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Types of Computer Systems

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Embedded Computers: They are usually found embedded in to a device, they have a limited amount of dedicated functions,
used in washing machines, microwaves, ovens.
Micro Computers: They are general purpose machines designed for individual use.
There are many types of Micro Computers:
Laptop: They are computers which are slightly heavier and larger than an A4 file.
Tablet Computer: These are laptop computers with a sensitive touch screen that can be used instead of a keyboard.
Smart Phones: They are hand held devices that generally have a touch screen. They are able to carry out similar functions
compared to that of a PDA. And currently it shares many functions with laptops.
Desktop: This consists of a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and a system unit. Those were the basic requirements.
Notebook: This is a small laptop computer. It is likely to be half the size of a laptop computer, lighter and easier to carry
Netbook: This is a very small computer optimized for internet access. It is light and easy to carry. Has a long battery life.
PDA/ Palmtop: It is a device that can fit in to your pocket, but it is too small for general use, it usually has a touch screen.
Games Consoles: It is a PC designed specifically to play games. It has a high HD capacity, high RAM.
Mini Computers: These were originally machines that were built as servers. They are smaller versions of mainframes in order
to serve the smaller organizations. E.g. for school servers.
Super Computers: It is a computer which is at the front line at processing capabilities. It is designed for a specific purpose.
Used in Physics calculations, weather forecasting, physical simulation and for research.

Uses of ICT Systems


Retail: For stock control, Loyalty Cards, E-Commerce, Advertising
Banking: For banking systems, ATM, Credit cards, Internet banking, telephone banking.
Administration: Financial accounting systems, databases, communication, planning, monitoring.
Manufacture: CAD, Process control, Robotics
Education: Online special needs learning, online tests, research, sending emails for collaboration
Entertainment: Online TV, Music, Multiplayer Games, watching movies
Communication: Video conferencing, texting, IM, Social Networking, Email
Number Crunching: Nuclear physics calculations, code breaking, mathematical calculations
Simulations: Pilot training, sales process. Military, disaster preparation
Modelling: Company profit graphs, Robotics
Stock Control: Databases for large companies
Logistics: Used to manage the flow of information and goods

Input Devices
QWERTY Keyboard: ADV: Quick entry of text, robust,
DISADV: Slow compared to OCR, Lot of desk space
Mouse: ADV: Portable/compact, fast navigation.
DISADV: Easily damaged, hard for disabled people, hard to enter text
Tracker ball: ADV: Does not require fine control, Disabled.
DISADV: Slower than mouse, not portable
Joysticks: ADV: Faster than keyboard, easy for gaming, control in 3D.
DISADV: Enter text is hard, Harder to control than mice
Webcam: ADV: Real time, face to face, instant, worldwide, cheap.
DISADV: Advanced features are costly, Eye contact is absent.

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OMR: ADV: Quick entry of text, some are accurate
DISADV: Rejection rate maybe high, Forms may be expensive to make
OCR: ADV: Faster than manual entry, easier for disabled,
DISADV: Many errors, not very accurate
Barcode Reader: ADV: Faster than keyboard, more accurate
DISADV: Expensive to make labels and the equipment.
Magnetic Strip: ADV: Fast Entry, Accurate, secure
DISADV: Easily damaged, easily demagnetized, therefore loss in speed
Smart Card Readers: ADV: Immediate updating, therefore no fraud, more secure
DISADV: Lost cards= no money, Stolen= fraud.
Chip and Pin Readers: ADV: Secure, Robust
DISADV: Forgot pin= no transaction, must memorize pin.

Output Devices:
Monitors: Cathoray Tube, Light Emitting Diode, Liquid Crystal Display, Thin Film Transistor
Projectors: CRT, LCD, DLP
Printers:

Dot matrix: Impact, loud, cheap, slow, cash register, multipart stationary
Inkjet: Quiet, fast, expensive, smudges, high per page cost
Laser: Costly machine, quietest, fastest, offices, can print many pages per cartridge
Plotter: Slow, Large scale, CAD.

