sheet oFpape under yourhardopevet smicrng. perl. You cancrete beaut shang eet onthe pon. PRACTICING Basic TECHNIQUES. By studying the basic pencil techniques below, you can learn to render everything from a smooth complexion and straight hair to shadowed features and simple backgrounds. Whatever techniques you use, though, remember to shade evenly. Shading in a mechani- cal, side-to-side direction, with each stroke ending below the las, can create unwanted bands of tone throughout the shaded area, Instead try shading evenly, in a back-and-forth motion over the same area, varying the spot where the pencil point changes direction, Hatching This tascmethedoshasnginoNes ling Crosshatching For dover shading. lace yes of past Grating Tocrate graduated values (hm dha narea witha series oar stakes. The coset lel svokesontopof one another atari ares. Azan, gn. appl heaypesut withthe ie your pena ‘trots, the data the fare wl, make davervaluesby placing he stokes Coser together, gradually Etenng the pesur as you Sooke. Darkly oy apingheay pessurtothe pen Shading with Texture fora mote teste usethe Blending To menthol the tanstions between stokes, ‘lt you can cent dar ear aes of shang. lef the perl ipo apy smal uneven stokes ety a he ines wit atoitn ote OTHER WAYS TO SHADE PRACTICING LINES ‘When drawing lines, it is not necessary to always use @ sharp point, In fact, sometimes a blunt point may create a more desir- able effect. When using larger lead diameters, the effect of a blunt point is even more evident, Play around with your pencils to familiarize yourself with the different types of lines they can create, Make every kind of stroke you can think of, using both a sharp point and a blunt point. Practice the strokes below to help you Toosen up. AAs you experiment, you will find that some of your doodles will bring to mind certain imagery or textures, For example, litle Vs can be reminiscent of birds flying, whereas wavy lines can indicate water Drawing with a Sharp Polat Fist rw 2 eis f paral ns Ty them very, then agi them. Make some of then cued yngth short a lng stokes Then ty Some waynes a an angle ad same wth ho. vera votes Ty making a pital and then grouping she cured ines oat. Ten practice vringthe weigh the ie youdraw-Os Vand Use sme the ost comeon spb shapes used in deanng. IZA CS ee a" y 220 ¢6O& GE Wh 00%, G22 Vv War pi 220° DAR wie Drawing with a Blunt Point xs gosto tke he same exerss ad them wth ‘un pie Ever you us the same hand postions ané stokes, he resus wil be ie “entwhen you sith pee. Take look t these examples, Te same shapes were own ‘itech prc, bth lot perl predied dieem images You can rates Bt rin ebing the ifthe pea on a sindpper lack ro ough lee a poe “PAINTING” WITH PENCIL ‘When you use painterly strokes, your drawing will take on a new dimension, Think of your pencil as a brush and allow yourself to put more of your arm into the stroke. To create this elfect, try using the undethand position, holding your pencil between your ‘thumb and forefinger and using the side of the pencil. (See page 11.) Ifyou rotate the pencil in your hand every few strokes, you wall not have to sharpen it as frequently. The larger the lead, the wider the stroke will be. The softer the lead, the more painterly aan effect you will have, These examples were all made on smooth paper with a 6B pencil, but you can experiment with rough, papers for more broken ellects, Starting Simply Fist experiment ih vet, oom nd eve stots. ep the stokes lose ager an begin hey pressure Then Ugh he pressure with eachatote Varying the Pressure ‘en wth one vying the pressure a ferent pois. Comino keep yur soes base. Using Smaller Strokes Mate sal esr the fist example Tiss te recent ofethery anna ‘in Forte second example a a igh, se Short, ateratng kes ofheaey an ight pressure tocoeate a patter tats silat sone ok Loosening Up Use ong vera stokes vanying the pressure for ech stoke ut ou stato see long 95a i. Then ue some loser roverensthtcould busta for water tar "ahd. Fst reste shor Spi movement ith Your am (above). Then Use away moveret, varying pressre en Finping Your Srv.e Working wird DiFFerent TecHniques “Many great artists of the past can now be identified by their Below are several examples of techniques that can be done with unique experiments with line. Van Gogh's drawings were a feast pencil. These techniques are important for creating more paint of calligraphic lines; Seurat became synonymous with pointillism; erly effects in your drawing, Remember that B pencils have soft and Giacometti was famous for his scribble, Can you find your lead and H pencils have hard lead—you will need to use both for Identity in a pencil stroke? these exercises Using Crss-Crossed Strokes you tie sod deal oie detain your ork, ound tht ‘ovshatching alos you a lotofconel (See pages. You canadst he depth your shadngby hanging asance between your stokes ie thse you are prob aby ver esperinenta oop tines suggest ‘reef sve hat sre concerted with ewking 2 ‘mood than wth apturing recs deta Drawing Small Dots sipping many salt ing ictr. Make the pois ferent zest ‘ete varius depts and Shading eects. tpg takes a eat el of prec sion and prac ‘heitusion ofr strokes by sing sho, Sweeping tins Tis ptr te feng of paling bat aaws you {he same coral you oul get fom ous Patching These stokes srelcel fora mare ‘tvs apprcach. Creating Washes Fist Sole pena pra tat Dodie wastes sna, ‘npn ath ate) ‘heer paper sh aa ubing Fae pane ovr ote nd te sie or pen ik nd chose anole wih 3 asl ases nite i raphe an rae. oucan ete tpi nd oterneresing ae Producing indented Lines Dr spate or eon onthe paper ta Shop. oemaing bed, eset eel |abencl When you shade ‘your ped the phe SSmudgingis an important technique for creating shading and gradients, Use atotilon for ehamis loth to blend your Strokes. Is mportantto not use your Finger, because your hand ven flean, has natural ls, that ean damage you ar. SMUDGING Smudging on Rough Surfaces Use 96 pens Side othe pel an led tn ‘hs oampl, the ees ery sana ‘Smudging on Smooth ‘Surfaces Use 3 40 pension pte nhs Bor Sooke tiththe sie of the pec and ening stm. 3 LEARNING TO SEE Dieses thot ely ooking cantly ht subject; instead of drawing what they actually see, they draw what they think they see, Try drawing something you know well, such as your hand, without looking at it, Chances are your finished drawing won't look as realistic as you expected. That's because you drew what you think your hand looks like. Instead, you need to forget about all your preconceptions and learn to draw only what you really seein front of you (or in a photo). ‘Two great exercises for training your eye to see are contour drawing and gesture drawing << Drawing with a Continuous Line vin ‘rain ti man pushing a hea, ty glancing nly casional at your pape to Cheek that you arom ack but Concentrate on ely looking atthe subject and waciate btnes you see Insts of ing your pen etween shapes kepthe ne unbroken ty el ooping back a haw this simple tcique PENCILING THE Contours Mectvey captures the subject. In contour drawing, you pick a starting point on your subject and then draw only the contours—or outlines—of the shapes. you see. Because you're not looking at your paper, you're training your hand to draw the lines exactly as your eye sees them. Try doing some contour drawings of your own; youll be surprised at hhow well you're able to capture the subjects, Tote your aeration shill yan obj wry "ls Jor fon mints, snd hen ct youre on ty rowing fom memory, "ing your han flo heal rage ‘Drawing “Blind” For he corou dawg onthe let te ast occasioralyoked down atthe pape. The drawing onthe ight an example of nd contour tania ware the arts re without ooking ath ape even ones te dstoted, ut t's clear a hand Blin contour raving son ofthe best ways of making sare yur cawing ony what you ee. Drawing children Once you have ane your ye observe carefully and can haw glk, youl be alt capture ators such asthis ld looking and then eachng et the ag. 4 Drawing GESTURE AND AcTION t a stating with an Another way to train your eye to see the essential elements , ‘ation Line onceyou fa subject and hand to record them raph y \> cer ofa subject—and iin your hand to record them api —is a ie ‘ato er through gesture drawing, Instead of rendering the contours, e* \AN . s = l gesture drawings establish the movement of a figure. First deter ie \ \ mine the main thrust of the movement, from the head, down the spine, and through the legs; this is the lie of action, or action line. Then briefly sketch the general shapes of the figure around nt this line, These quick sketches are great for practicing drawing oe NO figures inaction and sharpening your powers of observation, NR SAC eter Ss S «Working Quicly To ante he action acu 2 sgeson ode you warttocorect ine, ov sop o erases, dw ver ‘ iets | ee py ‘esture ravings pearing ee the essentials Because he layers Keep repeating ~ } Sesame scien you ile tere ohne ayn ep ur F Hh _memory long enough to sketch it correctty. va ‘Drawing a Group in Motion Once you hve comple a sre of etre drawings, ole beta combine them no a scene of octal players in aca, PEOPLE IN PERSPECTIVE ‘nowing the principles of perspective (the representation of objects on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of three- dimensional depth and distance) allows you to draw more than one person in a scene realistically, Eye level changes as your elevation of view changes. In perspective, eye level is indicated by the horizon line. Imaginary lines receding into space meet on the horizon line at what are known as “vanishing points.” Any figures drawn along these lines will be in proper perspective. Study the diagrams below to help you, Vanishing po (VP) Horizon ine ‘Try drawing a frontal view of many heads as ifthey were in a im the drawing. The technique illustrated above can be applied theater. Start by establishing your vanishing point at eye level, when drawing entire figures, shown in the diagram below. Draw one large head representing the person closest to you, and Although all of these examples include just one vanishing point, use it asa reference for determining the sizes of the other figures _a composition can even have two or three vanishing points. If you're a beginner, you may want to begin ‘with basic one-point perspective, shown on. this page. As you progress, attempt to incorporate two- or three-point perspective. For more in-depth . information, refer to the ae book Perspective (AL13) in Walter Foster's Artist's Library series ” PLACING PEOPLE IN A COMPOSITION ‘he positioning and size of a person on the picture plane (the physical area covered by the drawing) is of utmost importance to the composition, or the arrangements of elements on your paper. The open or “negative” space around the portrait subject gener- ally should be larger than the area occupied by the subject, providing a sort of personal space surrounding them. Whether you are drawing only the face, a head-and-shoulders portrait, or a complete igure, thoughtful positioning will establish a pleasing composition with proper balance, Practice drawing thumbnail sketches of people to study the importance of size and positioning BASICS OF PoRTRAITURE Correct placement on the picture plane is key to a good portrait, and the eyes of the subject are the key to placement. The eyes catch the viewer's attention frst, so they should not be placed on either the horizontal or vertical centerline of the picture plane; preferably, the eyes should be placed above the centerline, Avoid drawing too near the sides, top, or bottom of the picture plane, as this gives an ‘uneasy feeling of imbalance ADDING ELEMENTS TO PORTRAITS. Tomah Garaoee Many ports are drawn without backgrounds to void di Na tracting the viewer from the subject. If you do add background x elements to porta, be sure wo contol the size, shape, and Ni fvrangement of elements suounding the igure. Adtions Should expres the personally ot Interests ofthe subject Depleting the ashing in Horizon neo ye eet nee ‘his pra fa young ‘oundthat shows his Inteestin rocket. ‘The sta ines nthe ‘bacground const the rounded shapes ofthe human form. Abogh the acy eta com isu recedes ‘nas weight. The ors ‘remains onthe an, bat weve generates ual Interest by adding mens the composition. al placement ‘dln ded) ‘Multiple Subjects you ae éovng seve sina ized subjects us the ules of perspec to determine relate ste (se pages 36-17 raw vanishing point on 2 hor ron ine and pao perspective Ines. Receding iene extended Fam the perpetive lines wilt the top othe head an chino ce trout the composton The Intentionally drawing your subject larger than the image area, asin the example below, can create a unique composition, Even if part of the image is cut off, this Kind of close-up creates a dramatic mood. ( b., cK You can create a flow oF connection ‘between multiple subjects in a compost: tion by ereatively using circles and ellipses, as shown below. Curved lines are good composition clements—they can evoke harmony and balance in your work, Try drawing some your drawing, ‘curved lines around the paper. The empty areas guide you in placing figures around Sharp angles can produce dramatic com- positions. Draw a few straight lines in various angles, and make them interseet at certain points. Zigzagging lines also form sharp corners that give the composition an energetic feeling Guiding the Eye Te ompestions above and to theletlusate how am ston, eyesight dee hop and ne ntesecion can guletheeyetoa parc