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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN

ZONAL INSTITUTE OF
EDUCATION AND
TRAINING
Bhubaneswar
STUDY MATERIAL 2012
CLASS XI

CHEMISTRY
PATRON: Ms Usha Aswath Iyer, Director,
ZIET Bhubaneswar.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Mr Siharan Bose,
KV No 2 Kalaikunda
MATERIAL PRODUCTION: Ms Hajra
Shaikh, PGT Chemistry, ZIET Bhubaneswar

This material is prepared to give the lessons of class XI in brief. The contents make summarizing the lessons
easy for the student. Difficult numerical have been worked out.

ENJOY CHEMISTRY
1.SOME

BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter

1. Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter.


2. Matters exist in three physical states viz. solid, liquid and gas.
3. In solids, these particles are held very close to each other in an orderly fashion and there is
not much freedom of movement. In liquids, the particles are close to each other but they
can move around. However, in gases, the particles are far apart as compared to those
present in solid or liquid states and their movement is easy and fast.
4. Solids have definite volume and definite shape.
5. Liquids have definite volume but not the definite shape. They take the shape of the
container in which they are placed.
6. Gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape. They completely occupy the
container in which they are placed.
7. A mixture contains two or more substances present in it (in any ratio) which are called its
components.
8. A mixture may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
9. In a homogeneous mixture, the components completely mix with each other and its
composition is uniform throughout. Sugar solution and air are thus, the examples of
homogeneous mixtures.
10. In heterogeneous mixtures, the composition is not uniform throughout and sometimes the
different components can be observed. For example, the mixtures of salt and sugar, grains
and pulses along with some dirt (often stone) pieces, are heterogeneous mixtures..
11. The components of a mixture can be separated by using physical methods such as simple
hand picking, filtration, crystallization, distillation etc.
12. Pure substances have characteristics different from the mixtures. They have fixed
composition, Copper, silver, gold, water, glucose are some examples of pure substances.

Glucose contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a fixed ratio and thus, like all other pure
substances has a fixed composition. Also, the constituents of pure substances cannot be
separated by simple physical methods.
13. An element consists of only one type of particles. These particles may be atoms or
molecules. Sodium, copper, silver, hydrogen, oxygen etc. are some examples of elements.
They all contain atoms of one type. However, the atoms of different elements are different
in nature. Some elements such as sodium or copper, contain single atoms held together as
their constituent particles whereas in some others, two or more atoms combine to give
molecules of the element. Thus, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen gases consist of molecules
in which two atoms combine to give their respective molecules.
14. When two or more atoms of different elements combine, the molecule of a compound is
obtained. The examples of some compounds are water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, sugar etc.
the atoms of different elements are present in a compound in a fixed and definite ratio and
this ratio is characteristic of a particular compound.
15. The SI system(Systeme International d Units abbreviated as SI)) has seven base units
and they are listed in Table 1.1

16. Mass of a substance is the amount of matter present in it while weight is the force exerted
by gravity on an object. The mass of a substance is constant whereas its weight may vary
from one place to another due to change in gravity.
17. Volume has the units of (length) 3. So in SI system, volume has units of m3. A common
unit, litre (L) which is not an SI unit, is used for measurement of volume of liquids. 1 L =
1000 mL , 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3

18. Density of a substance is its amount of mass per unit volume SI units of density kg m3
This unit is quite large and a chemist often expresses density in g cm3.
19. There are three common scales to measuretemperature C (degree celsius), F (degree
Fahrenheit) and K (Kelvin). Here, K is the SI unit.
20. The Kelvin scale is related to Celsius scale as follows :K =C+273.15
21. The F scale is related to Celsius scale as follows