Spooling: It is the print queue, when many print from a network, the spooler has the order in which the documents are printed
Buffering: It is a small memory found in the printer which allows the computer to do other tasks while the document is being printed
Storage Devices

Floppy Disk: 1.44 Mb, Slow Access, Light, portable, easily demagnetized.
Hard Disk: High Capacity, Several Disks. Fast access speed
Magnetic Tape: Light, compact, large capacity, slow serial access, backups
CD-ROM/DVD-ROM: Uses a laser beam, cannot alter or store new data, for games and encyclopedias
CD-R/DVD-R: Can only be written once
CD-RW/DVD-RW: Can be written many times
DVD-RAM: Written the most number of times, shortest read time, simultaneous access, expensive, not compatible with most
players.
Blu-Ray Disks: High storage capacity, fast read time, HD/3D movies, the disk and player is comparatively more expensive.
Flash Memory: Can be rewritten many times, high capacity, small, portable, easily lost.

Processing.
Control Unit: It controls the flow of data in to the CPU, it also controls the input and output of data from the CPU
Arithmetic and Logic Unit: Here, the computer processes data by either manipulating it or acting upon it. The arithmetic part is
involved in the calculations while the logic unit is involved in logic based actions
Immediate Access Store: RAM & ROM: It is the storage area within the CPU. It is memory with is immediately accessible by the CPU.
It may include Cache memory.
Motherboard: It is the central circuit board of a computer. All components, peripherals plug in to it. It holds the graphics, sound cards
and the NIC.
Memory:
The main memory present within the CPU is referred to the Primary memory or RAM. It stores everything that the processor is going to
use, there are two types of memory. Random Access Memory, Read Only Memory

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RAM

ROM

Volatile

Non-Volatile

Holds currently running programs

Holds the BIOS

Contents can be altered by users

Contents generally cannot be altered by users

Generally, the entire OS is not stored on the ROM because it makes the machine unupdateable. This is because the contents
of a ROM cannot be altered.
The entire BIOS is generally not stored on the ROM chips. This is because even the BIOS has user defined parameters.

RAM=Random Access Memory: It is the main memory of a computer, it is volatile. All the required programs for processing is stored
here
ROM=Read Only Memory: It stores the BIOS, it is permanent, and however modern day tech uses an EEPROM which is editable.
There are many types of ROM. ROM, PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM.
Cache Memory: It is a special type of memory that is accessed faster than the RAM, if the files are on the cache the system will quickly
upload it, however if not the system will access the hard disk and save a temporary copy on the cache memory.
Speed
Hard Disk

RAM

CACHE

CPU

Capacity

Software:
Programs that run on our computer systems that allows hardware to do something useful.
There are two types of software: System Software, Applications software.
System Software:

Operating System: A program that allows applications software to communicate with the hardware.
Tasks: Security, Organize files and folders, Manages data transfer to the CPU, Resource allocation, provides a user interface,
error handling.
Utility Programs: It is designed to carry out 1-2 vital tasks.
E.G File compression, Disk defragmentation, file repair, file conversion.
Drivers: It translate the OS commands to a form which the hardware understands

Applications Software.

Carries out tasks that the user is interested in doing.


General Purpose Software: Relatively cheap, easily available, no serious bugs, lots of support
Specialist Software: These packages arent generally available in shops, purchased directly from the manufacturer, it
anticipates what a firm will need.
Bespoke Software: When firms are unsatisfied with specialist software or GPS, the advantages are that the exact
requirement is met, and it only contains the required features. However it takes a long time to develop and it is costly.
Integrated Package: Some manufacturers put a selection of popular general purpose software and sell it as a single package.
It is cheaper and it is generally more attractive to customers.

Types of Applications Software.