poit of interes. Using thes examples ry ‘0 design sare of our om ovina composions. ADDING COMPLETE FIGURES imine amposton hat sows complete peso can be challenging A standing gr uch aller than wie 50 the ture should be positioned so that its action relates naturally to the eye level ofthe viewer and the horizon line, To place more than one figure on the picture plane, use perspective as we did with the portrait heads, Remember that people appear smaller and less distinct when they are more distant. For comfortable placement of people in a composition, they should be on the same eye level as the viewer with the horizon line about waist high, Full Figure Placement intwunbrall A the subjects to perfect centered inthe tute plane n thumb 8 the ures Paced toofertothe ek. Tumba Cs 99 ‘example of eect placement human ewe inacomposton, Sing Multiple Figures Foresite compostons, we edt keep gus ropa. Al the ges ere aren pro partion; we use perspective to determine ‘he eight ofeach gue. Sta by downg a horizon ine ae placing vanishing Pointon Ther daw yourmain character (onthe rahthere) to which alates wit be proportional Ad lt perspective Ines rom the top an bottom fhe fire tothe vanishing point to termine he aig fer gues we want ares nthe ter side othe arising pon, Frome prspeaive ines o determine his ig, an then a6 especie ines on 43 that side. oro placement guidlines Line of Sight Fisues in composition tocbjets within the scene Dough ne sig Shown heres date ines) You an sho ine fight with the ees, bat also by using head postion and wen 2 Poining hand These nccatons cn gue the viewer to 2 particular pint of nterest inthe compen. Tough the man onthe lets cng foward his eyes ar looking tocur igh The ewes eye fons the nis gue aroun he pre lane the people interac. The man ate 69 looing sraightup. PLACEMENT OF SINGLE AND GRoUPeD FIGURES Atsis often use the external shape and mass of figures to assist in placing elements within a composition—individual figures form various geometric shapes based on their pose, and several figures in close proximity form one mass. Establish a concept of what you. ‘want to show in your composition, and make thumbnail studies before attempting the final drawing. The following exercise is based ‘on using the shape and mass of single and grouped figures to ereate the drawing at the bottom of the page ‘Stap One Begin by consitesing he overall sting foreground mide rund, nd ‘Step Two Nex seth ncutnesof he gues. The te oy wth he shovel and pai ‘ackground—fora subject tke these chen atthe beach. Youcan se elements rom dt ocupes an aea dos the ewe. The hve chien acupy a sg smal mass in ferent photos ard place them ioe setting Block inthe basi shapes of your subecsthe the idle round at the waters ed. Een though here arte chien nts. ‘boy inthe frzround isa cpp vangular tape, andthe soup of crn forms2routh they blanc the itl oy tvoush size and laceert 2 the opps corer The wave and recanl, Determine balanced pact feo mases of pope _atertne unt tecomposton a adhe ee Between the wo masses. ‘Step Three Pace your Spares stat they comfoatly onthe pcre plane. Al etl nd ‘Shain tele tht Inthe foreound a elp ect the enero ter aa, such 2 the tustetened am ofthe boy. Placing the small ok between the mle ane fereround creates visual stepping stone to ‘hetero a ih BEGINNING PORTRAITURE ‘good starting point for drawing people isthe head and face. “The shapes are fairly simple, and the proportions are easy S to measure, And portraiture also is very rewarding, You'l feel \ a great sense of satisfaction when you look at a portrait you've “4chit Proportions Draw sidelines ode drawn and see a true likeness of your subject, especially when core oe the model is someone near and dear to you, So why not start. poe Palen ude istoow with children? 1 a alt out, Use the ‘ilies a place the DRAWING A CHILD'S PORTRAIT x r ee Once you've practiced drawing Features, you're ready fr a fall / portrait, You'l probably want to draw from a photo, though, as chien rarely sit stil for very long! Study the Features carefully, and wy to draw what you truly see, and not what you think an eye ora nose should look like. But dont be discouraged i you Ay Connon don't get a perfect likeness right off the bat. Just keep practicing! > ee Quite few things are wrong with these , ‘Sketching the inthe midl vaesot ih & ‘Gaidetines Fst pen theshodow ares, soot te sage st Increasing the ese oe Thee ty drow slaty sind te ye, eae da noon gules According tothe cat at The topof ne page and shethin the genera out Tne ofthe estes, hen you happy withthe eral seth crefly tras the guidlines. oe, nd col Fore Aare shacows and ‘one’s aight ack a, seth sie of 28 8 Song the freed with \, the sharpie tip of yourpen stk staph ot ke Spokes ona whet Ad Shape: don ty tora ach tot sept DRAWING THE ApULT HEAD ‘An adul’s head has slightly different proportions than a child's hhead, but the drawing process is the same: Sketch in guidelines to place the features, and start with a sketch of basic shapes. And dlon’t forget the profile view. Adults with interesting features are lot of fun to draw from the side, where you can really see the shape of the brow, the outline of the nose, and the form of the lips. Adult Proportions Look the proportions that mae your adult subject unique: nice the Aisance rm the top of the heat the yes, fom theeyesto te nse ad Frome nos tthe cin fas etre the ose and rs ain withthe ees EXPRESSING EMOTION Is great fun to draw a wide range of differ ‘ent facial expressions and emotions, especially ‘ones that are extreme. Because these are just studies and not formal portraits, draw loosely to add energy and a look of spontaneity, as if camera had captured the face at just that moment. You usually don't need to bother with a background—you don't want anything to detract from the expression—but you may want to draw the neck and shoulders so the head doesn't appear to be floating in space. > Happy Younechiren have enoth compose, samake irs nes {ay sabe. sea ‘lyeurpencitoceate Jam andiakethecyessignty 6” ‘aroweta show how { ~ => Sms pllupthe cheek muscles < Surprised eave aot ofthe face wt foep rst ofthe atention om thet ofthe pena othe loose xresson nes and ark a 23 CHAPTER 2 ANATOMY WITH KEN GOLDMAN Ken Goldman is a popular instructor at the Athenaeum School of the Arts in La Jolla, California, where he teaches portraiture, artistic anatomy, and landscape painting classes. Ken also is the author of six Walter Foster books, including Pastel 1; Pastel: Landscapes; Acrylic I; and Basic Anatomy and Figure Drawing in the How to Draw and Paint series; as well as Charcoal Drawing in the Artist's Library series and Understanding Values in the Drawing Made Easy series. Ken received his training in New York at the Art Students League of New York, National Academy, and New York Studio School. A recipient of numerous awards, Ken has exhibited widely in group shows and in more than 30 one-man shows in the United States, Mexico, and Europe. His artwork is featured in the permanent collections of several major museums. Ken lives in San Diego, California, with his artist-wife Stephanie Goldman. 5 EXPLORING THE TORSO: FRONT VIEW Skeleton some pars ofthe skeletal stem ae important tothe art because hey are prominent and so sere 2s visual andmars Several bone ofthe tes Hota region has 7 vertebra, the torches) bac reson has. enone recs abominus ‘Trunk Muscles The to's movements dependent on and rested bythe spne— beth he ces an he pes it and on ths he yet exe, column, Ae he ‘elatonship between ther caze he souls an the pes ceates the shape ofthe ‘nk muscles The petra rest) muscles are ded by te stem the eas ioina vied by thelial, ar he extra oBgues—which are interwoven ith he serats onteror—bid the eg lowest bt the pe gre | =e | T= Diagram of Landmarks The sverale mules an ony lands able onthe iystaion above tthe most inpant oats wha want to daw he oa suace ‘atone ton ew Feuson accrately poring these anton elu to chive tee rain, sacha the xampe at gt. ame pines othe ace Drawing Tips Use he bony shea ands, which re apparent despite tears of sce to guide the placement of he features. or example, the rgple gn vetcaly ‘ith he ater spies the ac crest Hale aia hat the pectoral mojor eps across ‘he chest and over the am ending near Roza tothe nppes. EXPLORING THE TORSO: BACK VIEW site pea trchoter. fy the ot challenging pats of he body to draw because of iy From the ats point ve the most impatnt ones sible tom the fea sell view ae the th ceva verter, the poser supe ‘oritcspines impeso the eigen the sacrum, which together frm te srl inglea malo antoncal anak the base ofthe spite Skaleton The backs gees mains 2 ferns Trunk Muscles The bac has many ovetpping muscles: or focus wb on the upper layer, hic moc inet ppaen othe ee. The tapes connect the sk tothe scape aude bade) ster det nepal, ere mina eres ‘mojar—ebich comect tte ar, Te tisinas drs! ataches nde the am, extendng tothe pels And th gltus mes bulges atthe hip before meeting withthe pueus moxie cal gamer fraspnts “oe nro scons stra obque suc meds ‘tustaton above are the ost inportant fo ass wo war natant the ea vew Focus on accurately rendering the cise a iene davng suas the example a gh eres major Drawing Tps Unde thesin, ack muscles are ot att cer. Hower, the trapeze, 7h cervical vertebrae, sie of scapula ane magi of sop, deli int Spins and teres major ae al ay eet To dpi the mac gamer, oh cea \esteba, spat cline and sacl onal, daw alg ne td an vse down ang EXPLORING THE TORSO: SIDE VIEW —— ser nage mers ‘Sociale rac ca _ ‘Skeleton The visual anmars ofthe salen in rofl athe 7h crcl verbae, scromion process iver margin of cpu, a backbone. The backbone our cues Ceri! war) three ack), mba ora) and sea ald) aang Theoden pee gle ove ees for balance tambar cure sacra cane Iasi dors rea abd across sternal bine ac re eon sapero eer media hae ne faee easinat entree le pea trochanter. ‘Trunk Muscles Th vper torso muses a5 well stheSapula, wich anchored by ‘sce tothe pins, rb, nda fallow and inence alarm nave. Mitr sce, such a5 extra ob, rectus amis, a laisimus drs bend, ts, and “ale the cage apd eb. Muscles blow the pebic gle achat th le cs — cle fh —\s may J arta arn corals major ac cre eral bie hac rom cus medi nein sper ‘ae ne cus asin rat baer ona ot Diagram of Landmarks tk lt nsdn oda ot culty that dete rine surface dein, To render thefnale fom import to Become fanaa with fat depst areas, incu the lank ae 2s); buttocks (luteus) ad stomach ado especialy blow te nave Mammary ft cours fr the smoothness he beast Drawing Tips Ferale ges splay amore uid contour ha do male gues agey because ofthe female’ en faty yer whch serves eproducve purpose but aso scares muscu form Mascuarsbucre basal he same fr bth ees bu the ‘wth ae ange ofthe pels maksthe skeleton mre recognizably male or ema EXPLORING THE TORSO: TIPS a Tapers represent the rel bone set ofthe tora rm youcan se the some tre pat The siaplifted os fom he sie en asa bean shaped appear ace, atthe same proportional ‘visions ofthe to apo. etal noe theelatoship between the seta and muscle ‘ures The linea ab tert enn) athe recs abdomiis ‘ete sicpack" appearance ashy arch pogessely higher toward the tum (Tw ofthe iting tendons Ene p wth the som i ard the nave). The seats aneror muscle tars angie the Fist ight bs, then ends theme margin ofthe scapula) smaln mas appears 5 bulge underneath he tsa dos Arte muscles gn (on thers) tloks2 lite he henge of hand (2). DEPICTING THE ARM: FRONT VIEW 1 phalanges DEPICTING THE ARM: BACK VIEW DEPICTING THE ARM: SIDE VIEW (Cuewcneo Fist PORTRAYING THE HAND ‘OPEN Pau SKETCHING THE LEG: FRONT VIEW SKETCHING THE LEG: BACK VIEW Bones From he beck view, the same eg bone that apotrin the ot view ae vise ‘The appearance sgt altered owewer, because Me bone atachnentsin he ot are cesiged a allow muses extend an the back tacts designed for muses ‘oles [Muscles The upperie consists fe loge muscle masses vteus maximus ieus mes: th amstng 0 (eps emer smitendnosis, an semimembreos9 {he edeutor grup a he vasa exemos hich can be sen peeing ou om Bend the bicps emer ‘The ome leg also esr ve masses: thee age ones and wo smal. Thelage ‘mases ate the two heads he cal the gastrocnemius andthe Als tendo, wich Connects to the hee ban, The two smal masees ae the nner soles dou sles, ‘Aso ati the hllow area behind the bre where thecal tendons attach, calle the “popliteal oss"; ts aty hollow makes dep knee bends pose. Jes meus ses maximus Drawing Tips the cfisawer ant ous. (See gues) ‘The hamsing tendons ip below he kre on bo sis aos he a par of tongs ee Fawr 2) SKETCHING THE LEG: SIDE VIEW Inthe tower. the fos ooo orate ‘Aches tendo te peroneus longus ee andthe blk te extensor alton DRAWING THE FOOT 6. phalanges Swe pronase ‘ones ike he hand heft aso comprises he pats: seven sal Does (ve meas (9) ar oueen ‘hangs (The tsa Does include the ale, beet ndinstep. The etrosas ar longer ané unger than ‘thee metacarpls ofthe han, a they en at eal ote foot. The phalanges ofthe toes re shorter than ‘those fhe fingers ae thd th four sales press and the rnd suc, andthe bgt eds thave Slam upara tins HN ann NA 3 ebalisamerior 7. aur dig iain [Muscles When the oss lexed upd hase tendons evident extensor grou longus) extensor dig ‘num res (2) alone), and extensor hls [ongu (om he ge view, extonsr digitorum bes appears asa oud shape inside ranula pockt) Perneus longus (cares arcu the nk, whereas actor mii) appears 35.3 bulge onthe ster ‘Sse fe fot Drawing Tips the bis omarior {@)isanabvius anna on he Inverted ot (Se figures 20ve) In wre 2, 6sfevon makes sible ‘he exenso aitorum ne 3. ona fevon ets you eee en ons operons STUDYING THE HEAD & SKULL Becoming familar wth the hea ands 2 exceer ay to improv your pata sls yeu purchase plas shal you cn pace dawingthe sl om al angles. 