22. In scientific notation (exponential Notation) any number can be represented in the form
N 10n where n is an exponent having positive or negative values and N can vary between
1 to 10. Thus, we can write 232.508 as 2.32508 X102 in scientific notation. Note that while
writing it, the decimal had to be moved to the left by two places and same is the exponent
(2) of 10 in the scientific notation. Similarly, 0.00016 can be written as 1.6 X104. Here the
decimal has to be moved four places to the right and ( 4) is the exponent in the scientific
notation.
23. Significant figures are meaningful digits which are known with certainty. The uncertainty
is indicated by writing the certain digits and the last uncertain digit. Thus, if we write a
result as 11.2 mL, we say the 11 is certain and 2 is uncertain and the uncertainty would be
1 in the last digit. Unless otherwise stated, an uncertainty of +1 in the last digit is always

understood.
24. There are certain rules for determining the number of significant figures. These are
stated below:
a) All non-zero digits are significant. For example in 285 cm, there are three significant
figures and in 0.25 mL, there are two significant figures.
b) Zeros preceding to first non-zero digit are not significant. Such zero indicates the position
of decimal point. Thus, 0.03 has one significant figure and 0.0052 has two significant
figures.
c) Zeros between two non-zero digits are significant. Thus, 2.005 has four significant figures.
d) Zeros at the end or right of a number are significant provided they are on the right side of
the decimal point. For example, 0.200 g has three significant figures. But, if otherwise, the
terminal zeros are not significant if there is no decimal point. For example, 100 has only
one significant figure, but 100. has three significant figures and 100.0 has four significant

figures. Such numbers are better represented in scientific notation. We can express the
number 100 as 1102 for one significant figure, 1.0102 for two significant figures and
1.00102 for three significant figures.
e) Counting numbers of objects, for example, 2 balls or 20 eggs, have infinite significant
figures as these are exact numbers and can be represented by writing infinite number of
zeros after placing a decimal i.e.,2 = 2.000000 or 20 = 20.000000
f) In numbers written in scientific notation, all digits are significant e.g., 4.01102 has three
significant figures, and 8.256 103 has four significant figures.
25. .Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
26. Law of Definite Proportions states that a given compound always contains exactly the
same proportion of elements by weight.
27. Law of Multiple Proportions states that if two elements can combine to form more than
one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other
element, are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
28. Gay Lussacs Law of Gaseous Volumes: This law was given by Gay Lussac in 1808. He
observed that when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction they do so in a
simple ratio by volume provided all gases are at same temperature and pressure.
29. In 1811, Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and
pressure should contain equal number of molecules.
30. In 1808, Dalton published A New System of Chemical Philosophy in which he proposed
the following :
a) Matter consists of indivisible atoms.
b) All the atoms of a given element have identical properties including identical mass.
Atoms of different elements differ in mass.
c) Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio.
d) Chemical reactions involve reorganization of atoms. These are neither created nor
destroyed in a chemical reaction.
e) Daltons theory could explain the laws of chemical combination.
31. One atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to one twelfth the mass of one
carbon - 12 atom.

32. Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements present in a molecule. It is
obtained by multiplying the atomic mass of each element by the number of its atoms and
adding them together.
33. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary
entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12; its symbol is mol. When the
mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions,
electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. This number of entities in 1
mol is so important that it is given a separate name and symbol. It is known as Avogadro
constant, denoted by NA in honor of Amedeo Avogadro.
34. An empirical formula represents the simplest whole number ratio of various atoms present
in a compound whereas the molecular formula shows the exact number of different types of
atoms present in a molecule of a compound.
35. Many a time, the reactions are carried out when the reactants are not present in the amounts
as required by a balanced chemical reaction. In such situations, one reactant is in excess
over the other. The reactant which is present in the lesser amount gets consumed after
sometime and after that no further reaction takes place whatever be the amount of the other
reactant present. Hence, the reactant which gets consumed, limits the amount of product
formed and is, therefore, called the limiting reagent.

36. Mass per cent = Mass of solute per 100 g of solution


=

Mass of solute
100
Mass of solution

It is the amount of solute in grams dissolved per 100 g of solution. e.g., 10% solution of sodium
chloride means 10 g of solid sodium chloride present in 100 g of solution.