Word Processing Software: It is used to write letters, memos, or to mail merge, Can easily alter mistakes, can cut
and paste, can format text, add pictures etc. WYSIWYG.
Spreadsheet Software: It is used for calculations, for modelling, for forecasting. Can do quick calculations, graphs.
Presentation Software: It is used to make slideshows, meetings, education. Can have multimedia, looks professional, low skill
requirement. However, too much text=hard to read, distracting, requires a lot of care.
Project Management: Manage projects, shows the deadline, completed tasks, TODO, it increases worker collaboration, also
increases efficiency.
Types of Software

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Freeware: It is some free relatively simple applications which may have some limitations.
Shareware: Limited versions of commercial software with a trial period.
Open Source: Free software with its source code released. Other people can freely alter it.
Commercial Software: Software which is either licensed or sold.

A license is an agreement where the software developer grants 1-... copies of his software for a fixed period of time.

Data

Data is information which lacks meaning.


ASCII Code: American Standard Code for Information Interchange, it interprets letters and numbers.
Bit: It is the smallest unit of data storage. Consists of 1s and 0s
8bits=1 byte, 1024b=1Kb, 1024Kb=1Mb, 1024Mb=1Gb, 1024Gb=1Tb.

Selecting Computer Systems: Considerations.

What it costs, reliability, how well it performs the task, ease of use.
Processor, Memory/RAM, HD Capacity, Monitor, Printer
Icon Size, Screen Resolution, Screen Contrast, Mouse Controls, Font Size, Wallpaper.

Networks.

A network is two or more connected devices that can share resources and communicate
LOCAL AREA NETWORK.
A LAN Connects computers over a small geographical area, usually owned by someone, can be either wired or wireless.
Features: Centralized Backup/Administration, Data and hardware sharing, communication.

Client server networks: Each client is connected to the server, clients communicate through the server, Requires a Network Operating
System, High RAM and storage capacity.
Types of Servers: Print Server, File Server, Database Server.
Peer to Peer networks do not use a server, equal rights and limited size.
Advantages: Reduced cost of software licenses, peripherals are shared, data is shared, administration and backup is centralized,
share internet connection and multi terminal access.
Disadvantages: Special security measures are required, higher risk of virus infection, high chance of data corruption as there are
many users, if the server fails, many users are affected
Wired LAN: a cable is connected to either the network hub, the switch or the bridge.
Wireless LAN: They send and receive data from WAPs.

Wired LAN

Wireless LAN

Faster

Slower

Long Range

Short Range (can be boosted)

More secure

WEP: not secure

More reliable

Less Reliable

Costly, immobile

Cheap, Mobile

Wide Area Network

It is the largest type of computer network. It covers the entire world.


No owner.
Linked by public telecommunication links.

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EG: The Internet: contained many linked but separately administered networks.
VPN: A private network which runs with a public one
Intranet: It is a localized version of the internet. It is owned by someone and it is limited to an organization. Follows the TCP/IP
protocol.
Extranet: It is an intranet which allows limited access to external users.

Broadband: It is data transfer by using ADSL links, it has a very high bandwidth
Narrowband: It is data transfer using dialup. Very low bandwidth
Bandwidth: It is the amount of data transferred over a network at a given time.
Connection Methods:

Wireless: IR, Bluetooth, Radio waves, WIFI


Wired: Fiber Optic, Copper Cable, and Coaxial Cable.

Networking Hardware:

Dongle: It is a device that is plugged in to the USB port of a computer, it provides mobile broadband.
Modem: It converts digital signals in to analogue and vice versa.
ISP: It is a certain company that provides internet access for a price.
Router: It distributes an internet connection from a single access point.
Signal Booster: It amplifies signals thereby increasing the range.
Network Interface Card: It is a device that allows a computer to connect to a network.
Hub/Switch/Ethernet Bridge: It is a device used to connect two similar networks together. Also it connects the computer to a
server.
Gateway: It is a combination of software and hardware, which connects two different types of networks together.

