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Table of Contents

1.0 DESIGN OF A QUENCH TOWER..................................................................................4


1.1 Problem Statement........................................................................................................4
1.2 General Overview on Quench Towers..........................................................................4
1.2.1 Spray towers...........................................................................................................4
1.2.2 Venture scrubber.....................................................................................................5
1.2.3 Packed tower...........................................................................................................6
1.3 MATERIAL BALANCE...............................................................................................6
Chemical engineering design..............................................................................................8
1.4.1 The density of the gas mixture is calculated as......................................................8
1.4.2 The volumetric flowrate of the gas (QG) can be calculated by...............................9
1.4.3 The ratio of the liquid mass flow rate to the gas mass flow rate is given by..........9
1.4.5 Calculation of pressure drop at flooding..............................................................10
1.4.6 Superficial gas velocity calculation......................................................................10
1.4.7 The diameter of the column can be calculated from.............................................11
1.4.8 The wall factor can be important for columns with an inadequate ratio of
effective particle diameter to inside column diameter, and is given by:.......................12
1.4.9 The effective particle diameter, dp, is given by.....................................................12
1.4.10 The Reynolds number of the gas can be calculated as.......................................13
1.4.11 Calculation of dry-gas-pressure drop..................................................................13

1.4.12 The liquid mass velocity can be calculated as....................................................14


1.4.13 The Froude number of the liquid can be calculated as:......................................14
1.4.14 Calculation of specific liquid holdup.................................................................15
1.4.15 Calculation of pressure drop when the bed is irrigated......................................16
1.4.16 Height Equivalent of Theoretical Plate (HETP).................................................16
1.4.17 Number of Transfer Units (NTU).......................................................................17
1.4.18 Height of Overall Gas Transfer Unit (HOG)......................................................18
1.4.19 COLUMN HEIGHT...........................................................................................18
1.5 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS...............................................20
1.5.1 Design Pressure....................................................................................................20
1.5.2 Design Temperature..............................................................................................20
1.5.3 Minimum Vessel Thickness..................................................................................20
1.5.4 Dead Weight of Vessel..........................................................................................21
1.5.5 Weight of Empty Vessel........................................................................................21
1.5.6 Wind Loading.......................................................................................................21
1.5.7 Analysis of Stress..................................................................................................22
1.5.8 Dead-Weight Stress...............................................................................................22
1.5.9 Total Longitudinal Stress......................................................................................23
1.5.10 Maximum Stress Intensity..................................................................................23
1.5.11 Vessel Support.....................................................................................................23
REFERENCES..................................................................................................................28
2

Tables
Table 1.1 Inlet stream of quench tower...6
Table 1.2 Outlet 1 of quench tower.7
Table 1.3 Outlet 2 of quench tower.8
Table 1.4 Summary of chemical engineering design of quench tower.19
Table 1.5 Summary of mechanical engineering calculations27

1.0 DESIGN OF A QUENCH TOWER


1.1 Problem Statement
To Design a quench tower to cool hot gases flowing at a rate of 5730 kg/h using water
flowing at 18400 kg/h.
1.2 General Overview on Quench Towers
Quenching of reactor products is sometimes needed for sudden cooling, for removing
impurities and to avoid side reactions. Cooling by liquid quenching is essentially
accomplished by introducing the hot gases into a liquid contacting device. When the liquid
evaporates or gets heated up, the energy necessary to heat up the liquid is obtained at the
expense of hot combustion gases, resulting in the reduction of gas temperature. The
temperature of the gases discharged from the quencher is at the adiabatic saturation
temperature of the gases if the operation is adiabatic and the gas leaves the quencher with
little or no water vapours.
There are 3 types of quenchers

Spray towers
Venturi scrubbers
Packed towers

1.2.1 Spray towers


Spray towers or spray chambers consists of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel or
plastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. The inlet gas stream usually enters the
bottom of the tower and moves up, while the liquid is sprayed downward from one or more
levels. This flow of inlet gas and liquid in the opposite direction (counter current flow),
exposes the gas to the liquid, thereby enhancing the heat transfer.
1

Many nozzles are placed across the tower at different heights to spray all of the gas as it
moves up through the tower. The reason for using many nozzles is to maximize the heat
transfer. The liquid droplet must be large enough not to be carried out of the scrubber by the
scrubbed outlet gas.
Advantages of spray tower

The design is completely open. It is simple to construct. This feature eliminates

many of the scale buildup and plugging problems associated with other scrubbers.
This is an inexpensive and control device primarily used for gas conditioning.
Very little space is required and only that amount of water that is needed to maintain

the desired temperature of the gases at the discharge is used.