35 town Inthe charcoal pen tudes above, Sar with noun ofthe asc hae ofthe stl then Bock n te shapes ofthe main features andre he nes lehownln the uppers core) The mpotant stl bones oan ait to know atthe parietal eminence fora bore (8) font eminence (0 abel (0), sper cst or“bow ge" (temporal ine _zjgomat process), or, zane one), mail), ramus oF mane (mane), ané mena protuberance Frowr View STUDYING THE HEAD & SKULL (cont) Front View ‘Simplifying the Features When faci muses contract hey ect. ‘esha ofthe fay forms, sina ote fia muscles, easing ‘he wines, ous ies, a bulges thal convey vas fi ‘expesions Simpiving hese compen shapes it easy recognizable ‘geomet plants he "planes othe hea) at help ude a att in ‘he prope placement igh ad shadow. Asa aris there's ne ‘wattualy sketch he plans buithelp to understand the planes and \sualze hem when approaching complex features ad shag. Visualizing Light and Shadow in tisalstage, pt ana shadoware tanita rom sinple pans ono 2 more sub reac porate porate sa reat way to race ening the planes ff the head fom many ferent anges, Using minora reference, Foc onthe placer of th ight nd dark values tat create he fom yours just ememterto draw wha yu eal seth mina, rol what you expect oe, CAPTURING FACIAL FEATURES Drawing Tips he sla (i) the white ofthe. Tes) sa colaed ase that conto the amount of gt etrng ‘theound opening ofthe pup). The ont, varsparertcomea (ss over {hens The ner cnt (atthe cor ero eye fan mpoant ature of {heshape othe eye ‘The Eye The ellis moist phere. Beaute Rs sree lossy, the come oe esas hl. Drawing Tips Thevercafurow between the ose nd upper lps the ‘hit 8. The taba (8) Fh pee {pis a mal onde frm suroinded by ‘mo longa forms sit the idle ofthe to elongates form ofthe er 4p The nade (isan val usar orm oni outer edge ofthe mouth ‘The Lips Because te lps cane rund the cinder ofthe teeth Is eit caw and shae the mouth a Fk were sphere Drawing Tips The bridge ofthe ose is ‘ormed ye asl bones The mi de secion of he notes mate tid ‘sept atioge (8, suraunded by two aera cartioges (The bulb othe nase 'stomed by ve eater lar coiages (0) Two wings) ceatethe nosis. Drawing Tips The carlaghous lc ( ormethe tert ofthe ea. The i (© est inside the al, ‘ningouphy palo he bo are vided bythe sap (8) The rags (0) ‘sa caiagnos poet, lected oer ‘thew he cance, ©) The antagus (©) located opposite te rages an just, hove the fat abe The Ear Tinkofte cra an oad died nto thee sections nae on agonal ale. CHAPTER 3 FACES WITH WALTER IT. FOSTER Walter T. Foster was born in Woodland Park, Colorado, in 1891. In his younger years, he worked as a sign painter and a hog medicine salesman. He also performed in a singing and drawing vaudeville act. Mr. Foster invented the first postage-stamp vending machine and drew political caricatures for several large newspapers. In the 1920s, while running his own advertising agency and instructing young artists, Mr. Foster began writing self-help art instruction books. The books were first produced in his home in Laguna Beach, California, where he wrote, illustrated, and printed them himself, In the 1960s, as the product line grew, he moved the operation to a commercial facility, which allowed him to expand the company and achieve worldwide distribution. Mr. Foster passed away in 1981, but he is fondly remembered for his warmth, dedication, and unique instruction books. 8 “ PEOPLE Mie sit ati hat dang the human face is difficult, but it’s really only a matter of proportion and properly placing the features. The lines ‘and forms involved are just simple curves and basic shapes, The easiest way to learn to draw people isto start with individual features stich as the eyes and mouth. Is best to draw from a photo or a live model. A reference makes rendering the head ‘much easier! | iid uimonbat of Whether from a frontal view or in profile eyes and lips are drawn around horizontal and vertical guidelines. Both guidelines are perpendicular in the frontal view, and the vertical line is slanted slightly in the profile view. Then you can build on these guidelines with circles and simple curved lines. Study the outlines on this page, and practice drawing them several times, The ded ine indicates the shape of the eal Eve In Prorite ea Note tha good portion MouTH IN PROFILE of the eyeball covered by the eyed, no mater what oc D> \ Mos of the wpe ip a the of the eral pe Tomer p false right, D Moura ‘These human profiles are built on wo slanted guidelines: one for the line of the plane of the face, and one for the line of the nose. There isa variety of sizes and shapes of noses, eyes, and mouths; study your subject closely and make several practice sketches of his or her features. Then combine the features into a simple profile ‘To draw the nose, block in a triangle, and draw the basic outline of the nose within the triangle, as in steps A and B. Refine the outline, and add a small curve to suggest the nostril in step C. ‘Then add the centerline for the eye at the top of the bridge of the nose, Next place the eye, eyebrow, and upper lip. Once you are satisfied with your sketches, try ‘complete profile For the fll profile, start with a slanted. {guideline from the eyebrow to the chin, ‘Then add horizontal guidelines to place the features, In adults, the bottom of the nose is approximately halfway between the eyebrow and the bottom of the chin, ‘The bottom lip is about halfway between the nose and the chin, Note that these are just general rules of human proportion, The precise placement of features will vary slightly from individual to individual and between men and women. WOMEN: PROFILE hese heads were drawn from photos (photos serve as good models because they hold still), Try profile views like the cones you see here, keeping them fairly simple, Don't worry about rendering the hair for now; spend time learning how to draw the face, and work on the hair later. Step A illustrates the proportions of the face, inthis close-up profile, the bottom of the nose is about halfway between the eyebrows and chin. The mouth is about halfway between the bottom of the nose and the chin, Once the proportions ate established, sketch the actual features. Study each one closely to achieve an accurate resemblance. This drawing was done on plate-finish Bristol board, which usually is used for pen and ink drawings. Atrio ihe fr lending ‘econ of he foe 1a When dawg pores, make sire yore comet sed tht he doing bards at ‘rd angle Rat he dang feo prevent your hens from saging areas one ‘lay da ‘Al fg and porta renderings Dave bon draw dectly fromthe ets maint or ram pd pesca! Iden ees prone ha heed or * ‘hs prpne prey cmc. ae 7 ‘Draw the guidelines in step A to lay out the correct proportions. Lay down each line in the numbered ‘order shown. In step B, sketch the nose, eyebrow, chin, and eyes on the guidelines; then refine them. into more recognizable parts of the face. All of these elements must be resolved before shading at xv ° ) / Focus on the dark and light values of the lips in step C, as well as the direction of the strokes. ‘The value contrasts make the lips appear soft and round, especially because the shading is lighter toward the middle of the lip. Note in the final rendering that the hair is merely implied as a surrounding element Keep the shading ihr {font emi te {peo cree ighighs tert ‘The type of paper you use will affect your drawings ‘This portrait was done on vellum-finish paper, which thas a slight tooth that works well with peneil oF crayon, = WOMEN: THREE-QUARTER VIEW rawing a three-quarter view is slightly more difficult than the frontal view—but you can do it! Study your subject carefully, and follow the steps. Block in the basic shapes, and use guidelines to place the features. Note that because the face is angled, the / features are al set off center, with the nose at the three-quarter 4 %. point, Curve the line for the bridge of the nose all the way out to . the edge of the face, so it partially blocks her left eye ( \ %. / ‘Check the proportions and the placement of the features. When 9 / you're happy with your sketch, refine the features, and add some light shading to finish off your drawing, Shade as much or as Title as you like; sometimes simapler is better. Browse through books and magazines for subjects to draw, or ‘even look in the mirror and draw yourself. The more you practice and the more diverse your subjects, the better your drawings will become. Young or old, male or female, all portraits start with the same basi steps, Lee the cad, wera dln to ep maine ‘eroundns of pe ond cin, WOMEN: FRONTAL VIEW Frets oma dings you will need to pay special attention to the position of the features, Ina profile, for example, you don't have to worry about aligning the eyes with each other. Study your subject closely, because a stall detail such as the distance between the eyes may determine whether oF not your drawing achieves a strong likeness to your model ‘fone, coring ses with hsp pel can ‘Greate the appearance fa al head har 50 q ta = Sige he ewe ee ie inthe - p— Vc Step A shows minimal proportion guide- lines. You will be able to start with fewer lines as you become more comfortable with your drawing and observation skills Even the two lines shown are helpful for determining placement of the features. ——~ QW doncese} oe [r= In step B, make the facial features more recognizable, and begin to suggest the haar. Notice that features rarely are sym: metrical; for instance, one eye usually is slightly larger than the other. To finish the drawing, create depth by shading the eyes, nose, and lips. If you wish, practice developing form by shading along the planes of the face and around the eyes. ‘The features of this subject's face differ from those in the previous drawing. Here 8 r the nose is much thinner, and the eyes / at are closer together. You will need to make ¢ these adjustments during the block-in tao Ase HD pe Hock a he a | propria Uae he adele ple ~ LY © and develop the features in step B. Notice the types of strokes used for the hair; they are loose and free. Quick renderings like this one are good for practice; do many of them! een ha ou prekin ay droning mst care afore coming No aout © shading wil epi te rong le proportions ‘Th rendring hows he et alsin the ye ‘heer the ye apes to eth fa of he rein. hat acting amin element MEN: THREE-QUARTER VIEW ‘This drawing was done after an old mas- ter’s painting, Copying a masters work is excellent practice; it helps to improve your artistic skills and understanding, ‘When copying a great work, think about the reasons the original artist may have done certain things, and then use your insights to better your ‘own works, Ge perieg ‘et he bear, Follow the steps as illustrated, blocking in” ‘each of the features with quick, confident strokes. Look for the basic shapes in your subject; then refine them as necessary 10 achieve a likeness, The up ofthe ash edo rae fine ns. Nate this character’ a pigeon, dah pair. Most of the shading andl details for this drawing were done with a brush and tndia ep racing ink, although charcoal was used for the oe eae suidelines and initial sketching. Brush and = ink is a good choice for ereating the thick, 7 dark facial hai ELDERLY WOMEN hese more advanced renderings bring out the character of the subjects. The elderly woman on this page, for example, appears stern and serious, whereas the woman on the opposite page evokes a certain kindness and gentle spit Using the usual proportion guidelines, block in the face, Remember to include the hat as part of the initial sketch, as shown in step A. Add shapes to indicate the wrinkles and loose skin in step B. As people age, certain features will begin to sag and pethaps become less syrametti- cal. Notice that the shading strokes are rather harsh and bold. This technique creates the appearance of rough, weath- ered skin, ‘The small, sparkling eyes and fragile hand of this woman ereate an entirely different ‘mood from the previous subject. Here the facial expression is more delicate, giving @ feeling of compassion and sympathy, Im step A, lay down the guidelines for the Features, and lightly block in the ears, nose, and mouth. In steps B, C, and D, continue to develop the features, adding ‘raggy lines for the wrinkles. In the final drawing, shade the face to create the aged appearance. Hands can be difficult to draw. Study your own hands, and practice drawing them ‘on serap paper. Check the proportions to make sure your drawings are accurate For example, the length of the hand is, approximately equal to the length of the face, What other hand-proportion rules do ELDERLY MEN Iderly men are good subjects for practicing a variety of techniques, such as drawing wrinkles, thinning white hai, and aging features, Pay close attention to the details to create an accurate rendering, ‘This model exhibits a somewhat wor- red expression; notice how the eyebrow angles down slightly in step A. Use bold lines to develop the features and hairline in step B, Begin shading with diagonal strokes, changing direction slightly to accommodate the uneven surface. ‘Two media were used for this drawing. A chisel-tipped 6B pencil was used for the shading on the face, and a brush and black India ink