37. Mole Fraction: It is ratio of number of moles of a particular component to the total number
of moles of all the components.
Mole-fraction of solute =

No. of moles of solute


No. of moles of solute No. of moles of solvent

xB

WB
MB

nB

WA
W
nA nB
B
M A WB

WB
W
MB
W
in case of dilute solution B < < A
xB
WA
MA
MB
MA

38. Molality (m). It is defined as number of moles of solute (B) per 1000 g or 1 kg of solvent.
Molality (M) =

No. of moles of solute WB


1000

Kg. of solvent
MA
WB in grams.

where WA is mass of solvent.


39. Molarity (M). It is expressed as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
Molarity (M) =

No. of moles of solute WB


1000

Litres of solution
M B Volume of solution in ml.

where WB is mass of solute, MB is molar mass of solute


.

Unit-1
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

1. Question based on significant numbers,Precision,Accuracy, ScientificNotation,


laws of chemical combinations, SI units

1.1 What are the SI unit of mass, length & time?


1.2 Match the following prefixes with their multiples:
Prefixes

Multiples

(i) micro

106

(ii) deca

109

(iii)mega 106
(iv) giga

1015

(v)femto

10

(vi) pico

1012

1.3 (a) What do you mean by significant figures? What are rules for determining the number of
significant figures?
(b)Explain the terms: Precision and Accuracy
1.4 Express the following in the scientific notation: (i) 0.0048 (ii) 234,000 (iii) 8008 (iv) 500.0 (v)
6.0012
1.5 How many significant figures are present in the following? (i) 0.0025 (ii) 208 (iii) 5005 (iv) 126,000
(v) 500.0 (vi) 2.0034
1.6 Round up the following upto three significant figures: (i) 34.216 (ii) 10.4107 (iii) 0.04597
(iv) 2808
1.7 The following data are obtained when dinitrogen and dioxygen react together to form different
compounds :
S.No Mass of

Mass of

dinitrogen

dioxygen

14 g

16 g

14 g

32 g

28 g

32 g

28 g

80 g

(a) Which law of chemical combination is obeyed by the above experimental data? Give its statement.
1.8 Convert the following into basic units: (i) 28.7 pm (ii) 15.15 pm (iii) 25365 mg
1.9 How many significant figures should be present in the answer of the following calculations?

1.10. State and illustrate the law of constant proportions.


1.11 State and explain the law of multiple proportions.
2. Question based on atomic and molecular masses Atomic Mass Average Atomic Mass,
Molecular Mass, Formula Mass, mole concept and molar Masses, percentage composition,
Empirical Formula for Molecular Formula, Limiting Reagent.

2.1 Calculate the molecular mass of the following: (i) H2O (ii) CO2 (iii) CH4(iv) C6H12O6
2.2 Calculate the mass per cent of different elements present in sodium sulphate (Na2SO4).
2.3 Determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron which has 69.9% iron and 30.1% Dioxygen by
mass.
2.4 How much copper can be obtained from 100 g of copper sulphate (CuSO4)?
2.5 In a reaction A + B2

Identify the limiting reagent, if any, in the following reaction mixtures.

(i) 300 atoms of A + 200 molecules of B (ii) 2 mol A + 3 mol B


(iii) 100 atoms of A + 100 molecules of B (iv) 5 mol A + 2.5 mol B (v) 2.5 mol A + 5 mol B
2.5 Determine the molecular formula of an oxide of iron in which the mass per cent of iron and oxygen
are 69.9 and 30.1 respectively.
2.6 Calculate the atomic mass (average) of chlorine using the following data:
Isotope % Natural

Molar Mass

Abundance
35

Cl

75.77

34.9689

37

Cl

24.23

36.9659

2.7 In three moles of ethane (C2H6), calculate the following: (i) Number of moles of carbon atoms. (ii)
Number of moles of hydrogen atoms. (iii) Number of molecules of ethane.
2.8 If ten volumes of dihydrogen gas reacts with five volumes of dioxygen gas, how many volumes of
water vapour would be produced?