Connecting to the Internet

The internet is known as the network of networks, it consists of many networks which are individually owned and administered.
It has no owner; it is the biggest WAN.
Requirements: Modem, Router, NIC, Dongle, USB, Web Browser, Communications software, ISP.
An ISP: Provides internet access for a price.

Advantages of Broadband: The Downloads are fast, doesnt tie up phone line, cheap phone calls, video chat
Disadvantages of Broadband: It is expensive, may not be available in a certain area.
Advantages of Mobile Access: Can work and access from anywhere, increases productivity.
Disadvantages of Mobile Access: Addictive, expensive, security issues, the feeling that you cannot escape work.

Network Security:
Physical safeguards:

Access control: restricting unauthorized people from accessing critical ICT systems through the use of locks such as
biometric scanners, keycards, entry codes
Access monitoring: CCTV cameras in ICT rooms that capture the people that enter or leave a room
Data security: Backups taken and placed in another secure location
Contingency plans: so that the ICT systems recover swiftly or receive no interruption

Software safeguards:

Using Usernames and passwords


Set access rights: it allows prevents internal sabotage: Only people who are supposed to access the data can access it.*
Other rights such as editing, reading, copying, executing can be restricted
File level passwords: It restricts access to certain files by setting a password: This means that only people with the password
and file access rights can access the data
Use a virus scanner: It prevents viruses from entering the system and damaging or copying the software and data

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Use a firewall: It is a program or hardware or even a combination of both, it filters the information entering through an
internet connection in to a computer or a network. It is usually positioned at a Gateway. [It protects a computer/network from
external threats] * some firewalls even act as a spam filter, cookie blocker, and some even block pop-up adverts
Data encryption: it is a method of scrambling data so that unauthorized users cannot understand the data. An Encryption
Key is required to make sense of the data. Data is usually encrypted during storage. [WLANs are encrypted using WEP or
WPA].
Transaction logs: It automatically tracks alterations to ICT systems, this includes the person who has altered it, and all the
changes made.
Backups can be taken: this does not prevent data from being damaged. But it makes sure that even if your data is altered
there is a spare copy use.

Individual Responsibility

Make sure that other people arent looking when youre typing passwords
Do not share personal information online with strangers.
Make sure that the wireless networks that you are using are secure
Set strong passwords

Backup considerations: Medium, Frequency, specific files, capacity of medium, where to physically store medium.

Common Internet Services.


ISP: It is a company that provides internet access for a price.
It has many services: Internet access, messaging, news streams, E-Mail Addresses, Website hosting, telephone calls, Filter software,
search engines, forums, chatrooms, web hosting etc.
The WWW is a multimedia service that runs on the internet it contains hypertext and hypermedia on documents. It offers these through
HTTP
Online Communication.
1) Email

E-Mail: It is a system designed to transfer data from one computer to another over a computer network.
There are two types of E-Mail: Web based and Client based
Web based emails are accessed through the WWW. EG Hotmail
Client based emails are accessed by only one specific computer. EG: POP3 server

2) Newsgroups

A newsgroup is a group of people who post messages about a single topic


The services: Post, reply,comment

3) Forums (Bulletin Boards/Discussion Area)

It is a virtual public meeting place that allows the open discussion of various topics.

4) Chatroom

It is a website or part of a website that allows people with similar interests to communicate real-time.
Features: Can pick a chatroom of your choice, choose username and password, reply, list of people online.
Advantages: It is a form of direct communication, well monitored, can stay anonymous
Disadvantages: Addictive, Cyber Stalking, Blackmail, Pedophiles

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5) Instant Messaging

It is sending real time messages to another internet user.EG: Skype, WhatsApp, Kik
Features: You can send notes, multimedia, create a group, share files
Advantages: More private than a chatroom, faster than email, cheaper than long distance phone calls
Disadvantages: Not more secure than Emails, virus threats, predators

Search Engines: A search engine searches documents in the WWW for specific keywords, thereby helping the user to locate sites on
the WWW.
Filter Software: It is used to control the sites accessed. You must give specific keywords, all sites containing this keyword are blocked.
Or you could block a specific URL= Uniform Resource Locator.
Intranets.