were used for the darkest dils, Experiment with different drawing media to create new elects ee rah and ink bring ot fine scans the hee, and Imustache Repth Shain toa ‘nonin ona the wie hi rac wil low yaw deep your She the darkens fra Bese va tev ight efor Migs, As always, begin with quick proportion guidelines. Then sketch | the basie shapes of the features, including the bushy mustache. Keep referring to your subject, checking the proportions and shapes. When the sketch isto your liking, ereate form through shading PEOPLE OF THE WORLD hen drawing subjects of ethnic background, itis important to study their features and proportions closely. Although you may find some characteristics typical ofa certain ethnicity, there still are many variances on between individuals. Your observation skills willbe tested with these drawings! For this young boy, begin as usual with guidelines and a block-in sketch. Look. forthe features that make the subject unique—for example, large, round eyes, a wide nose, and full lips. Notice that the eyes are especially dark in value, providing a striking contrast to the white highlights he dee pop To render the dark skin, use charcoal or roe ets ponte a sot-lead pencil to shade over the face / pear with even, parallel strokes. Leave areas of sro chai whit for highlights, especially on the ip improve your hls of the nose and the center of the lower lip. The ghty darker rex here uses (iat shaded Dyke of hc, ‘This Asian giel has her head tilted for ‘ward, which requites you to adjust the proportions. In this position, where the chin is close to the chest, the length of B the face should be shortened, leaving a larger area for the top of the head. ‘This adjustment is an example of fore shortening, For further information on foreshortening, see Perspective (AL13) in Walter Foster's Artist's Library series. Notice how the guidelines are altered in step A. Observe your subject closely to determine th Band C, develop t ‘costume. Try using step D, to achieve the areas for highlights, enhancing the sheen of the hair. © DEVELOPING YOUR OWN STYLE hese 1wo subjects have distinctive characteris: tics that will lead to interesting artistic works. As you follow the steps, notice the manner in which the facial features are developed and how shading is aot used to add depth and ereate interest. Iesall up to yout MALE FACES CHAPTER 4 PEOPLE WITH WILLIAM F. POWELL William F. Powell is an internationally recognized artist and one of America’s foremost colorists. A native of Huntington, West Virginia, Bill studied at the Art Student's Career School in New York; Harrow Technical College in Harrow, England; and the Louvre Free School of Art in Paris, France. He has been professionally involved in fine art, commercial art, and technical illustrations for more than 45 years. His experience as an art instructor includes oil, watercolor, acrylic, colored pencil, and pastel—with subjects ranging from landscapes to portraits and wildlife, He also has authored a number of art instruction books including several popular Walter Foster titles, His work has included the creation of background sets for films, model making, animated cartoons, and animated films for computer mockup programs. He also produces instructional painting, color mixing, and drawing videos. 6 ADULT HEAD PROPORTIONS Limi oer he proportions wl enable yout se Head eth rately draw the head of a person. Study the measurements ‘on the illustration below left. Draw a basic oval head shape, and divide it in half with a light, horizontal line. On an adult, the eyes fall on this line, usually about one “eye-width” apart. Draw another line dividing the head in half vertically to locate the position of the nose, The rz nth ofthe en, nding he assy qual he 1 ser! eng: Die the rail masts elp place the ea ‘The diagram below illustrates how to determine correct place ‘ment for the rest of the facial features. Study it closely before beginning to draw, and make some practice sketches. The bottom fof the nose lies hallway between the brow line and the bottom of the chin, The bottom lip rests halfway between the nose and the chin, The length of the ears extends from brow line to the bottom of the nose roman bea ‘This drawing above illustrates how the skull “fills up" the head. Familiarizing yourself with bone structure is especially helpful at the shading stage. You'll know why the face bulges and curves in certain areas because you'll be aware of the bones that lic under- neath the skin. For more information, see page 38, The quarte eo stall ‘The bom ip rests alia ween he ee and the cin, HEAD POSITIONS & ANGLES Ts FACIAL FEATURES: EYES he eyes are the most important fea- ture for achieving a true likeness. ‘They also reveal the mood or emotion of the person you are drawing, Study and practice the diagrams showing how to block in frontal and profile views of eyes Notice that with the profile, you don't begin with the same shape as with the frontal view. Ona mt - vf. ren hero he fener if te cena” | vy Y bo ) The your bee, a > Apes yes areranely Synaral Lok for Thea direc tach ge tater real —-_ kes A Shade delicately around the eyes, but ‘make your strokes dark enough to show the eyes' depth and indentation into the Ty IX. Very sharp pencils are best for filling sn the creases and comers around the eye. . ‘These tiny areas (which don't get much light) should be very dark, gradually get- ting lighter as you shade away from the eye to bring out the contours of the face ZO pata an SS They big and elon (othedawing = a Exebros al play an important at of ai expression ‘The abe ay or hi ec a sigh Stay Jour sabes eros carey A three-quarter angle view can generate totally different mood, especially if the c ‘eyes aren't completely open, FACIAL FEATURES: NOSES & EARS Nissen dp am snl sigh in. Theis ip hes the overall shape as stated by the sketches Blow. Then smooth out the cor y hersint subve cuvesm accordance withthe shape of tenes. A theequarter ew dis ne due wh the toehod. Ge you hare a oad prlaiasydaeviog, bain shang to create form, The nostrils enhance the personaly of the noe as well asthe , ) vv person. Make sure the shading inside the nostrils isn't too dark or they might draw too much attention. Men’s nostrils generally are angular, whereas women’s nostrils are more gently curved. Observe your subject closely to ensure that each feature of your drawing is accurate } 1 JhAL- Profle vow Fret vor Upwent ew Ui ect vor Tepe hems { ty see : Ears usually connect to the head ata slight angle. To draw an ear, rst skeich the 4 general shape, and divide it int thirds, as shown above. Sketch the “ries” of the ear with light lines, studying where they fallin relation tothe division lines. “These ridges indicate where to bring out the grooves inthe ear; you should shade heavier inside them, = “he lower aon of th nose --- mae of crag, whee he per portant sapere by fone A, the po he oe ‘Sly has tight al shape ariege ‘The diagram to the right illustrates how the nose changes as a person ages. In many cases, the tip begins to sag and turn downward. All of these details are impor- tant for producing a realistic work. Process of ang mse FACIAL FEATURES: LIPS Liters sda yon study their forms closely. For exam- ple, notice that the top lip often protrudes slightly over the bottom one. You should also familiarize yourself with the various. _ planes of the lips to shade them well \ ‘To draw the lips, block in the overall mouth shape with preliminary guidelines. ‘Once you have a satisfactory line drawing, ‘you can begin shading, paying particu- lar attention to where the highlights ar. Highlights enhance the lips fullness. . et Kan \ y sect fi eS Ze When drawing men’ lips, Keep the al [1 though they'te covered with lipstick ‘Alone tht mens ie generally T donot appear as fll as women’s ha th pe Dy te se a ed the Lower ipo two pats a shown ove. These ight dvisin ines wil help you draw the top and bottom lips in pro- portion with each other, Qe ee < ‘yd ke a For istac, these camps dont show an : ‘teat ded eth, a Sou hand pes on pr K E> Zonal pene uu FACIAL FEATURES: THE SMILE acial expressions will add life to your antistic work because your drawings will seem more realistic. One of the most basic ways to create expression is with a smile, The illustrations on this page dem- onstrate steps for drawing smiles A Y Vi foam ‘When a person smiles, the rest of the facial features are affected. For example, the bottom eyelids move slightly upward, ‘making the eyes appear smaller. Smiling also causes creases around the ‘mouth and produces more highlights on the cheek area hecause the cheeks are fuller and rounder. The lips, on the other hhand, require fewer highlights because the simile causes them to slightly flatten out. THE PROFILE profile drawing can be very dramatic, This drawing was done on plate-finish Bristol board. With an HB pencil first sketch the lines to establish the head angle. You S ‘might want to use the technique of drawing, a a box first to position the head, as demon- c strated earlier on page 67 . ae A i When shading the profile or any view of the face, You cam proce avery femme Planes af he ae Although the nose is a prominent part of the profile, make certain it doesn't domi- nate the entire drawing, Take as much time drawing the other features as you would the nose, THE THREE-QUARTER VIEW Ithough the three-quarter view may seem difficult, it can be drawn by following all of the techniques you've already learned. With an HB pencil, use the proper head proportions to lightly sketch the guidelines indicating where the main features will be located. [Begin to smooth out your block-in lines, shading lightly with an HB pencil to bring ‘out the face's three-dimensional form. Fill, in the creases and details with a sharp- pointed pencil; then use a kneaded eraser ‘molded into an edge or point to pull out the highlights in the hai Begin blocking in the shape of the head; then add the haitline, and sketch the ear. Bring out the planes ofthe face (imagine 1 box), and position the nose correctly. Sketch the eyes and mouth on the guide lines you've drawn, CHILD HEAD PROPORTIONS he proportions of a child's head differ from those of an adult. Children generally have bigger foreheads; therefore the eye- brows—not the eyes—fall on the center horizontal division line. Also, the eyes of youngsters usually are larger and rounder than the eyes of adults ‘The forehead can be divided into five equal sections with verti- cal ines. You can position the other facial features in relation to these lines as wel To correctly place the features, use the horizontal lines shown, to the left to divide the region between the child's brow line and the chin into four equal sections. Study where each fea- ture falls in relation to these division lines. ™ MATURE FACES ortraits of older individuals require ‘more detail because fine lines and \wrinkles must be included. Attempt this, drawing on vellum-finish Bristol board, using an HB pencil to block in your hier yo generals reseaaa of charace ne Jes Bereta yor subs and yc guidelines and facial features. Then brig her esenc and poly imyour drag find your own drawing model. \/ VY, ae \ Ni Once yout dante base hea shape, Tightly indicate where the wrinkles will be. Some of the minor lines can be “sug- _gested” through shading rather than ‘drawing each one. This process can be used for drawing all older individuals, Shade delicately with a sharpened 2B pencil. A sharp, dark Tead is best for drawing tiny details, such as, ri creases in the lips, fine hair strands, and the comers of the eyes. Your shading should help the features emerge" from the face, Again, notice the areas where there is no shading and how these areas seem to come toward you, Practice this drawing; then find your own model or 1 photograph. ‘When drawing the face of an older man, you can be more aggressive with the lines and shading, because men usually have ‘more rugged features and pronounced creases than women. Develop the curves and planes of an older man’s face with darker shading than for the woman on the previous page. This enhances the rough quality of his skin. ‘This man’s face looks ‘even more rugged ancl aged than the previous drawing. His cheek bones also are more defined, and he has 2 wider chin. Is helpful to envision the skull inside this fellows Ihead to accurately shade the outer Features. (JAS SN jt \\ i a coy, New Yk ‘A paper stump is helpful for the smoother areas ofthis subject's face, whereas a sharp 2B will aid in rendering the cragay texture of his chin and the distinct wrinkles around his eyes. ADULT BODY PROPORTIONS ‘ust as there ate proportion rules for drawing the head, guidelines exist for irawing the human body. You can use average or artistic measurements, The dia- — grams on this page effectively illustrate the : : dilferences between these types of propor- : tions. Study them, and make many prac — tice sketches. As you probably know, an unrealistic igure drawing is easy to Spot 3 a Benge rath | 7.12 hate Heal eg 0 tio messurement forrest of a. Average praprtons General he male ure widest the shules ‘erent female ide a te Realistically, most bodies are about 7-1/2 heads tall (average), but we usually draw them 8 heads tall (artistic) because a fig ture drawn only 7-1/2 heads tall appears short and squat. ‘Try drawing some of your own figures. ‘The first renderings may not look quite right, but keep practicing until you get the thang of it. Remember tha figure drawing is