Its installation and operating cost are generally considered to be less than that of
other cooling methods.

1.2.2 Venture scrubber


A venturi scrubber accelerates the gas stream to atomize the scrubbing liquid and to
improve gas-liquid contact. In a venturi scrubber, a throat section is built into the duct that
forces the gas stream to accelerate as the duct narrows and then expands. As the gas enters
the venturi throat, both gas velocity and turbulence increases. Depending on the scrubber
design, the scrubbing liquid is sprayed into the gas stream before the gas encounters the
venturi throat, or in the throat, or upwards against the gas flow in the throat.
Disadvantage of venturi scrubbers

Contact area available for water and gas is less.


Construction is complex.
Large amount of water is required for cooling.

1.2.3 Packed tower


Packed bed quenchers consist of a chamber containing layers of variously shaped packing
materials, such as Raschid rings, interlock saddles, pall ring, berl saddles, that provide large
surface area for liquid gas contact. The packing is held in place by wire mesh retainers and
supported by a place near the bottom of the scrubber. Cooling liquid is evenly introduced
above the packing and flows down through the bed.
Quench towers can either be cooled by a water or oil medium which gives the name
quench-water tower or quench-oil tower. Their function is to cool the superheated gas in
order to eliminate any further reaction that may occur and to also decrease the temperature
of the gas.

1.3 MATERIAL BALANCE


Table 1.1 Inlet stream of quench tower
COMPONEN

MASSS

MASS

FLOW,kg/hr

FRACTION

H2 + CH4

542

9%

Ethylene

1630

28%

Propylene

168

3%

Butadiene

39.6

1%

butenes

44.9

1%

C5+

109

2%

N2

83.1

1%

CO2

194

3%

Mixed

H2O

1780

31%

ethane

1060

18%

propane

70.9

1%

butane

9.11

0%

TOTAL

5730

100%

Table 1.2 Outlet 1 of quench tower


COMPONEN

MASSS

MASS

FLOW,kg/hr

FRACTION

H2 + CH4

5.42E+02

14%

Ethylene

1.63E+03

41%

Propylene

1.68E+02

4%

Butadiene

3.96E+01

1%

butenes

4.49E+01

1%

C5+

1.09E+02

3%

N2

8.31E+01

2%

CO2

1.94E+02

5%

ethane

1.06E+03

27%

propane

7.09E+01

2%

butane

9.11E+00

0%

TOTAL

3.95E+03

100%

Mixed

Table 1.3 Outlet 2 of quench tower


COMPONE

MASSS

MASS
4

NT

FLOW

PERCENTA

kg/hr

GE

WATER

18400

100%

Chemical engineering design


Parameters to be calculated are:

The superficial gas velocity


The diameter of the column
The dry-gas-pressure drop
The liquid holdup in the column
The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated
The overall gas-phase transfer units
The height of the gas-phase transfer unit
The height of the liquid-phase transfer unit
The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit
The packed height
Residence time
Data: The packing used is 50mm metal pall ring random packing
Cp = is a packing constant, 0.763, a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3,
= packing void fraction, 0.951, FP = packing factor, 27m2/m3,
Ch = is a characteristic of the particular type and size of packing, 0.784

Mass flowrate of gas, G = 5370 kg/h = 1.5 kg/s


1.4.1 The density of the gas mixture is calculated as
g =

PM
R T

g =

2.3 68.26
0.08206 613

(Perry et al, 1997)

g = 3.73 kg/m3

1.4.2 The volumetric flowrate of the gas (QG) can be calculated by


G
g

QG =

Where,
G = gas density = 3.73 kg/m3
G = gas mass flowrate = 1.5 kg/s

QG =

1.5
3.73

= 0.402 m3/s
1.4.3 The ratio of the liquid mass flow rate to the gas mass flow rate is given by
L
G