Intranet: localized version of the internet which is limited to a company. It uses the same TCP/IP Protocol as the internet.
Extranet: It is an intranet which allows limited external user access.
Virtual Private Network: It is an extremely secure part of the internet that runs within a public network.
Facilities and Internet Styled Services: Forums, IM, Email, Search Engines (As intranets are highly monitored, inappropriate
material rarely is seen.
Non Internet Styled Services: Internal Notice Board, Calendars and schedules, Templates, Training courses, Central
repository for data.
Benefits: Increased Employee collaboration, keeps workers on track, only relevant information is stored, media sharing.

Access:

Anyone can access the internet, and the company website. All registered customers can access the extranet. Only members
of the organization can access the intranet

Benefits of an Extranet: Customer satisfaction, requires less branches, a single user interface is created between you and your
business partner.
Benefits of a website: Cheaper than printed advertising, improved credibility, and reputation, accessible 24/7, easily updated.
Impacts of ICT

Flexible
FlexibleWorking
Working
Better
information
Betteraccess
accesstoto
information
New Job Opportunities
New Job Opportunities
New Ways of Learning
New range
Ways of
of leisure
Learning
Wider
and entertainment
Wider
range
of
leisure
and
Less pollution
Crime
prevention
entertainment
Job
losses
Less pollution
Digital divide
Crime prevention
Lack of privacy
Job losses
Addiction
Digital divide
Obesity
Crime
Lack of privacy
Less social interaction

Teleworking

Advantages
No time wasted travelling to work
Lower transport cost
Less stress
Less office related distractions
Can balance family and work
Can do part time jobs
Disadvantages

Addiction

Children are a distraction


No access to specialist features

Obesity

Isolation

Crime

Too relaxed

Firms:

Less social interaction

(Teleworking)

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Low office space is required


Higher productivity of workers

Improved communications
E-Transactions

Can employ on a global scale

Better training
Web Advertising
Higher worker collaboration

Worker productivity may decrease- complacency

However: Security Issues

Managers may lose control of employees

Shortage of skilled employees

Workers may not be available in emergencies

Increased competition

ICT Legislation

Data Protection Act: 1998


Its purpose was to ensure that any data collected about an individual is collected, stored and processed in a fair and proper
manner.
Data Subject: The person regarding whom the data is collected
Data Controller: A person who will access, use or process personal data as a part of their job
Data Commissioner: He is the individual appointed by the government to make sure that firms follow the DPA
Sensitive Data: Data that organizations cannot collect without a valid reason

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Data must be processed fairly and lawfully


Must be obtained for specific lawful purposes
Adequate, relevant, not excessive
Accurate and up to date
Kept no longer than necessary
Processed within the rights of the data subject
Kept secure against loss
Not transferred outside the EU

Computer Misuse Act 1990


It covers: Unauthorized access to material and components, fraud, release of viruses, worms, Trojans and other destructive
software, stealing money from an EFTPOS, Altering and destroying data, Phishing

The Copyrights, Designs and Patent Act: 1989


It covers the following, stealing software and illegally using software and manuals
Fair Use: Reproduction of material of research and educational use only
File Swapping: Exchange of materials such as, audio, video over the internet without the owners consent
Licenses: They give you permission to use a product for a specific time period within the terms and conditions. It must be
purchased.