much easier when you use a reference, a stich as a live subject oF good photograph. Arts proportions ave ben ey atte ‘Grek ine. CHILD BODY PROPORTIONS THE BODY /he human body is challenging to render; al = | therefore, i’ important to start with a quick drawing of the basic skeletal structure The human skeleton can be compared to the wood frame of a house; it supports and alfects the figure's entre form. “Tera em in wang shape ‘The frontal view illustrates the planes of Ae the body which are ereated from the skel- cton’s form. In men's bodies especially, the torso forms a triangle shape between the shoulder blades and the waist. In women’s torsos, the triangle shape gener- ally is less pronounced, and their bodies can even resemble an inverted triangle. x ‘To gain further insight into shading the ; 7 Conf hy tay he amas | muscular stature in chapter 2 HANDS & FEET Lins cate ven evesive pts f the By and ato are an artistic challenge. To familiarize yourself with hand proportions, begin by drawing three curved lines equidistant from each other. The tips ofthe fingers fall atthe fist line, the second knuckle at the middle line, and the first knuckle atthe last one. The third knuckle falls halfway between the finger tips and the second knuckle. The palm, coincidentally, is approxi- mately the same length as the middle finger. Thinble 7 ard che ry ume finger Bed at he marl ane plane crete Paw he thc dimen ‘hap of th hand aro rato. Thi il lp you : re esa Ss Your and nd fet an make great roving modes Follow the steps shown to draw the et Block in the shape in two pars: the main part of the foot and the toes. Once you've a drawn a good outline, add minimal shading so you don't call to much attention tothe fet. 8 \ CLOTHING FOLDS Nisei mastered drawing the body, you need to know certain techniques that will improve the quality of your work. Drawing realistic elothing, folds is one of those techniques. the location of each joint th circles. Then sketch the clothing, along with pre lines for the folds; the guide! provide a map for your shading, Indicate ‘only the major folds at this point, while ‘continuing to add light guidelines, ‘To shade, darken the areas inside the folds with short, diagonal strokes using the point of a 2B pencil. Overlap your strokes at different angles, making them darker toward the center of the folds, Use @ paper stump for the finishing touches, blending the edges of the folded areas, You might also want to leave some shading lines to give the drawing an anisic feel. OY swtscoo FORESHORTENING Fisossungatlons you ost he illusion of an object coming toward ‘you in space. While the principles of per- spective still exist, body parts are more difficult to draw in this manner because they don't have straight edges. In ad . ton the body proprtons ae somewhat a skewed, or shortened, in a drawing that \ ms includes foeshorened subjects. (See \ ‘pages 90-91 for more information.) ‘The arm resting on the keyboard appears to be receding back into space. The parts of the body closest to you should be shaded the least because they have the most light on them. Also keep {in mind that as objects move farther away, they become less detailed and, ‘more blurred. With crossed legs, most ofthe shading falls on the part of the leg farthest away, ‘enhancing the perception of depth in the drawing. Be certain to rough in both legs and the major folds correctly before you begin shading, Foresornig means sow are shen hat ceomingJoward. Nace at the ner aie someone pases ‘yews hw hi her lm oresorene. MOVEMENT & BALANCE BENDING & TWISTING FIGURES CHILDREN IN ACTION DEVELOPING A PORTRAIT Disses scaly lifer ha dng anying else. A human face has contours just like a landscape, an apple, or any other subject—and these contours catch the light and create shadow patterns just as they do on any other abject. The difference is that the contours of the face change slightly from indi- vidual to individual. The “trick” to portraiture is observing these differences and duplicating them in your drawings. CAPTURING A LIKENESS You don't need to memorize all the bones, muscles, and tendons in the human head to draw a portrait; just follow the general rules of proportions, as shown in the chart at right. Simply divide the face into thirds, and note where the features fll in relation to the face and to one another. Then study your model to determine how his or her face differs from the chart (that is, how itis unique). Look for subtle changes, such as a wider nose or thinner lips, wide- or close-set eyes, or a higher or lower forehead. It also is important 10 practice drawing faces from different viewpoints—front, side, and three-quarter views—keeping the proportions the same but noting how the features change as the head turns. Remember: Draw what you really see, and your portrait will look like your model! ® ‘tips in arontalvew, ‘he uppertiphatwo “pela” a lh pe ‘rosin he caer. Te lowe is ese and has shar peas. When ‘Shading. eine the botiom edge of thelower lp byShaing the area ‘reaty below, ee - they fas tngar shape: The is asa Tioememetse Ge ‘A Eyes ina side view, 5 W Shing conentated on developing thes, ses, ands aig ost of the brow white “Facial Proportions seerl gulls tor fac propations The cess inthe mide of behead. The dtnce fromthe hale te wom tne stay the sme dnfance a othe ‘rom ine tothe btm ofthe ean om the Batt the nse othe hin The lowe ests atiway beeen he bet tom fhe nse andthe chin Me ees are one tye apa and each tyelsthe same wth as the noe, The wth othe routn iste gsace fom the center fone eet the center ofthe ohare Te to ofthe ear age. etm ef the er ans A ose ination review the ar rests oily i en om ih The ht sites rat stony on the center ge 20 ted he om by shading the side he nse under theta, endoutsietne rest Front View ina onal ew, wecansee that theace Profle The head shape charges side view, bathe isnot pect syrmetial ne eye general smaler features emai nthe sare relate pstions Ahaugh than the ter, oon might sia sgt iferert angle. _theras a prominent feature in pl, ke cre otto The'same stv oftheeas cheeks andthe sides ofthe eit dominate the face. ASO py alent where the rose athe oath ‘je stand how the owelip cues int the ci, ‘Three-quarter View This view canbe hlenging because you have to distort the features tomate tem lope elt. Here Ichanged the je and ip shapes 0 ure wih the fae. You might want start wha cortout ani to workout how the features realy oo ‘Step One | strte witha sharp Hs chao pen and ‘ery pty sketched he genera shapes of ened, a and cota chose caren orth raning because allows meto achieve very subtle value changes) Then! ‘Step Two Hex began fing he features, ang the pulang isin ech ee plus dimples and smile nes. this stage, stud the pt carts cal duplate the angles and ies hat make these features ugly ema’ Then began aig afew shadows. ‘A Drawing froma Snapshot Atoushpterto raw porate model, sometines 2 eka ‘ate photo wots jst swell andi oes get ted of posing! nhs polo jon, ste her debate ets, ‘snout shir and sparking ees. Bt aso going tty ‘eau the tres that oe unigu tae: shy Goaked mouth, sil ines, and wig et eyes Note also ‘hat you cn barely ee her nos s deta Me these ‘atl make the drawing look ha ema and no oe es ‘Step Four | canine big up he shang wit the ‘charcoal perl nd wl stick For dual lends and aftaracation ofl, rbbed the aes nt with my Ainge Dont sea bushercth te remove te excess charcoal ust wil smear the raving) Wren as fr- ished tok the raving ets, tured ont, ae gently tapped the backside telat any ose caran Fray sprayed hy wth aati to rte rom fue sg. ‘Step Three As developed te forms wth shang. sed these of mH charcoal en an alowed the ‘reaion ofthe fal planes. shaped alneaded erase twapointo tout ne eve highs and sed 2 ot ilo chars stick othe dak masses of ha FOCUSING ON FORESHORTENING Drmiine sa tou tao, bu nt the sleigh hand variety magicians perform. In my drawings, I create the illu sion of three dimensions in a variety of ways, but in every case Vm just drawing what I see in front of me. Foreshortening is an {important method of creating the illusion of depth, and it works hhand in hand with perspective; that is, the part of the subject that is closest to us appears to be larger than the parts that are farther away Taxing A DirFeRENT View ‘So what exactly is foreshortening in terms of drawing? I's a technique for rendering objects that aren't parallel to the picture plane in which you shorten the lines on the sides of the object that i closest to you. (It may sound confusing, but it’s really not once you get the hang of i.) For example, if you look at someone holding his arm straight down against the side of his body, the arm is perfectly vertical and so looks in proportion to the rest of the Figure. But if he raises his arm and points directly at yous, the arm is now angled (and not parallel to the picture plane), so it appears distorted, In other words, the hand looks bigger and the arm looks shorter. So, in turn, you would draw a big hand and an arm with shortened sides. Thats foreshortening! ‘Step One bes, sw by ply blecking nthe atin of ony the mao Shapes no deta ye. The st ingot thing was Study the hot corel. take sie had all these elatonships coc Haweve, though followed the phot fat, ned hat book appearedto be unary suport, oi aéded the rian arm and hand ven though ep repeating “ran ‘what yu se" sometines you nee oak whats calleé ris censeané make fw changes, or ene wil batevethas aly what you swt Tis phot ofhistnisan exelent exam fr Shartening. Nate the der fence inthe se of ity ead compared to his hae feet Tiss because i est sreclntrtours0they Soper chara ational, Aro i eps ste ge tha ‘hey appear or isin ohm an ra that Wis foot ca be the sane length ashis shin But these the sie thorsips se, so these are the ice relationships Taleo, Pe ctve shescene or jet mater, snd change around sou hn tl make ‘Step Two Nex ot aed Seconda cunesto represent the odes the are andthe ls the cts am sl long in bination ahs rin sept hese ine ia 0 they would terre ‘Step Four Intel stage, aed some ih shang and lth deta offal an faint estes. Win the oval fresbrtened pose, there are second areas offoreshoteing orinstace, note tom sist foots restarted (eset pits ord) ae "ight one so (because points sigh up). The backs his hands, wists, and fram lo are foreshonened (becuse hey oi tonad us), whereas Hs agers zy) a 2 ee ZL ———— iy Step Three As! began refiting tbe shapes. needed to check my refer ce requery. aed 2 dark shacow for aneye chor hep me keep ry place a5 lnc bck {fot om photo's ‘rami Notes ho the them apeat come fr war, hreasthe one, fers the uper bag eee Thisteeh- rique enhances the sense of eth FORESHORTENING SIMPLIFIED i. ay ‘rs are the ih nth in relation to your palm Nothing freshened here, Fingers Angled Toward You Now tp your hand te ar see Rothe fenth fe gers dhe pli pears shot Tis Issue foeshrening. Of ous, your ges ie vay get shorter ust ks that ey CR Fingers Pointing Front tow pnt ines Sigh at you Tis isthe most exteme foe Shortened ew the ges apea to be ete Stubs. Note te shape fhe ferns as they are oer the indica fingers. Fingers Angled Down Twenge ppear longer now bt not fallen yt > rips re stil isle. Tipe shows some Foreshore the ges Sem too long a ‘iki ltin tthe Back the had hs thy \ we Fingers Pointing Straight Down Noe: shortening workin hs poston another ‘mal vew. The tps ofthe figers cart be sen, and he nah of the Figrs ard hand ae rationed 3 APPLYING YOUR SKILLS Nicest zouss mastered lhe ehngues in his capes, you can incorporate them into one finished work. As you can see, this drawing demonstrates principles of perspective, line of action, and center of balance. It also illustrates successful renderings of figures bending and twisting, siting, and moving in a variety of action poses. I's important that you attempt to draw a challenging work like this to improve your artistic skills. On location, record your subjects with quick simple lines, creating a reference for a tighter, more polished work back at home. Remember, success requires patience and a lot of practice CHAPTER 5 PEOPLE WITH DEBRA KAUFFMAN YAUN Debra Kauffman Yaun discovered that she had a knack for drawing people when she was a young girl growing up in Tampa, Florida After graduating from the Ringling School of Art and Design in Sarasota, Florida, Debra worked as a fashion illustrator. Debra’s art- work has been published in several art magazines and books, and she has won numerous awards, including an international award. She aving served as president of the Atlanta chapter, and she is a a signature member of the Colored Pencil Society of America, juried member of the Portrait Society of Atlanta. Debra’s work is featured in four Walter Foster titles: Drawing: Faces & Features and Drawing: People with Debra Kauffman Yaun in the How to Draw and Paint series; and Colored Pencil Step by Step and Watercolor Pencil Step by Step in the Artist's Library series, Debra and her artist-husband have two grown sons and reside in Georgia 95 UNDERSTANDING FACIAL ANATOMY Then drawing faces, itis important to be aware of the underlying structures of the head. Although the bones and muscles aren’t ‘visible in a final portrait, they provide the framework for the drawing, establishing the shape of the head and guiding the place ‘ment of the features, Having an understanding of the basic anatomy of the head will lend realism and credibility to your drawings Understanding Bone Structure Seconng emir withthe Donesftheshullané