5.11
1.5

= 3.41

Where, L = liquid flowrate = 5.11 kg/s


Flooding data for quench columns with countercurrent flow of gas and liquid can be
correlated in terms of the flow parameter(X) given by

X=

G
L

G ( L

3.73

X = 3.41 ( 1000

0.5

0.5

= 0.208

Flooding curve in quench tower can be accurately described by the polynomial regression
lnYflood = [3.50221+1.028lnX+ 0.11093(lnX)2]
6

(Leva,1954)

[ 3.50221+1.028 lnx+ 0.11093( lnx) ]


Yflood = e

Yflood = 0.115

Csflood = (

F p
Y flood

)0.5

(Leva,1954)

Where, FP = packing factor, 27m2/m3 (Wiley and Jaime, 1987)


L = liquid viscosity, 0.001Pa-s (Sinnot, 2005)

Csflood = (

0.115
0.5
27 0.0010.1 ) = 0.092 m/s

1.4.4 Calculation of the superficial gas velocity at flooding


The superficial gas velocity can be calculated as

VGF

G
0.5
L G

Csflood

(Leva, 1954)

Where, VGF = the superficial gas velocity at flooding, m/s

VGF =

3.73
10003.73

0.092

= 1.5 m/s

The superficial gas velocity at flooding is 1.5 m/s


7

1.4.5 Calculation of pressure drop at flooding


The pressure drop at flooding is strongly dependent on the packing factor for both random
and structured packing and it is given by the empirical expression:
Pflood = 93.9(FP)0.7 (Kister and Gill, 1991)
Where Pflood has units of Pa per meter of packed height
Pflood = 93.9(27)0.7 = 943.236 Pa/m of packing
1.4.6 Superficial gas velocity calculation
For a given fluid flow rates and properties, and a given packing material, superficial gas
velocity can be calculated from the expression given by:
VG = VGF f

(Wiley and Jaime, 1987)

Where, VG = superficial gas velocity, m/s


f = a fraction of flooding and is usually 0.7 for quench towers (Wiley and Jaime,1987)
VG = 1.5 0.7 = 1.05 m/s
Hence the superficial gas velocity, VFG = 1.05 m/s
1.4.7 The diameter of the column can be calculated from
4 QG
D = ( f V gf )0.5

4 0.402
D = ( 0.7 1.05

(Kister, 1992)

)0.5

= 0.83 m

D = 0.83 m

Hence the diameter of the column is 0.83 m


The area of the column can be calculated as:
2

A=

D
4

A=

(0.83)2
4

= 0.541 m2

1.4.8 The wall factor can be important for columns with an inadequate ratio of effective
particle diameter to inside column diameter, and is given by:
1
=
KW

1+

2
1
(
3
1

dp
) D

(Leibson et al, 1956)

Where, = packing void fraction = 0.951 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)


Kw = wall factor
1.4.9 The effective particle diameter, dp, is given by
dp = 6(

1
a

) (Leibson et al, 1956)

Where, dp = the effective particle diameter, m


a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

dp = 6(

10.951
112.6

1
=
KW

1+

) = 0.0026110

2
1
(
3
10.951

0.0026110
0.83

1
KW

= 1.043

KW = 0.959
1.4.10 The Reynolds number of the gas can be calculated as
ReG =

v G d p G K W
(1)(G )

Where, G = kinematic viscosity of the gas mixture, 310-5Pa.s

ReG =

1.05 0.0026110 3.73 0.9590


(10.951)(0.00003)

The Reynolds number of the gas ReG = 6671.24


The dry-packing resistance coefficient (a modified friction factor), is given by the
empirical expression:
1.8
64
= Cp ( R eG + ( ReG )0.08 )

(Leibson et al, 1956)

Where, = the dry-packing resistance coefficient (a modified friction factor)


Cp = is a (packing constants) characteristic of the particular type and size of packing =
0.763. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)
1.8
64
=0.763 ( 6671.24 + (6671.24)0.08 ) = 0.686

The dry-packing resistance coefficient = 0.686

10

1.4.11 Calculation of dry-gas-pressure drop


The dry-gas-pressure drop can be calculated from the dimensionally consistent correlating
equation given by:
V
Po
Z