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Effects of ICT

Payroll: It is used in swipe cards or biometric scanners, the input data is clock in, clock out and employee no., validation
checks are required. The range check is required to see whether the employee has worked for the allotted amount of time,
presence check to mark attendance.
Airline Booking Systems: It uses large mainframe computers, a desktop PC with broadband is used to access the
mainframe, must be immediately updated, and requires multi terminal access to increase speed. Also direct access is required
to boost speed.
Supermarket Stock Control: The barcode stores the: Product code, expiry date. The price and name of the item is obtained
from the database by cross referencing the product code. All items and the cost is printed on the receipt. The amount of stock
decreases automatically with each purchase. When the stock reduces below the reorder point, stocks are immediately
reordered. When the stocks arrive, the quantity delivered is added at a terminal. Also a maximum stock level must be
maintained.
Supermarkets (General uses): It is used to monitor staff performance. Also to find a pattern of sales. E.g. a seasonal pattern
of sales. Also it is used to calculate the extent of theft.
Banking: Internet banking: Less staff is required, open 24/7, customers dont waste time or money, running internet services
has its own cost, less branches are required, customers may feel insecure about the security of their data, may have to spend
money on the training of existing staff.
ATM: It may cause unemployment, people may forget pins, the machine may run out of cash, it is open 24/7, it is much faster
as it is an automated process and no human error occurs, less branches and staff are required, ATM is cheaper to install than
branches. Firms can charge a price for using the ATM. Hence it is a source of revenue: Services: Transfer funds, withdraw
money, deposit money, receipt, and pay bills.
EFTPOS (Electronic Fund Transfer at Point of Sale): It is used to transfer funds between one bank account and another.
Used for credit cards, debit cards.
Computer Aided Design: Can be used to design 3D buildings, machine parts. You can view an image in 3D/2D, you can
view from any angle, you can rotate images, you can increase the object size without a loss in clarity.
Advantages: extremely accurate, easy to make copies, can be made faster and cheaper.
Disadvantages: CAD software is expensive, staff needs to be trained, and it requires a PC.
Computer Aided Manufacturing: It is used to control a manufacturing plant. It makes sure that products ore of a consistent
standard, faster production, able to control the quality.
Computer Aided Engineering: It can analyze the engineering designs produced by CAD programs, it can stimulate a variety
of conditions.
Weather Stations: Sensors, data loggers, it can forecast the weather based on previous data.
Weather Forecasting: A super computer uses mathematical models to forecast the weather.
Process Control: Data from production can be stored, useful for error handling. Also it can do repetitive jobs, causes
unemployment, data could be corrupted, safety can be carefully monitored, can work non-stop, product quality can be
maintained. Robots cannot make their own decisions.
Flight Simulators: It enables pilots to train without any risk to passengers, their selves and aircrafts. It creates a realistic
environment with unusual scenarios.
Logistics: Logistics is the organization of the flow of goods and information. Control of the efficient storage and delivery of
goods, it is used to optimize the supply chain.
Education: VLE: Students can study at their own pace, causes the isolation of students, may not appeal to all students,
practicals may not be as good as real life, resources are available at all times, teachers can support students at any time.
CAL: can contain simulations, students obtain immediate feedback. School Information and Management Systems: School
administration tasks are carried out. E.g. Libraries: EBooks, record of borrowed books, catalogue of available books. However,
teachers may not be ICT trained. Also if the network fails, the students are helpless.
Leisure: The internet can be used to communicate between family and friends. Includes media streaming, computer games,
and social media.

Legal Constraints of ICT:

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Music Downloads: Downloading music and other forms of intellectual property for free is illegal and is governed by the
Copyrights and Patents Act. This affects the government, music industry and possibly even the user if he downloads a virus.
Remember that even though material on the internet is free, it doesnt mean that its legal.
Acknowledgement of Sources: whenever you copy words directly from the author, you must quote. Also you must
paraphrase which is essentially, putting things in to your own words. Furthermore, you must refer to all intellectual material
which you have used. Make sure that all of your citing is in the same style. E.g. the author-date method, you must put the
name of the author, and the year it was published. Then you must create a bibliography of all your sources at the end.
Avoiding Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the copying of someone elses work and passing it off as your own. Plagiarism is
increasingly easier to commit due to the presence of the internet.
You could Paraphrase: this means that you understand a text and write it in your own words. You must refer to make sure that
the facts are correct. You could use quotation marks; you must put the exact words in quotation marks. You must cite
sources; it is when you mention where you got your information from.
Getting Permissions: You must contact the publisher and author to request for the permission, you must fill in a form, and
you must credit both the author and the publisher.