2.9A welding fuel gas contains carbon and hydrogen only. Burning a small sample of it in oxygen gives
3.38 g carbon dioxide , 0.690 g of water and no other products. A volume of 10.0 L (measured at STP)
of this welding gas is found to weigh 11.6 g. Calculate (i) empirical formula, (ii) molar mass of the gas,
and (iii) molecular formula.
2.10 Calculate the amount of water (g) produced by the combustion of 16 g of methane. reaction.
2.11 How many moles of methane are required to produce 22 g CO2 (g) after combustion?
2.12 A compound contains 4.07 % hydrogen,24.27 % carbon and 71.65 % chlorine.
Its molar mass is 98.96 g. What are its empirical and molecular formulas ?
3. Question based on Mass per cent, Molarity, Mole fraction, Molality
3.1(i) Define the following terms. (Write the mathematical formulas related to terms)(a) Mass percent
(b) Molarity (c) Molality (d) Mole-fraction (e) Mass percent
(ii)Calculate the mass of sodium acetate (CH3COONa) required to make 500 mL of 0.375 molar
aqueous solution. (Molar mass of sodium acetate is 82.0245 g mol1).
3.2 Calculate the concentration of nitric acid in moles per litre in a sample which has a density, 1.41 g
mL1 and the mass per cent of nitric acid in it being 69%.
3.3 What is the concentration of sugar (C12H22O11) in mol L1 if its 20 g are dissolved in enough water to
make a final volume up to 2L?
3.4 If the density of methanol is 0.793 kg L1, what is its volume needed for making 2.5 L of its 0.25 M
solution?
3.5 A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform, CHCl3,
supposed to be carcinogenic in nature. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass).
(i) Express this in percent by mass. (ii) Determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
3.6 The density of 3 M solution of NaCl is 1.25 g mL1. Calculate molality of the solution.
3.7 How are 0.50 mol Na2CO3 and 0.50 M Na2CO3 different?
3.8 Which one of the following will have largest number of atoms?
(i) 1 g Au (s) (ii) 1 g Na (s) (iii) 1 g Li (s)(iv) 1 g of Cl2(g)
3.9 Calculate the molarity of a solution of ethanol in water in which the mole fraction of ethanol is
0.040 (assume the density of water to be one).
3.10 Calculate the number of atoms in each of the following (i) 52 moles of Ar (ii) 52 u of He (iii) 52 g
of He.
3.11Calculate the molarity of NaOH in the solution prepared by dissolving its 4 g in enough water to
form 250 mL of the solution.

3.12 A solution is prepared by adding 2 g of a substance A to 18 g of water. Calculate the mass per cent
of the solute.
3.13 How does molality & Molarity depend on temperature? Out of molality & Molarity which one is
better way to express concentration?

ANSWERS

2.1 Calculate the molecular mass of the following:


Ans: (i) H2O = 18 (ii) CO2=44 (iii) CH4 =16 (iv) C6H12O6 = 180
2.2 Calculate the mass per cent of different elements present in sodium sulphate (Na2SO4).
Ans % Na= 46 X100/142=32.4, %S= 32 X100/142= 22.53, %O = 64X100/142= 45.1

2.3 Determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron which has 69.9% iron and 30.1% Dioxygen by
mass.
Ans: no of moles of Fe: 69.9/56= 1.248
no of moles of O =30.1/ 16= 1.881
whole number ratio between the number of moles = 1: 1.5= 2: 3.
Hence empirical formula is Fe2O3
2.4 How much copper can be obtained from 100 g of copper sulphate (CuSO4)?
Ans: 63.5g of Cu in 159.5g of CuSO4.
63.5X100/159.5g = 39.81g of Cu in 100g of CuSO4
2.5 In a reaction A + B2

Identify the limiting reagent, if any, in the following reaction mixtures.