( G)2

G
=
( )3 2 K w

(Stichlmair et al, 1989)

Where, Z= packing height, m


PO = the dry-gas-pressure drop, Pa
Po
Z

0.686 112.6 3.73 (1.05)


(0.951)3 2 0.9900

Hence the dry-gas-pressure drop,

Po
Z = 177.39 Pa/m

1.4.12 The liquid mass velocity can be calculated as

Gx =

L
2
(D)
4

(Seader and Henley, 1998)

Where, Gx = liquid mass velocity, kg/m2.s

Gx =

5.11
2
(0.83)
4

= 9.444 kg/m2.s

1.4.12 The Reynolds number of the liquid can be calculated as:

11

ReL =

ReL =

Gx
a L

Gx
a L

(Seader and Henley,1998)

9.444
112.6 0.001

= 83.87

Hence the Reynolds number of the liquid ReL = 83.87


1.4.13 The Froude number of the liquid can be calculated as:
FrL =

G x2 a
g

(Seader and Henley,1998 )

Where, FrL = Froude number of the liquid


g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81m/s2 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)
2

FrL =

G x 112.6
2

100 9.81

FrL = 0.1028
For ReL 5, the ratio of specific areas is given by :
R eL

ah
=0.85 Ch
a

(Seader and Henley)

Where, Ch = is a (packing constant) characteristic of the particular type and size of packing
= 0.784. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

12

ah = hydraulic, or effective, specific area of packing, m2/m3


R eL

ah
=0.85 Ch
a

Therefore, the ratio of specific areas is

ah
= 1.606
a

1.4.14 Calculation of specific liquid holdup


The specific liquid holdup (i.e. volume of liquid holdup/volume of packed bed) in the
preloading
hL

=(

region can be calculated from the dimensionless expression:


12 F rL
ReL

1
3

ah
a

2
3

(Billetand Schultes,1995)

Where, hL, = specific liquid holdup, m3 holdup/m3 packed bed


VL = superficial liquid velocity, m/s

hL

=(

12(1.028)
83.87

1
3

( 1.606 3

= 0.724

h L = 0.724

Hence the liquid holdup in the column is = 0.724

13

1.4.15 Calculation of pressure drop when the bed is irrigated


When the packed bed is irrigated, the liquid holdup causes the pressure drop to increase.
The Correct pressure drop for liquid holdup is calculated with the equation

=
( hL ) exp(
PO

R eL
200 (Billet and Schultes)
1.5

Where, P = Actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated, Pa


P
0.951
=
(
PO
0.9510.724 ) exp (

P
PO

83.87
200
1.5

= 5.5

= 5.5

The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated is therefore


P
Z

= 645.24 Pa/m

1.4.16 Height Equivalent of Theoretical Plate (HETP)


HETP is calculated as;

HETP =

0.19

0.21

[ ] [ ]

20

0.2

Where,
A = Size of packing

= 50 mm

= surface tension of liquid = 69.8 mN/m


14

D = 0.83 m
= Overall viscosity of feed stream = 0.0006 Pa s

3 69.8
HETP = 50 10
20

0.19

( ) (

0.0006
0.2

0.21

HETP 0.0116 m
1.4.17 Number of Transfer Units (NTU)
Number of transfer units is given by;

NTU =

x y
1
ln ( 1 ) 2 1 +
1
x 1 y 1

Where,

= L/HG

= 0.000381

L = Molar liquid flow rate

= 1022.22 kmol/h

G = Molar gas flow rate

= 78.74 kmol/h

H = Henrys Law Constant

= 3410Pa/mol fraction

x2 = Solute contents in liquid inlet stream mole fraction = 0.00


x1 = Solute contents in liquid exit stream mole fraction = 0.00
y1 = Solute contents in gas at bottom mole fraction
Substituting the above values into equation (5);

15

= 0.00

NTU = 4.3
NTU = 5
1.4.18 Height of Overall Gas Transfer Unit (HOG)
Height of overall gas transfer unit is given as;

Hog =

1
1

HETP
1
ln

( ( ))

(6)