Interface Features

Desktop: It gives you access to items that are on your hard disk, it is used to store frequently used items.
Window: It is a rectangular subdivision of a screen, it enables the user to view the output of the program, and many can be
opened at a time.
Dialogue Box: It is a temporary display window that offers advice, information that requires a response.
Menu: It is a list of tasks that can be carried out by a computer system.
Sub Menu: It is a secondary menu that appears when youre holding a cursor over the primary menu.
Toolbar: It is a group of screen buttons that is equivalent to a menu, it presents the tools available and it contains the actions
that a software can do.
Scrollbar: It is the control at the side or the bottom of the window that you can use with a mouse to view a document that does
not fit in the screen
Drag and Drop: It is generally dragging an object to another area.
Minimize: it is reducing the window to an icon in the task bar
Maximize: It is when you enlarge a window to its full size
Wizard: It is a form of guidance that is provided by a software.

Types of User Interfaces


1.

2.

3.

4.

Command Line Interface: E.g. MSDOS, it requires less virtual memory, it does not use as much CPU processing time, and it
is faster for trained people. However, you must know the exact instruction, you must know most of the instructions, also
looking up instructions takes time.
Menu Driven Interface: it has a hierarchical structure, E.g. an ATM or the start menu. No need to memorize the commands. It
is easy to use if it is well designed. Also it does not require a lot of virtual memory. However, it would be a pain if there were
too many levels. Also if the menu doesnt make logical sense.
Speech Driven Interface: The user must speak a command to the interface, it is useful for pilots, surgeons and drivers. The
advantages lie in the fact that its hand free and that its faster than typing if recognized. It is also suitable for disabled people.
However, there is a lack of privacy in public areas, and it is slow if not recognized, also background noise may play a major
role in the accuracy of the functionality of this interface.
Graphical User Interface: It uses icons to represent commands, it is a type of interface that has a desktop on which WIMP is
displayed, it user controls the GUI by the use of a mouse. The advantages are: It is the most user-friendly, it is devoid of
complex codes, shortcuts allow the bypass of the menu structure, it can be easily customized. However, it uses a lot of CPU
and virtual memory to run. It is also slow for experienced CLI users. It also takes up a lot of space on the hard disk.
Files and Folders:
A folder is an icon that represents a directory which may contain related files and folders
A sub folder is a folder created inside of another folder to improve classification

Health and Safety Issues.

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Safety Rules:

No trailing wires
No food/drink near machines
Electrical sockets must not be overloaded
Suitable heating and ventilation.
Work desks must be strong enough to support the equipment.
Fire extinguishers for electrical fires
Fire exits must be clearly marked.

Ergonomics: It is the study of the designing of safe, comfortable machines that are suitable for human use. The usual approach
improves adjustability

Health

Eye strain: Symptoms includes, burning eyes, blurred vision. Solutions: Monitors must not flicker, window blinds, screen filter,
18 inch viewing distance, regular breaks.
Back Pain: This is a result of poor posture. It is easy to avoid. You must have a fully adjustable chair, footrests, do not slouch,
monitor must be adjustable.
RSI: It is repeated damage to the wrist etc. as a result of repeated actions. Symptoms includes, pain, swelling, weakness, pins
and needles. It is caused by using a mouse for too long, poor keyboard, chair at the wrong height. It can be prevented by, wrist
rests, and ergonomic keyboard, regular breaks. You must ensure that the height of the chair is suitable.

Computer systems are also considerably damaged by dust, thats why dust filters are placed, and equipment must be consistently
vacuumed.