(i) 300 atoms of A + 200 molecules of B Ans:B is limiting


(ii) 2 mol A + 3 mol B Ans: A is limiting
(iii) 100 atoms of A + 100 molecules of B Ans: reactants totally consumed
(iv) 5 mol A + 2.5 mol B Ans: B is limiting
(v) 2.5 mol A + 5 mol B Ans: A is limiting

2.6 Calculate the atomic mass (average) of chlorine using the following data:
Isotope % Natural

Molar Mass

Abundance
35

Cl

75.77

34.9689

37

Cl

24.23

36.9659

Ans: (34.9689 X75.77) + (36.9659 X24.23)/100 = 35.48

2.7 In three moles of ethane (C2H6), calculate the following:


(i) Number of moles of carbon atoms. Ans: 3X2= 6
(ii) Number of moles of hydrogen atoms. Ans: 3X6= 18
(iii) Number of molecules of ethane. Ans: 3X 6.023X1023=18.069X1023

2.8 If ten volumes of dihydrogen gas reacts with five volumes of dioxygen gas, how many volumes of
water vapour would be produced?
Ans: 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g); 10 volumes of water vapour
2.9A welding fuel gas contains carbon and hydrogen only. Burning a small sample of it in oxygen gives
3.38 g carbon dioxide, 0.690 g of water and no other products. A volume of 10.0 L (measured at STP)
of this welding gas is found to weigh 11.6 g. Calculate (i) empirical formula, (ii) molar mass of the gas,
and (iii) molecular formula.
Ans:
i.

12g of C in 44g of CO2 =>(12/44)X3.38g of C in 3.38g of CO2= 0.922


2g of H in 18g of H2O => (2/18) X 0.690 of H in 0.690g of H2O=0.077
No of Moles of C= 0.922/12= 0.077
No of moles of H =0.077
The empirical formula =CH

ii.

22.4L at STP =1 molar mass


10L at STP weighs11.6g;
22.4L will weigh (11.6/10)X22.4= 26

iii.

Empirical formula mass= 13


Molecular mass=26
The ratio of molecular mass: empirical formula mass=2
Hence molecular formula is C2H2

2.10 Calculate the amount of water (g) produced by the combustion of 16 g of methane.
Ans: CH4+ 2O22H2O + CO2; 16g CH4is 1mole. From the stoichiometric equation we get 1mole of
methane gives 2moles of H2O. ie is 18X2 =36g of water.
2.11 How many moles of methane are required to produce 22 g CO2 (g) after combustion?
Ans: 22g of CO2 is 22/44 moles ie 0.5 moles; 1mole of CH4 produces 1mole of CO2. Hence 0.5 moles of
methane is required.

2.12 A compound contains 4.07 % hydrogen,24.27 % carbon and 71.65 % chlorine.


Its molar mass is 98.96 g. What are its empirical and molecular formulas ?
Ans: no of moles of H =4.07; C=24.27/12= 2.02; 71.65/35.5= 2.02
Simplest whole number ratio H: C:O= 2:1:1
Hence empirical formula is CH2O
3. Question based on Mass per cent, Molarity, Mole fraction, Molality
3.1
(ii)Calculate the mass of sodium acetate (CH3COONa) required to make 500 mL of 0.375 molar
aqueous solution. (Molar mass of sodium acetate is 82.0245 g mol1).
Ans: no of moles of sodium acetate (CH3COONa) required = (0.375/1000) X500=0.1875,ie

0.1875X82.0245 g = 15.38g

3.2 Calculate the concentration of nitric acid in moles per litre in a sample which has a density, 1.41 g
mL1 and the mass per cent of nitric acid in it being 69%.
Ans: 69g of HNO3 in 100g of sample. => 69/63=1.095moles in 100g of sample. => 1.095 moles in
100/1.41ml of acid i.e 70.92ml.
No of moles of HNO3 in 1000ml= (1.095/70.92)X1000= 15.44M
3.3 What is the concentration of sugar (C12H22O11) in mol L1 if its 20 g are dissolved in enough water to
make a final volume up to 2L?
Ans: 20g in 2lit 10g in 1 lit; 10/342=0.02924moles /lit
3.4 If the density of methanol is 0.793 kg L1, what is its volume needed for making 2.5 L of its 0.25 M
solution?

