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Problem 1
NOTATION
Firstly, we must change the host IP address to a binary number. I will show
you the way to change it below. It is the easy way.
Change 172 to binary number
We must multiply number 2 until it reach the number 128.
20 = 1
21 = 2
23 = 4
24 = 8
25 = 16
26 = 32
27 = 64
28 = 128
Then do 8 columns to represent the coloured number.
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

12
8
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

When we change 172 to binary number, we must subtract the 172

using
the coloured number until the last answer is 0.

172
- 128
44
- 32
12
8
4
4
0

If you used the coloured number in the box

when you subtract, you write number 1. But if
you dont use the coloured number, you write
number 0.
And the final answer is 10101100
You just repeat this step to the next decimal
number to change it into binary number.
10101100.00011110.00000001.00100001
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS

By counting the number of host bits, we can determine the total number
of subnet bits for this network.
SUBNET S IS THE NUMBER ONE IN
11111111.11111111.11111111.00
000000
Subnet bits=8

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

The way to calculate the subnet is by using this formula:
Subnets = a
2a = b
Example:
Subnets =8
28 = 256

4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET

By counting the number of host bits, we can determine the total number
of subnet bits for this network.
SUBNET S IS THE NUMBER ZERO
11111111.11111111.11111111.00
000000
Host bits=8

5. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF USABLE HOST PER SUBNET

2a = b
28 = 256
= 256 2
= 254#

Arrange the binary notation of the IP address and the binary notation of
the network mask like the following below

172
.
30
.
1
.
0
from binary to decimal)

NOTES:
First method
1 AND 1 RESULTS IN A 1, 0
AND ANYTHING RESULTS IN A
0
Second method
1 MULTIPLE BY 1 THE ANSWER
IS 1, AND IF 1 MULTIPLE BY 0

7. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF FIRST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

To determine the IP address of first host, you just change the last number
10101100.00011110.00000001.00000001 (first host)
=
172
.
30
.
from binary to decimal)

(after changed

8. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF LAST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

To determine the IP address of last host, you just invert the last number
eight in first host
10101100.00011110.00000001.00000001 (first host)
10101100.00011110.00000001.11111110 (last host)
=
172
.
30
.
from binary to decimal)

254

(after changed

To determine the IP address of first host, you just change the last number
in last host to 1
10101100.00011110.00000001.11111110 (last host)
=
172 .
30
.
from binary to decimal)

255

(after changed

Add this information to the table:

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet
IP address of First Host on this
Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet

172.30.1.33
255.255.0.0
8
256
2
254
172.30.1.0
172.30.1.1
172.30.1.254
172.30.1.255

Problem 2
NOTATION
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100
2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS
Subnet bits: 14 (subnet mask =
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100)

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

Subnets =14
214 = 16384
4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET
Subnet bits: 2 (subnet mask =

11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100)

22 = 4
=42
= 2#

X 11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 11111100 Subnet Mask

= 10101100 .00011110 .00000001. 00100000 Subnet Address
= 172
.
binary to decimal)

30

32

(changed from

7. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF FIRST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 000000 00 (Subnet Address)
=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 001000 01 (1ST Host) (changed from
0 to 1)
=
172
.
30
.
1
.
32
(changed from binary to
decimal)

8. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF LAST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 000000 01 (1st Host IP Address)
=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 001000 10 (Last Host IP Address)
=
172
.
30
.
1
.
34
(changed from binary to
decimal)

=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 111111 10

=10101100. 00011110. 00000001. 001000 11

=
172
.
30
.
(changed from binary to decimal)

35

Add this information to the table

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

172.30.1.33
255.255.255.252
14
16384
2
2
172.30.1.32

IP address of First Host on this

Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet

172.30.1.33
172.30.1.34
172.30.1.35

Problem 3
NOTATION
192.192.10.234 =
1100000.11000000.00001010.11101010
255.255.255.0 =
11111111.111111111.11111111.00000000
2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS
Subnet bits: 8 (subnet mask 11111111 .11111111 .11111111.
00000000)

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

Subnets =8
28 = 256
4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET
11111111.11111111.11111111.000000000)

5. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF USABLE HOST PER SUBNET

28 = 256
= 256 2
= 254#
11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .11101010 IP address
11111111 .11111111 .11111111 .00000000 Subnet Mask
11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .00000000 Subnet Address
= 192
decimal)

192

10

7. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF FIRST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .00000000

(Subnet

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .00000001 (1ST Host) (changed from