Security

Adware: Advertising supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays or downloads
advertisements to a computer. While the application is still being used. Adware is seen by the developer as a way to cover the
cost of development. These are seen by disruptions by users.
Spyware: It is a type of malware that is installed on computers and it collects tiny bits of information at a time without the
users knowledge. It is generally hidden from users and it is hard to detect. It may also have business applications where it is
used by owners to monitor employees. Spyware programs can collect various types of information such as internet surfing
habits, can lower internet speeds, it can install more programs and redirect webpages.
Trojan: It is an application that may appear to do something useful however in reality, it is a malicious program that operates
in the background without the users knowledge. It may act as a key logger, it allows remote control, screenshotting, and web
camera access.
Worms: They spread on their own through a computer network. They reduce the bandwidth and memory available.
Virus: It is a software program designed to copy itself and attach to other files/programs. Also it is designed to create
inconvenience and it is generally malicious.

Data Security:

Create backups
Keep the copies safe
Keep passwords and pins a secret
Regularly change passwords
Virus protection: You must have an updated virus guard
To prevent unauthorized access, use a firewall, encryption, hierarchy of passwords, and file access rights.
A firewall is a combination of hardware and software that monitors the data packets entering and leaving the network. It denies
or permits applications based on the protocol assigned.
Encryption: It is encoding or scrambling data in to a form which is incomprehensible without the encryption key

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How Antivirus software works: It looks for the virus patterns according to its database, identifies and destroys the virus or
places in quarantine. It must be updated.

How to Stay Safe?

A well updated virus scanner


Scanning all incoming E-Mails
Not opening suspicious attachments
Dont click on websites with unrealistic offers
Dont let people just plug a pen drive in, scan it and check for viruses
Back up your system regularly

Legal Implications of spreading viruses: It is illegal, covered by the computer misuse act of 1990, unlimited fine, and 5+
years of jail time.
Viruses are spread by emails, pen drives, and the internet through peer to peer sharing.
Accidental deletion can be stopped by backups, data recovery software, file access rights, hierarchy of passwords, read only.

Types of ICT Based Communication.

E-Mail
Conference/Video Calls
Social Networking
IM
Games
Blogs (Web logs)
Forums

Do not include tradenames.

How to Stay Safe on Social Media Sites.

Avoid inappropriate disclosure of personal information to unauthorized sources.


Use social networks with caution
Avoid the misuse of images
Use appropriate language
Respect confidentiality
Use copy lists with discrimination.

Precautions to Stay Safe Online.

Dont give out personal information to strangers


Use copy lists with care
Use social networking sites with care
Use appropriate privacy settings
Do not post pictures detailing your location
Dont become friends with friends of friends
Do not arrange physical meetings with strangers
Do not post inappropriate pictures

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Types of ICT Based Sources

CD
DVD
Text Messages
Podcast
Web Logs
Web Based Reference Sites

Searching the Web for Information.

Search Engine: It is a website which helps you to find other websites based on the keywords provided. E.g Google, Yahoo,
Bing, ASK
How They Work: A website requires keywords to go along with it, these words are known as meta tags, when someone
submits a website, they are required to provide meta tags to go along with it.
A search engine identifies meta tags by using web crawlers.

Search Techniques.

Implied Boolean Searches: Uses symbols such as + or or


Domain Search: It allows you to limit your search to specific domains. E.g .gov, .com
URL Search: It allows you to limit your search to web pages that have the specific word in their URL
Logical Operators: and, or, not
Wildcard Searches: *

Types of Domains

.gov - Government
.com International Company
.co- Company
.org- Organization
.ac- Academy
.sch- School
.ed/edu- Education
.net- Network of websites

Selecting Information from Sources and evaluating the fitness for purpose.
You Must Consider:

Bias- One sided judgement


Intention of the Provider: It is important in judging the accuracy and level of bias.
Authority of Provider: It also plays a significant part in identifying the accuracy of data
Currency- Data constantly becomes outdated. It is wise to obtain the latest data for research
Relevance: A good search engine is required; you must make sure that the data fits your criteria.

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