Hog = 2.01 m
1.4.19 COLUMN HEIGHT
Packing height is calculated as;
Htotal = Hog x NTU
Htotal = 2.01 x 5
Htotal = 10.05 m
Giving 0.457 allowance for disengagement of vapors at top and at bottom for liquid,
Htotal = 10.51 m
Therefore, total height of tower = 10.51 m

16

Table 1.4 Summary of chemical engineering design of quench tower


Parameter

value

The superficial gas velocity, m/s

1.05

The diameter of the column, m

0.83

The dry-gas-pressure drop, Pa/m

117.4

The liquid holdup in the column

0.724

The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated, Pa/m

645

Number of transfer units

The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit, m

2.01

The packed column height, m

10.51

1.5 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS


The material of construction is carbon steel.
1.5.1 Design Pressure
Design pressure (Pi) is taken as 110% of operating pressure (Sinnott, 2005a) :

Pi =

110
100 233.047 kPa = 256.352 kPa
17

1.5.2 Design Temperature


Highest Operating temperature = 340oC
1.5.3 Minimum Vessel Thickness

Pi D i
,
2f i - Pi
e=

(Sinnott, 2005b)

Where,
Di is the internal diameter = 0.83 m = 830 mm
e is the minimum thickness required
f is the design stress of stainless steel at 340oC = 100 N/mm2 (Sinnott, 2005c)
Pi is the internal design pressure of the shell = 256.352 kPa = 0.256 N/mm2

0.256 830
(2 100) 0.256
e=

2 mm

Allowing a corrosion allowance of 2 mm (Sinnott, 2005d), the minimum thickness required


to withstand internal pressure is 4 mm.
1.5.4 Dead Weight of Vessel
The major sources of dead weight for the unit are;

The weight of the empty vessel (Wv)


The weight of the material (Wm)

1.5.5 Weight of Empty Vessel

C v m g D m H v 0.8D m t
Wv

(Sinnott, 2005e)
18

Where,
CV = factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways, internal supports etc, which
can be taken as 1.08 for vessels with few fittings.
Hv = height of the cylindrical section, 10.51 m
g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2
t = wall thickness of vessel = 4 mm = 0.004 m
m = density of vessel material (carbon steel) = 8000 kg/m3

Dm = width of vessel = 0.83 + 2(0.004) m = 0.838 m


Wv = 1.08 8000 9.81 0.838 [10.521 + (0.8 0.838)] 0.004 = 9988.98 N
Thus, dead weight of vessel = 9988.98 N
1.5.6 Wind Loading
Bending stresses result from the bending moments to which the vessel is subjected.
Bending moments will be caused by the wind loads on tall self-supported vessels, dead
weight and wind loads on piping and equipment which is attached to the vessel,
but offset from the vessel centre line (Sinnott, 2005f).

Dynamic wind pressure (

Pw

) is 1280 N/m2 (Sinnott, 2005g).

W (loading per unit length)=Pw Deff =1280 ( 0.838 ) =1072.64 N /m

Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Mx = (1072.64/2) x 10.512 = 59241.96 Nm

19

1.5.7 Analysis of Stress


1.5.7.1 Longitudinal Stress
Longitudinal stress due to pressure is given by
Pi d i
4t

(Sinnott, 2005h)

Hence,

0.256 x 830
13.28 N/mm 2
4x4

1.5.7.1 Circumferential Stress


Circumferential stress due to pressure is given by
Pi d i
2t
h 2 13.28
h 2 i

26.56

N/mm2

1.5.8 Dead-Weight Stress


Dead-weight stress of the vessel is given as

WT
D i t t
(Sinnott, 2005i)

Where WT is the total weight which is supported by the vessel wall

20

9988.98
0.953 N / mm2
830 4 4

1.5.9 Total Longitudinal Stress

Total axial or longitudinal stress ( z )

c ( compressive )= l + w =13.28+ 0.953=14.233 N /mm2

(Sinnott, 2005j)

1.5.10 Maximum Stress Intensity


s ( tensile ) = h z=26.5614.233

11.33 N /mm2

The maximum allowable stress for the material of construction is 100 N/mm 2. Since this
stress is higher than the maximum stress intensity at any point in the material, the design is
not prone to failure under stress.
1.5.11 Vessel Support
The support system designed for a separator and all tall vessels depends on the size, shape,
and weight of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and
arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachments.
A skirt support is used for vertical columns. Its thickness is designed to withstand the deadweight loads and bending moments imposed on it by the separator. (Sinnott, 2005k)
1.5.11.1 Skirt Support Thickness
Data
21