0 to 1)
=
192
.
192
.
10 .
1
(changed from binary to
decimal)

8. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF LAST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .00000000

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .11111110

=
192
.
192
.
10 .
254
decimal)

(changed from binary to

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .00000000

=11000000 .11000000 .00001010 .11111111

=
192
.
192
.
(changed from binary to decimal)
Add this information to the table

10

255

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet
IP address of First Host on this
Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet

192.192.10.234
255.255.255.0
8
256
8
254
192.192.10.0
192.192.10.1
192.192.10.254
192.192.10.255

Problem 4
NOTATION
172.17.99.71 =
255.255.0.0
= 11111111.111111111.00000000.00000000
2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000)

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

Subnets =0

20 = 1
4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET
11111111.11111111.00000000.000000000)

216 = 65536
= 65536 2
= 65534#

10101100 .00010001 .01100011 .001000111 IP address

11111111 .11111111 .00000000 .00000000 Subnet Mask
10101100 .00010001 .00000000 .00000000 Subnet Address
= 172
decimal)

17

7. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF FIRST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=10101100 .00010001 .00000000 .00000000 (Subnet Address)
=10101100 .00010001 .00000000 .00000001 (1ST Host) (changed from 0
to 1)
=
172
.
17
.
0
.
1
(changed from binary to
decimal)

8. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF LAST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=10101100 .00010001 .00000000 .00000001

=10101100 .00010001 .11111111 .11111110 (Last Host IP Address)

=
172
.
17
.
255
.
254 (changed from binary to
decimal)

=10101100 .00010001 .00000000.11111110

=
172
.
17
.
(changed from binary to decimal)

255

255

Add this information to the table

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet
IP address of First Host on this
Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet

172.17.99.71
255.255.0.0
0
1
16
65536
172.17.99.0
172.17.99.1
172.17.255.254
172.17.255.255

Problem 5
NOTATION
192.168.3.219 =
11000000.10101000.00000011.11011011
255.255.255.0 =
11111111.111111111.11111111.00000000
2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS

11111111.11111111.111111111.00000000)

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

Subnets =8
28 = 256
4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET
Subnet bits: 8 (subnet mask 11111111.11111111.
11111111.000000000)

5. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF USABLE HOST PER SUBNET

28 = 256
= 256 2
= 254#
11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .11011011 IP address
11111111 .11111111 .11111111 .00000000 Subnet Mask
11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .00000000 Subnet Address
= 192
decimal)

168

7. DETERMINE THE IP ADDRESS OF FIRST HOST ON THIS SUBNET

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .00000000

(Subnet

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .00000001 (1ST Host) (changed from

0 to 1)
=
192
.
168 .
3
.
1
(changed from binary to
decimal)

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011.11111110 (Last Host IP Address)

=
192
.
168 .
3
.
254 (changed from binary to
decimal)

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011. 11111110

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011. 11111111

=
192
.
168 .
(changed from binary to decimal)

255

Add this information to the table

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet
IP address of First Host on this
Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet

Problem 6

192.168.3.219
255.255.255.0
8
256
8
254
192.168.3.0
192.168.3.1
192.168.3.254
192.168.3.255

NOTATION
192.168.3.219 =
11000000.10101000.00000011.110110 11
255.255.255.0 =
11111111.111111111.11111111.111111 00

2. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNET BITS

11111111.11111111.111111111.11111100)

3. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SUBNETS

Subnets =14
214 = 16384
4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST BITS PER SUBNET
Subnet bits: 2 (subnet mask 11111111.11111111. 11111111 .
000000000)

5. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF USABLE HOST PER SUBNET

22 = 4
=42
= 2#
11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .110110 11 (IP address)
11111111 .11111111 .11111111 .111111 00 (Subnet Mask)
= 11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .110110 00 (Subnet Address)
= 192
.
168
binary to decimal)

216

(changed from

(Subnet

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .110110 01 (1ST Host) (changed from

0 to 1)
=
192
.
168 .
3
.
217
(changed from binary to
decimal)

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .110110 10 (Last Host IP Address)

=
192
.
168 .
3
.
218
(changed from binary
to decimal)

=11000000 .10101000 .00000011 .11011010

=
192
.
168
from binary to decimal)

218

(changed

Add this information to the table

Number of Subnet Bits
Number of Subnets
Number of Host Bits per Subnet
Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet
IP address of First Host on this
Subnet
IP address of Last Host on this
Subnet