Understanding Muscle Structure he fll muscles contac, toy fect the shape ‘the way they aft the surface of te sons essential for corey lacngthe cunatures, ofthe crlage, nd unr Fat tsses hat cause the ules, rows, and ther riage, nd eho prominent tures of the head forms that create vareus fil expressions. ‘Visualizing the Underlying Muscles The rge muscies othe wi neck and the clave bone ws hen oe the head tured The mules and l\ ‘lvl ae vise, even undemeth the si theycncreate bug oF tension hat evident onthe sce, i iN ‘Seeing the Skull in Profile ns profle view, isp tose how muchatea the back ofthe sles up. tee thatthe length ofthe hla shy ft wth LEARNING THE PLANES OF THE FACE ‘nce you understand the baste structure of the head, you can simplify the complex shapes of the skull into geometric planes. ‘These planes are the foundation for shading, as they act as a guide to help you properly place highlights and shadows. THe EFFECTS OF LIGHT ‘Lighting the Planes from Above inenisht ‘ames rom above the mare prominent planes of ‘the ace sue asthe age othe nose andthe ‘reibores~ae highlighted. The ees, wich recede ‘Spt are shadowed bythe row the sides the nase, btm ofthe cin, and underside he neck eo aren sadn, "Lighting the Planes from the Side Feates _aeshaed ferent when ight hits these ofthe ‘ace: The eyesare sili shad, butthe sie o he ce and neck are now highlighted. Te shang on ‘hehead becomes dae ai recades tod he neck the sides fhe ches appr "sunken: rd ‘he caress 2 shadon onthe back fhe head igh ‘Shading the Planes of the Face ary yes an values of shadows cont tthe pen together ofl he planes th minvalue ofthe sadoms area result of bth he nderying tere arth lt oe pace ot shadows ke the kes. on the et os subj os, inthe ight’ path here the ight source coming om above es the es planes ct the ace are the op oth ead a th forehead, Te ket ares are dct oppoe the gt source, here {hele sie ofthe subj’ ace and neck Even a shadow however ae areas of he lates tha cele pas of teeta igh, suchas thse Shown hee onthe chin and unde the ee ADULT FACIAL PROPORTIONS otic in scr of human proportions meaning the comparative le and placement of art 19 on anaes imperative for accurately drawing the human face. Understanding proper proportions will help you determine the correct size and placement of each facial feature, as well as how to modify them to fit the unique, individual characteristics of your subject. Verte centerine — 7 \ \ \ | \ A, cr brow ne N 7 = A t ro {- Htorcomat OS Om Establishing Guidelines visualize the head as al that as ben fattened onthe sles The balls ded in ha hoz an vertical td the aes vided area tally it tre equal pas: th ane, he bowie, an the ine forthe ose Use thse tildetes to detemine the covet placement nd spacing of aut faci features, Looking Up wen the hea sited back the horizontal guides cue wth he shape ofthe fee Note te wy the estes change wher the ea its back: Te eas appear Ti lower onthe he, nd more fhe white ofthe eyes ae vise, 8 Placing the Features the eyesle between the horzurtal cree andthe ow te The tom of he noses halway between the bowie an he atom ofthe chi. The boom shatway betwen the Bottom ote nse and the chin, andthe eas extend fromthe bow neo the btn of he nose, ‘Looking Down when ne ead tites vars the eyes appear dosed, nd mich mare the top ofthe heads vil, Te ers ppt ihr, ost ing up with the ne Sratlloningthe carve of he rants ine EXPLORING OTHER VIEWS Brctining sts ten eu rfl views st 8 hia ends to simply the drawing proces For example, na profile view, you don't have to worry about aligning symmetrical features. But the rules of proportion still apply when drawing profile views, as ‘well as the more complex three-quarter views, =~ ~~ > f | 7 () 7m wee s+ 4 Placing the Features Use the ag anil ice asa guideline or placing he fetus. Te os. Ups, and chin lutsidethe ce, whereas the eyes and ear renain nse, Te slanted roken es ndeate the paral slant of he nose aa ea ‘Simplifying the Profile To daw on adut esd np, tat by tacking ne cralalmass tha gece Ad wo cave es hat meet ta plo estabish ‘thetace and chin Pace th earthing the vera cerere cea “Se —— ~ tine ; ( “| —_— \ t -—N _ | rs Ta j Distrting the Features wen te heats the eye closest othe veer Gti case thee ee) appre rer than te ater ee This i echnigun alg oreshotning” inwtich elements of ring ar dntoredta crest thes of tee mension ‘pce objets closer athe viewer appear large than abject thal are rhe any. in ven, More of tee sie ofthe subject's head isl, but ou sil ee ot thee as the hea ts he ulin so ce, lowing the shape fhe ead. DEPICTING ADULT FEATURES you're a beginner, its a good idea to practice drawing all the facial features separately, working out any problems before attempting complete portrait. Faci features work together to convey everything from mood and emotion to age. Pay attention to the areas around the features, as well; wrinkles, moles, and other similar characteristics help make your subject distinct Eves LER Loos ‘Step One tse a cic forthe sft the draw the ytd over it Orang a ete obj tore ang ny vetapping elements called drain tough Hole "Nat pa hess alvays covered by he ee Step Two stat shading he eis, drawing ies that 2 2 cto he pup. Then athe eyelashes andthe Shadow bing cast onthe eyeball ror the uper i and ‘elses, wocing around the highlgt on thei. runs Step Three Continue shacingthe is swokng outward fromthe pul Then shade the eye ard the we of he ‘yet 968 hae mensional fom. <> ‘Step One Ora thous cc for th ey fs then roe the eee around i, show, aa profi ew the is and pupae eles; the tp and atom lhe at covered bythe upet and ioe yes /_ <> ‘Step Two To craw eeasesia rte, sta othe cat Side come ofthe eye ard make uc, cured ines, anys Stokng inte recon of woth The ongest ashes are athe center ofthe ee ‘Step Three whenshadng th jel mak ih tes ‘hat oon the cure ofthe ey As wth ne tal ven, ‘he shacing the is rates ot om the up = aD SER ay i ndering a Pair of Eyes cr becoming confortable with tavngthe aes, sta developing te features round the eve incing the eyebrows andthe nose. ese to space adult yes about are ee with apart om each thet. Ad ‘ep nnd that ees are lays ss te highlights ep nae this beso shade aourd the Wh, bt ‘oan shade ver the ae, you can pl ot the ila with 3 sae ere VARYING QUALITIES ‘There ate several characteristics that inf ‘ence the final impression that apa of eyes five: The shape ofthe eve, position ofthe ‘eyebrows, length and thickness ofthe eye lashes, and numberof creases and wrinkles ‘can denote everything fom age and gender to mood and ethnicity Study the examples below to see how these diferent elements ‘work together. ee ae Reem and Sent es Sooo oes Sno eS als ‘Step Three Icon ‘ive shoeing ete ‘erm ofthe nose and mouth Wate app te, tain her eas for ips and to ‘hom eee gt For ‘example use a kneaded eraser pullout ih Tg ontop pon the ‘ipofthe rose, and onthe dg oF he ose CAPTURING A LIKENESS Cre gente ates dein the nda etres yout ready 0 combine then inal porta Use our understanding of the basics of proportion to block in the head and place the features. Study your subject carefully to see how his oF her facial pro- portions differ from the “average”; capturing these subale differences will help you achieve a better likeness to your subject. Drawing What You See Wong fom 2 pot eps You ero what youre sce—35 opposed what ou ‘pec osee—ecause ou can change ou viewpoint Ty taming both the phot and your owing upside owe sou wor oul that ou can represent many ‘Shapesmote accurate. Step Thre erase my gues an hen begin ‘Shading flowing the form fhe ae wth the 28 penal nd softy ening teste the sachet he stn Nes rate the teeth, eating te Separations wth incomplete ines. Then sch oa 38 enl to Tay inmoe dark streaks of hi ‘Step One Using an HB pec sketch the geerlout: Step Twe Switching o 3 28 pn nat the rund ln ofthe sbjet'sface Then pace the fai audatines nas ofthe fal etures. compare my seth othe po ‘nore bockingin he eyes, ese ad mouth ice Rat__toraph often, making sre hat ve capt the igs ‘hemathtates up about onefouth ofthe fe) Lath mate hs nal argu, he the tunedap nose, Blockin he shape her hai, ining the bangs. Slightly asymmetial ees, and wie smile. ‘Step Four Torende he smooth, shin haus 48a In danke ‘ales. vaythe length ofthe stokes, pling some stokes io the areas {the top oer hed that have been et whe for ight produce 2 ‘rau tarsi om igh toda Then fie the eyes 2nd mouth by dng dre yes of shang, FOCUSING ON FEATURES This drawing shows the same young lady with diferent hair Style, expression, and pose. Although she'sin costume, she is stil recognizable asthe same subject because was faithful to the fail eharacter Isties that are specito this, Individual =< LiFE DRAWING (PORTRAIT) Pines os or you as yo dran—ar ie drawing i an excelent way to practice rendering faces When drawing fom Me, -you usually have control aver the way your models are lit, If you're indoors, you can position the light source to your liking; if you're outdoors, you can reposition your model until you're satisfied om ‘Creating 2 Comfortable Setup Wher usiglve mod StepOne Fist pace thebaseshapeafthe head wih Step Two 1S the same HB pendto eshte the 185, mate sure they ae comfortable ania apse ey can an HB perc My subj beads tie at three quater subj eee, mang ates than the ght haldtora while. Schedule sor eaksever Jomintes anl,sal shit theverical certo tothe ight abit. ey. See Distaringthe Fests” on age 9 or more ‘sathatbth you andyourmodescantakea"beate.” (Seepage 9 for spec noraton on placing features onfreshatening) law only one os, and make the Ina ree-querven) ue my gullet Beckie monsmal onthe et sie Making cose elements ‘eyes, nose and mouth Then inate the rec larger shows that th face sale tard the viewer. / Step Three | st mynods! | takes son bake he \ coarse and strate wie a heck the proportions fy features, bento develop mat my models wearing Urernehiace andthe ued stir and eaino render the deta acrately ‘Step Four |strt ‘Shain the fac inte nest aras, frequently Teokingupat my modelo “ee nee the shoo, use 328 prc deve Tenth of my stots and Teoving some areas most ‘ahte fo highs. The ‘ade the necking Ue, hora stokes. Step Five Ate another shat Weak use 338 penclto a even ater values tothe hal leaving he ies area athe top othe hea to show that the lights coming iret from above. Te, king up at my melo cate the hes values inet ce, Tse kneaded eraser out same highs ano soften any stokes that are too ark, sranhing tthe stn 104 APPROACHING A PROFILE VIEW profile view can be very dramatic. Seeing only one side of the face can bring out a subject's distinctive features, such as a pro. truding brow, an upturned nose, ora strong chin. Because parts of the face appear more prominent in profile, be careful not tw allow any one feature to dominate the entire drawing. Take your time working out the proportions before drawing the complete portrait, Drawing in Profile nen sieving a subject in pois, be careful ath proportions, 5 you faa gudeines wil ‘Step One Aterlgly dang 2 cle forthe aia mass, ue an H pdt blockin the general shapes of ters. na rte We, you see mare of he back ofthe head than you ofthe fac, soe sureto daw the Shape of he sul coding. ‘hea, chin, and aw ine The a guidelines ote js; nase, mouth, nde. (Se page 9 fr general es ‘erring the placement offtuesina prof view) "ost observe my subject see how the positions and angles his estures fer Fam th average” ‘Step Two Flowing the gute, |rough inte shapes the fetus, incl my subject's sighy pouting Step Thre vinen sketch eeyebrow, pay patlar attention othe space between the eye ad te eyebrow: inthis case the subject's eyebrow say ose to se als roms pe the ine comerof is ee vey ose tohis nose, a topes tomar te ose carer the ‘ye. Net continu refi the profi, eae defeing "he Shapes the hina the ec Gdn the das snp). ‘uppers smal pat ofthe eyeing how leo he i you sual seein a profieview. See page ‘0 or mor norman on dawg eesin pre) Four in rofie view, he haiti s important to schevinga hares, 95 Rats the size and shape oh6 Forehead. This ubject has avery hiph reed othe ain, staring the etre, ing ther form ‘Step Fve Here youansee thatthe dovinasealy Staingto resemble the subject Net | switch 328 pen ‘llandconinu bleu he forms: rund out the nose and chin ad, sof stokes the area above te p forthe mustache; rd sues he hal wig sor, ik stots, Then 2 mare tlt he ee an develo the ‘arand the eebom fortipsonsheding prfle) ‘Step Seven | continu shang sping outa tothe ha, eng igh ‘sin the ec pthof he ight sauce. aso shadethe forehead, the nse andthe hte he may of the chek andthe mide prof the foeheaé white This eps inte hat the lt sources coing fom above, ned toward te vise sie othe ae. WORKING WITH LIGHTING ether you're drawing from a photo or from life, lighting is extremely important to the overall feeling of your portrait. Lighting can influence the mood or atmosphere of your drawing—intense lighting creates drama, whereas soft lighting produces a more tranquil feeling. Lighting also can affect shadows, creating stronger contrasts between light and dark values. Remember that the lightest highlights will be in the direct path of your light source, and the darkest shadows will be opposite the light source. \ Using Backtighting Here the it sources coming Frombeind th subet—the faces inshadow, but tne Sap One Ishtch the basi shape othe head, neck hairs hishigtes. When ringback sabe ty and airwih an NB pene. My subjects heads tured in lesingsome sea of paper wit rundtheedgesofthe ater