Specified skirt angle = 90 C (straight cylinder skirt)

Maximum allowable stress,

( max )

and Youngs modulus, (E) at ambient conditions are

165 N/mm2 and 11350 N/mm2 respectively.


The maximum dead-weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water,
Approximate Maximum Dead-Weight = (Di2 x Hv x (/4) x w x g)
w = density of water
g = acceleration due to gravity
Approximate Maximum Dead-Weight = 0.832 x 10.51 x (/4) x 1000 x 9.81
= 55785.05 N
Dead-weight of vessel = 9988+ 55785.05 N
= 65773.045 N
Wind loading = 1072.64 N /m
Bending moment at base of skirt = 59241.96 Nm
Assuming a skirt thickness of 20 mm

bs=

4 Ms
( Ds +t s ) t s

ws =

W
( D s +t s ) t s

Where,
bs = bending stress in the skirt
22

Ms = maximum bending stress at the base of skirt


W = total weight of vessel
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt
ts = skirt thichness
Resultant stresses in skirt are;
s ( tensile ) = bs ws

s ( compressive )= bs + ws

bs=

4 59241.96 Nm 1 0
( 830+20 ) 830 20

ws (test )=

55785.05 1 03
( 830+ 20 ) 20

ws (operational)=

= 5.35 N/mm2

=1.044 N/mm2

9988 1 03
( 830+ 20 ) 20

= 0.19 N/mm2

^
Maximum s (compressive)= 5.35 + 1.044 = 6.394 N/mm2

^
Maximum s ( tensile ) =5.350.19=5.16 N/mm2

Criteria for design


The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and deadweight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded:
23

s (tensile) < fsJsins (Sinnott, 2005l)

s ( compressive ) <0.125 E

ts
sin s ( Sinnott , 2005 m)
Ds

( )

Where,
fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material, normally taken at ambient
temperature, 20 0C
J = weld joint factor, if applicable = 0.85
s = base angle of a conical skirt, normally 800 to 900
E is the Youngs modulus of steel = 210 kN/mm2 at ambient temperature.
Testing for maximum tensile strength
fsJsins; 5.16 < 0.85 165 sin(90) = 114.75
5.16 < 140.25
Testing for maximum compressive strength

6.394< 0.125 11350

20
( 830
) sin ( 90)=246.

02

6.394 < 34.17


Since both criteria are satisfied, a thickness of 20 mm can be used for the skirt.

24

Parameter
Material
Design pressure, kPa
Design temperature, oC
Vessel thickness, mm
Longitudinal stress, N/mm2
Circumferential stress, N/mm2
Dead weight stress, N/mm2
Dead weight, N
Total longitudinal stresses, N/mm2
Skirt support thickness, mm
Wind Loading, N/m
Maximum stress intensity, N/mm2

Value
Stainless steel 304
256
340
4
13.28
26.56
0.953
9988
14.233
20
1072.64
11.33

25

Table

1.5

Summary of
mechanical
engineering
calculations

REFERENCES

Sinnott, R.K. (2005a) Chemical Engineering Design 4 th ed., Laserwords private


limited, Chennai, p:827

Sinnott, R.K. (2005b) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:832

Sinnott, R.K. (2005c) Chemical Engineering Design 4 th ed., Laserwords private


limited, Chennai, p:829

Sinnott, R.K. (2005e) Chemical Engineering Design 4 th ed., Laserwords private


limited, Chennai, p:853

Sinnott, R.K. (2005f) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:853

Sinnott, R.K. (2005g) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:856

Sinnott, R.K. (2005h) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:848

Sinnott, R.K. (2005i) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:849

Sinnott, R.K. (2005j) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
26

limited, Chennai, p:860

Sinnott, R.K. (2005k) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:861

Sinnott, R.K. (2005l) Chemical Engineering Design 4th ed., Laserwords private
limited, Chennai, p:866

Sinnott, R.K. (2005m) Chemical Engineering Design 4 th ed., Laserwords private


limited, Chennai, p:866

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