quatervews9lcune the guleines aourdthe Step Tw Swihng oe 28 pnd, deine the features head. This keeps the it om ooking i anduneati, ace coring Ste page 9p) Then Nighy sketch the anditinthe eyebrows 1a sketch few ceases neat tn 3a Separates the hah he acgoun ‘ac estes, nating the roundness ofthe nose andthe mouthand sound the eye. Then add thecal, at thechin. ton and neckban 1 ssi. Step Three Using 28a equ fring tomy Plan, shade the rg ideo te face Fst apy 2 yer lg, shor stokes: then go beck and apy 8 layer of nge sos, stil maintaining eh touch. Toshode she hal ioveseveralwhtereastoindcate ‘Step Feu stilusng 28 perc, comin shang the lc, keepng the et sie it ihe valet show that ‘thatthe ighlsshiningivoush appr long stokes, the ght source coming ram the subj eas refit eee, leaving he ghee mae in shadow. shade the staggering thm atthe to ofthe ead proguce ck, agai mating i ight se it ater The | ad ore defo the Ha lesing Some wht pace aourd he Snoen more ei saps ‘ges to suggest th ight sing trough the hak 106 INCLUDING A BACKGROUND Avni acround wil draw the ewer oe your subject and ply aoe sting a mood background vas should complement a drawing; it should never overwhelm the subject. Generally a light, neutral setting will enhance a subject with dark hair or skin, and a dark background will set off subject with light hair or skin, ‘SimpUtying a Background viner voting fom aptoreeence that ea {ures an ufaterng background, you ceasiycn change Simply aback rund by removing any extraneous ements aeing he oer vals. ‘Step One uth on HS perc skechin ‘he bisichead shape ad the gues, The beck inte postion ofthe eyes, wows, a5, and mouth atic thatthe ‘eter guleline st the fare ote ace because ofthe way the head iste) Newt indeate the neck athe ae. ‘Step Four 1 nish sasing the ae, neck ae shit with 9263 hen steht ‘td more dak sreak the aap another osteo the backround, ae ‘iy working aod thei and eeving ew gap betwee the stokes oe etre andinerest Hest use a neadad eraser to smooth ou the tanstons ‘Step Two Swicingt0228 pene, "esa refine shape of tees, bro, oe, moth lckin the rit ng sweeping toe, cing onthe hai rows The a6 ecg tonersit, ‘Step Three Fist sha he ses wha 28 pec. Then begin hating he back ‘und using goal hatching stokes. Once the backgoutdis iin, se 298 ‘old up te dark values othe hal. create the backround before developing ‘hear somy Ran doesn smear the delet stance of in) CREATING DRAMA ‘A darker background can ad intensity or drama to your portrait. Mere the subjects in profil, so the lightest values of her face stand out against the dark values ofthe background. To ensure that her dark hai foes not become “lost.” Icreate a gradation from dark to ight leaving the lightest areas ofthe background atthe top and along the edge ofthe hairfor separation, DEVELOPING HAIR here are many different types and styles of hair—thick and thin; long and short; curly, straight, and wavy; and even braided! And, because hair is often one of an individual's most distinguishing features, knowing how to rendler different types and textures is essential, When drawing hair, don't try to draw every strand: just create the overall impression and allow the viewer's eye and imagina- tion to fill in the res, ‘Step One| ws 20H pent stetchthe shape ofthe hed and place the etre. Then use loose strokes let in the general eatin othe hae Saring athe parton he Ios of the hed, phy date hain the ean of sont on hers othe pa As tage Imerlyndate the Shape othe ha LOW wat abot he ea Flt yet ‘Step Two Switching to 228 pensar refng the eyes, yeows nose, and mouth, Then die tench of he shit wih cued nes that lbw the shape oe oy. eturingto te Rat seh in secons of ingles, waking Hom op oto. ‘a adding dares indene st ane bend ein sections fh, eating anrast nd depth (Se "Creating ingles" blow) CREATING RINGLETS ‘Step One Fist set the shapes ofthe nets sing curved, shaped ines. make sre thatthe | fing arena oS shape; some are thick sand some ae tn ‘Step Two To sie the singe for, sit my ye to find the ck and igh ales. eave the top ofthe ngs the icases tothe Fe) Uther ed dit more had eve dw ds nian at the ih coring om ‘Step Three To eae the dts ales under neat the ay, place theses se together. ‘Step Four 1c even are yales, making sure ‘hat ny tanstionsin vate are smooth an that ‘tere aero abrupt changes in ecto, sep Step Three I shadethe es, ec at ces using tear ‘Boker hat each arose the With fhe ody Then deine ‘he ejeslps, and ethan ade her shaider andthe seve of her i Wes conte woo ake valus within the ingles leaving some areas fair white to suggest blond iis. hog te irs mach more lene ttl tags Lam ‘simpy iat the general ‘nas, allowing eviews ee ‘ocomplet the scene Fa draw sme loose stands ang ‘the edges ofthe hac eae Uiahestvaues ate tp ote sublets hed. RENDERING BRAIDS ‘Step One Fist seth he ote of ach ‘ape te ends tang atin aces te baton of acho nacat the es hat ol the bras together, ‘Step Two tow start shading cach sectn nceting ‘he overaping hain each rai. ad some wispy a sepia” from heist adel, Step Three | continue sing te bald sing ea strokes, ad even moe “escaped” stands of Ii Then use ahead erzeto plot hls the bata ofeach ral, emphasing the es. aso pullout some highights nthe brads thensees. DEPICTING AGE ' people age, their skin loses elasticity, causing loose, wrinkled skin; drooping noses; and sagging ears. In addition, lips often become thinner, hair turns gray, and eyesight becomes poor (which is why many elderly subjects wear glasses). Accurately rendering these characteristics is essential to creating successful portraits of mature subjects. ‘Step One |biock inthe face ith an HB pec Then a dees, which se to place the ees nose ea ye ‘wows, and muth. Te ps thin out nd moe rar 52 personages, 0am them acacia. aso sketchthe Step Twe | draw the basic shape ofthe eyeslsss, then ‘ay ote ofthe a begat sugget my sje age by aig dat ines sounder eyes an cas he forehead. 350 roundout Step Three Sithing to 428 pn begin shaig the the jaw and chino show wherethe skin as begunto sag. al and developing the ys, ang ight. curve es rw awe sing the nck an eps omer side around and under the ees to crs “bags” magy othe nose. the wrinkles sty where they canbe seen ough he asses, (See "Rendering Wines below) ke Sa) As = RENDERING WRINKLES ‘The key to drawing realistic looking wrinkles Isto kep them subtle Indicate wrinkles wth Soft shading. not with hard or angular ines. ‘You can best achieve this effect by using 2 ‘ull pencil point You also can use a loth ‘orattortilon to softy blend the transitions between the ight and dark values nthe ‘wrinkles. Or use a kneaded eraser to soften ‘ntnkles that appear to deep ‘when drawing a subject with glasses, as in the example below, try to magity the wrinkle lines that are seen through the lenses. You ‘an do tis by drawing the ines of shading alittle arger an spacing them father from ‘one another Step Four stil using 225, 1shae hetace and nek, ding rhe othe sie fhe nce er wes. fish shading th ses dhe eis, shade the ares between eg sie ofthe chek andthe jatbone toshowthe prominent cheeboe, nd add shading ‘round the nse and mouth o mate the kn apest aly Then add darker values othe ara eating ‘Step Five As comin shading the fc, ad mre \ fenton to he wines rund the eyes they dont <4sapear into te shaded areas. am careful keep them Sut, sracthng et the wasitons wth tain (ee "enerng Wiles a ih for moron Henin) aly 30d baton oer lara create he pli attr of erst stn back rom he drawing, making are that rm plesed with the eet he agulr banes, ose tn, and wines hae on the sujet ace ar ha he es her age. CREATING FACIAL HAIR cial hair is another characteristic that distinguishes one individual from the next. Short, dark strokes are perfect for rendering a thick, coarse beard; whereas light, sweeping strokes are ideal for depicting a wispy mustache. Experiment with variations of light and dark lines when drawing a *salt-and-pepper” beard, and use a series of quick, short lines when indicating stubble Drawing Through When drawing a fae thats ay hidéenby fac ra, isp ra the entire ead iste, "am throug") an then a the ar, ead and accessories (us athe a Athoug he fnely othe at ss prope. ‘Step One Fs sche shape ofthe ae wt an edi The plac the ulin andthe eats Next aw the a, inelig the bad ck the masses of thea, mustache, and ead wth ose, cued es. ut shen daning ay ater peo ha, sity indicate the general stapes atts stage ‘Step Two Switching to 228 perl, refine te ees ‘yetios and eth ad wre wud th je and ‘one forehead: the udu he at, tte the shit Cala, ad rw he suspends. Now etm the ha, Indeatingthe curs with crear stokes, Warkng om top ‘o atom eutthe top the ar andthe develop i ‘te mstache whch partly covers the mouth ‘Step Thre er easng my gullies, eng the fase, and detnng the eyes, shade the hat crosshatehing to eae pater onthe tan. begin rendering the sor, ‘itu ofthe beard andthe mustache, Then 26 der ‘alustothe crs onthe ef ideo he facet spaate them at show the cast shadow of thet FOCUSING ON BEARDS When drawing a white bead, suchas this one, group several lines together to create form, but leave some areas whit ‘Aso try drawing the strokes in varying directions this adds interest and move ‘Step Four | as ner of shading thes, ving whit hats in each ye, Using the eae eae eraser, pl ots ight on ech es ofthe asses. toshowthereteted igh lappy mae shadngtothehst to gweit more fate. simersonl ok then shade the sspenders ana the sit Final ish he cats inthe air and bed ving strokes between ht cave sand quick tight lesvingost ofthe bead athe vers maga, ‘ment t's also a good idea to overlap your shading abit where the skin meets the har, indieatng that the skins showing though the beard. CHILDREN’S FACIAL PROPORTIONS hildven’s proportions are different than those of adults: Young childven have rounder faces with larger eyes that are spaced farther apart. Their features also are positioned a little lower on the face: for example, the eyebrows begin on the centerline, where the eyes would be on a teenager or an adult. As a child ages, the shape of the face elongates, altering the proportions, Vertical ae CHANGING OVER TIME cite ~ svn C | ‘ The placement ofthe features changes a the face becomes longer and : hme wth age Use Rorzontal guidelines to vide he rea fom the horizontal centerine tothe chin into equal section: these ies can then Beusedto determine wher to the place the fac features x | Reayohcsts os | Hens etry mene oe ‘ocean se ene ttn on ‘eta nee everest robert Ste reece theese Sone oma 14 Brow te ae > | eo ie / \ wey inl steer wt he potoaph ad make recess austen, indent undoes as I ofthe toms oft ) tales with ht cles, — ~ Nesta shy protaig teeth Finding the Best Pose In pots the sje ees re squitingjt a tata meh Inpho the sbi pose seems sf an sited But mpl hs pose ard pression res eh ‘Step Three ter easing ry ules, sea 28 eno ada deta the ey and ebro, and "also shad the pe and ‘cheeks. My photoaaph Shows thatthe ht source Iseoning tom above so eae te ighest areas atthe top ofthe head and {tet the dest vans onthe bottom half he INDICATING FAIR FEATURES Then drawing a subject with fair skin and hair, keep your shading to a minimum; apply just enough medium and dark values to create the ill jon of form without creating the appearance of color. Draw blond hair by outlining the general shape, then adding a few carefully placed strokes to suggest the hair style and ereate some dimension. Keep in mind that light, wispy eyebrows and freckles often accompany fair skin and hair, rary pare ite, aot these areas wen shading ry ong leaving mach ofthe paper white Step Three Now rfne the eres, easing my mie topand ies moa white adding nya ew dark tans what the hrs in shadow Net asl ces forthe ‘rings and shade the insides fhe as develop he lip then use rao sles to shade ene. ‘Step One Fis ay othe ce Wah an Hp. The {ace gh ted ote subjects obi the eral cetrine oth let ait a wel gy place ‘he eyes ras, mouth and eas then lckin et ng, slender neck ‘Step Four! shade th te wth gts soles to deplete suber asin. Thea make short. quick stokes forth eyebrows, keeping tem gt and soo inde bloné hat. Next shade theses using roles ‘hat adate out rom the ppl as some hatching "otes tthe ecard ofthe st Step Two Switching to 28 pen deveap thee "ures Atough use the pot for aeferenc, use ist ene toast my renderings see For ‘example shetch he bangs ote al straigh onto her Foren, rater than being swept othe seas they ae inthe pot. aa omt the stand ohh Bowing inthe wna DEPICTING FINE HAIR Blond hai soften finer than darker hal, especialy in children, Or Tine air in a row sections eavng plenty of white areas Showing through the dark values. Ada some Shor, wispy strands of har atthe forehead to frame the face. Final shade the shit sing lately dark strokes. asf aon suet took ‘mashed outon wht paper So the ak aluesin the shit help ame he subject and make herface standout. CREATING REALISTIC FRECKLES imate some gt and some dark by vanyigte pressure you place onthe peel oe he pola dts! REPLICATING DARK SKIN TONES then depicting dark skin tones, pay attention to the value of the skin tone and how it compares with the values of the features; for example, when the skin is dark, the lips need to be shaded even more heavily. In addition, look for differences in features that indicate ethnicity or race, such as the nose, lips, or eye shapes and the hair color or texture, ‘Step Ome ith 8 pec ck inthis stare . tna pce teens ig tees ae { ‘hone saped pen ie to rip sy > Sepctge ates start hn kate eh \ tna hae ewe andes i \ A ‘Stop wo Suns te 38 enh sehen \ reckon cin Ten mop ee h Siesta he boo oat @ ‘Steiner nets Te Boe ine Sedtheneskine ste Step Three Het shade the nose, neck, a tp tp, tiga make hep apes ful shade the rosie thal ary othey wl standout against he darks Using ul, ceases, start renéer the shor, cary ar. Then deta the eyebrows and eyes and dene thereetons ofthe shi Step Four Using stokesthat follow the shae of te out, carinue shading the is then shade te guns, Careful working around eth make sre the ps {nd guns wor contrat oa sharp with te ski, bcs ine to dary ok untira Net bl up te nek ing hoot ines that carve wth the shape of the nek Nice how tes ies vei ad end nthe ‘shading that was apple instep ‘Step Five sow! aply pt layer of shang vee ete face, aay vain the rection oy stakes recess tla the shapes of the feent planes. The ‘Shoaing starting to round ou te ace, which as oked ‘itv tots pit. isd ave shang ates mae i appear een rounder an fae ‘Step Six | conn skating he face making the sides ofthe forhead 3 ate and evn the mies lighter to show where the gt its. Then ren the tose leeving witht onthe ia vefine ‘he shit caving the stokes a they go around the ack te clr Nex ater shade the isto acetute ‘hei ues, ten plow 2 ighight on hero ip wh kneaded erases. ally go bakand soften the tans tins between ves by ery ity tening them wha eaded eraser, ESTABLISHING VALUES Every skin tone ls made up of valet of values when drawing in graphite perc you can acurately capture these difesing tones using varying degrees of ight and Shadow. Before you stat drawing, be sure \ to study your subject o establish the richest darks and brightest ight oftheir skin tone, whether they are fair medium: or darks skinned. nthe examples at ight, hair color ‘ and contrasting values work together to ‘Suagest the medium skin tone ofthe Boy to {he alt and the flr skin tone of the Boy at center. The darkly shaded fly Formed Cheeks ofthe boy tothe fa fght give is skin a ruddy, tanned appearance oy UNDERSTANDING BoDy ANATOMY Piz diaing case when ou ve an understanding of the base strc ofthe ody. The maces and bones gv he Body three-dimensional form, with the muscles filling out the skeletal foundation. Together they give the figure correct proportion—the relationship of the individual body parts to one another and to the body asa whole, Knowing what is beneath the skin of the figure will make your drawings more realistic and true to the form of your subject. Muscles Affect Form Tie usculsue odes Tore Musculature (Front) The tos muss Indiviuas can vary depending on ther evel physical thenecktothe shuld acossthe cet, down ard Fines, butwe alhavethestme muscles underneath, sound he rcage, andthe fom the pst the gs Therefore the genera pattem ef bumps and cuves that _cotalthe movement ofthe body and ge form othe make pte shape and form of fue aeverysimlar___Stleton. Compare hs with the eawing atop et. From person to person's goed eat become fara ith he placement Fhe struts shown inthe ont ‘Ve (or) ad back ew (below so you cn beter vison he way the sn ys verte muses ores the hunan fom ‘Torso Musculature (Back) Th msi inthe back ofthe torso general estend ass the bey, ater than ‘upand down 2 nthe ort They Hod the Body erect, Steen tpt across the back when the ins move Forard Compare this wth the drawing 3 fae. ADULT BODY PROPORTIONS he proportional measurements of the parts of the human body vary slightly for every person, making them untqh paying atten- tion to these variations will help you render accurate likenesses, But first its important to understand how we're all the same by studying the average proportions of the human body, which are more apparent when we look at the skeletal and muscular views of the body. When drawing a figure, we measure in “heads,” the vertical distance from the top of the head to the chin. Use rough measure- ‘ments to help place the parts of your figure. If head or other body part appears too large or too small, you can check the body's pro= portions to correct the problem. ‘Skeletal Structure By sing Body Musculature Propriondrsr't tone srr, we can clofyseethe apply tolength lane—the thes of relaonshipa he ent ofeach partot the body a0 ust be proportionate This the body tte whole spect a papain are depending rain above wi help you aes these proportions based onan ea human cule Topo al be tom of chin 1 Bead (hint shuler Sieeat Top of solder tnchew = aeat Tz be Top ofa navel a I tt gets ria heat Pelvic are (id) are a hea Kee ale at? hea Ankle ae of foe Mate Proportions The average mae is Female Propertions The average proximately 71/2 hesdshigh ofcourse, females about alfa head shor han these proportions vay with ferent body the mle, o7 eats ih Ariss fen types Oenarstsuseantenctgh elongate the ema Fre, epeiy in Fgwetortnemaieas ane poprtan. _tshion davings. General teenie has than ama, but proportionally wie hips. 126 HANDS ‘ands are very complex and involve many _moveable elements, which can be a challenge to draw. Some positions of the hand are more difficult to draw than others. You may want to try posing a hand—yours or a model’s—in many dif- ferent positions and drawing them for practice, In general, draw men’s hands more angularly, with hheavier line quality; draw women’s hands lightly with smooth, graceful lines. When sizing a hand to a figure, remember that a hand is about the same length as the face, from chin to hairline. if hand fs posed in a way that does not allow you to see all the fingers, don't be tempted to draw what you can’t see oF it will look unnatural, Try not to be discouraged if your first few drawings aren't life- Hanp ANATOMY Bones and Muscles Suiyng he bones an musi fhe hand ca ely understand he om ‘nd movementf the hand Tht nun, can lp you render mate sce ings Nice hits ofthe gers, the eltionsip othe ter ges and how he bes and musts exe othe use of hehand like; hands definitely take a lot of practice! Differences in Male and Female Hands rete ands fa youn maried couple clr show how male and ema hands ae caw ferent The stone iting Isom above, resting bight highlights onthe backer te swoman'shan Wolding a Pen or Brush This du male hand holds 2 pitas, ut the same pose could had a pero peel The tong source om the a hig the ges andes the back th and ad wit sda Extended Versus Flded Fingers the shin athe base ote thumb stows more modeling ofl than the ther ‘nges.Ti viens trom above othe ila are on ‘hops fhe gers ad th skafows are beneath. [Making Fist The miso aged met her ould ‘befldng satin ight or tsinga too The hing isso and evenly bed rom a surest tothe vewerste, if ww ‘Showing an Open Palm An opens enderngot an aut emae's hand coul beat et sowing us sone ‘hinzin er hand or reaching something With ght from above te highlights ron he ops of the Fingers and pi ith the bck he hand sada A ¢ Playing an instrument inhi sew ofa young male's ans on keyboard several fhe ger ae not ible These hand aio ould epi reaching for someting. The ht heres tom abo, highiingthe backs of he FEET ‘oes are less flexible than fingers, so feet are not as complicated to draw as hands. Because feet have a unique structure, however 7 is still helpful to study the bones, muscles, and tendons to assist you in rendering accurate drawings. Practice drawing feet in vari- ‘ous views, as shown here, to build your skills x \ — X / ‘Arm and Hand theamatwoyestald usa abtpudy and HandandFagers Te backola—_Lageand Feet The gst so wich mats haswintestthejois Deepest tener eow adit ade’s Rants chy anaunded. her ak hap, to yer tes ae ately cnmon, sae dinleson hee ané nck TMefegesatepumpandfesyreet stot tun, and ney pees The bt st nets Sarg tooo an eh hs ae CHILDREN IN ACTION ‘ capture children’s actions, rain your eye to assess the essential elements of the movement, and then quickly draw what you see. One way to rapidly record details is through a gesture drawing, a quick sketch establishing a figure's pose. First determine the main thrust of the movement—or the line of action—from the head, down the spine, and through the legs. Then sketch general shapes around this line. As you can see hes ‘Step One pose ofthis nate canbe chalenging because stteboaiers often apperto dl rv! Butt cos ‘eon the same as you wolé any athe: Draw the tine of action dow te sie, ‘Step Two Her 2x3 nina shading feeder ie a, and detail are the best ways to keep the lane Keep he head inline with te__-‘MvETEn rom looking st Lose sped ps Tres around the boy’ hee, hand are satebord a inate notion, ‘Step One To cape he gesture ofthese boys est estabsh hele of clo: then Blocn he genera shapes suroudng ther Fr the boy on het. the eof action moves down hs spite andtvough hist eg, where his weighs alanced. The Boy on ‘hers ching wth his it grote the way te kick cases sb to end fo. ‘ard inorderto banc, caning the ie of actin athe Base os sie. ‘Step One Thisatet ore ae wo tne of ‘us down thee eg the Secondary estas a he lefthand und owe case the ches, down the ight ‘arm, 2né bough the gt hand Most of ne weight Isonthe ee he righ legis extended ora ee the bai neste ent arec he gre i oo ese aing ve quick sketch is all you need to capture the main gesture—and you always can add d Step Two Wher socks ina ting te shapes sa compeated pote uch ‘sth ene, is inpeant tokep in mind manyfthe onceps youve leamed inthis book nclaing the head and body proportions ana how freshening ecsthem. later. ‘Step Two Ater placing ies of ation conta blctng Inthe base shapes, 24d fe deta on ther heads, hans, fet, and thing, Keping the es ose arate ‘unto roosting, ut ou cn see how he Bos movements have ul the fabc taut some paces, CHOOSING A POSE Nieiersrzmots youtake going tobe good, ad not vey pone your model strikes is going to be perfect. Look for poses that are navural and balanced, not stiff or boring, Some movement or tension can make the pose ‘more interesting, but your subject should look stable and comfortable in the position, Unless in motion, the model should not have his or her arms and Tegs stretched out in all directions; instead, he or she should be more compact and relaxed. The pose should reflect the personality or interests ofthe subject. Take many photos to use as references, and evaluate them for suitability EVALUATING PHOTOS Selecting a Photo Reference InphatoA, ‘the sublet asa stable, compact pose but looks» it tif andrei person: iy dora stow trough The pose in photo Bis more related ut the boy looks te Inawhward postions: in adalah ight pose to represent his young man. He ks fulte confortable andi ands nd eet are Ingod, natura postions: Ns head istuned 23390" angles body whch Rls hve ome moverent an interest the os. The ihingis mor even 5 we Tis the best pose to use fra aving 28 Step One Using ap HB pert ack nthe eve Place theead above the eter the in bry esos ind ‘ted bythe vtech the shapes the es nd gs daning trough the overlap bad arts for comet placement. The vera certertineot the head Shows the hee quater vie. Add th hort gle lines forth fl features Seth the general shapes ct the shoes andthe nes fr the end fthe sorts andthe shi sleeve. Be sure he pose ard proprtons re acute before ang ary dtl, Step Two Now fstine fr sane defnition Face te faci entusres on the gudetoes. Remember: The guides ouleared about caries are sed on averages to {chive 2 oud kes, be sue follon your pho referanc and ast according fr example, courting forthe boys high forehead and wie ees nda the hal an ketch in tect, showing some of the als and winks. Sletchn the stapes othe fgets fis et and ac the bow of iri am. Ree the shapes of the shoes, an inate es ‘Step Three sete sidelines Thenuse a8 pene {arene the al etre andthe ha Gv the fingers ore reise shape, a ad theirs Reine the Shapes ofthe ams eg, acting removing uae ines wth aeaded erase Using arisen (he ans’ preogatvetogrore what actualy ext an to make changes, eens or ado) the auto decides tochane te shoelace ois nt shady stn at ane ae ‘Step Four sing» 28 pec bein shang the sr with strokes hat follow the decton af growth, etre arene ‘ofwhite paper ere the ight isthe a, Shade some lake areas round the ees, cheekBones, ard uncer the Ups aswel ar on the nel Use avery shar pencl and sal sokes forthe eebvons an ashes. Darke the "ees whee hey aren Sado hese stokes flow the ‘are ofthe leg ad hep show ks fom. See Shading the Forms" tight) Begin skate the arms and ther reas Inshaow, sch athe ends ofthe fingers, Ab more ‘shading the elting nd shes rendering atonal teas you go ‘Step Five sin aver shrp 28 pnd wth igh pressure, sha the face, kaving awh ighight on the ose and chin and esd ofthe ight nek thats in mare et sung To stow he deat oma thelace, ace you Shading stokes ery ose tgste nd fallow te contour the fae, often changing etn Shade the ars and legs using & lt presure forthe Lge aes; ress harder for der reas, eave a white hghght onthe tp thei arm to show her the sult rected lng the bck, leave a vertical area af wht ape toreprese the gt sung on the Shits eher os ofthe sian pnts also have Wilts. Use 38 pect ad some dark areasin the ar ain the Carkst reas ofthe sng befor switching backto the 28 perc The shoes cee ite more efring ad shading: a drawal the deta as they are ot nee. Ad soe ss, eaves, aa ite shading to show hat he boys siting ‘tsi, rave tof wie paper round hi, proving ver ite eta to he rss areatofep the focus nthe ey. SHADING THE FORMS ‘Shading with varying values—from black through all shades of gray to whiteenhances the illusion i ‘of depth in a drawing. fective shading also adds Iiteand realism toa drawing. When shading eylin-