Ans: moles of methanol required to prepare 2.5L of 0.25M methanol solution =2.5X0.25= 0.625
0.625X32g=20g of methanol.
793g of methanol is present in 1000ml. => 20g is present in (1000/793) X 20 ml of methanol sample.
25.22ml of methanol is used to prepare 2.5lit of 0.25M methanol.

3.5 A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform, CHCl3,
supposed to be carcinogenic in nature. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass).
(i) Express this in percent by mass. Ans: (15/106)X 100= 15X10-4% by mass
(ii) Determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample. Ans: Mass of solute in 1kg of solvent
is15X10-3g. => 15X10-3/119.5 = 1.26X 10-4molal.
3.6 The density of 3 M solution of NaCl is 1.25 g mL1. Calculate molality of the solution.
Ans: 1.25g/ml 1250g/lit. Mass of 1 litre solution is 1250g of which 3X58.5g= 175.5g is solute. Mass
of solvent = 1250- 175.5= 1074.5 g.
3moles of solute in 1.074kg of solvent 3/1.074 moles in 1kg of solvent. Hence
molality=2.79moles/kg

3.8 Which one of the following will have largest number of atoms?
(i) 1 g Au (s) (ii) 1 g Na (s) (iii) 1 g Li (s)(iv) 1 g of Cl2(g)
Ans: iii) 1 g Li, because it has the least atomic mass among the given ones.

3.9 Calculate the molarity of a solution of ethanol in water in which the mole fraction of ethanol is
0.040 (assume the density of water to be one).
Ans: we have to calculate no of moles per litre. Let no of moles of ethanol be X. let 1 litre of water =
1kg of water. Then:
X/(X + 55.56)= 0.04 ;let X << 55.56 then X/55.56=0.04 ; X = 2.22,
Hence molarity is 2.22moles /lit

3.10 Calculate the number of atoms in each of the following


(i) 52 moles of Ar; Ans: 52 X 6.022X1023=313.144X 1023=3.13 X 1025 atoms
(ii) 52 u of He; Ans: 52/4= 13 atoms
(iii) 52 g of He; Ans: (52/4) X 6.022X1023 =78.286 X 1023 atoms of He.

3.11Calculate the molarity of NaOH in the solution prepared by dissolving its 4 g in enough water to
form 250 mL of the solution.
Ans: 4g in 250ml 16g in 1 lit. 16/40moles/lit= 0.4moles /lit= 0.4M

3.12 A solution is prepared by adding 2 g of a substance A to 18 g of water. Calculate the mass per cent
of the solute.
Ans: (2/18) X 100 is the mass percent.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

2.Structure of Atom
Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter
1. The word atom has been derived from the Greek word a-tomio which means uncutableor
non-divisible.
2. J. J. Thomson, in 1898, proposed that an atom possesses a spherical shape (radius approximately
1010 m) in which the positive charge is uniformly distributed. The electrons are embedded into
it in such a manner as to give the most stable electrostatic arrangement (Fig. 2.4, NCERT Page
5). Many different names are given to this model, for example, plum pudding, raisin pudding
or watermelon.
3. Rutherfords Nuclear Model of Atom:
a) Most of the space in the atom is empty as most of the aparticles passed through the foil
undeflected.
b) A few positively charged a particles were deflected. The deflection must be due to
enormous repulsive force showing that the positive charge of the atom is not spread
throughout the atom as Thomson had presumed. The positive charge has to be
concentrated in a very small volume that repelled and deflected the positively charged a
particles.
c) Calculations by Rutherford showed that the volume occupied by the nucleus is negligibly
small as compared to the total volume of the atom. The radius of the atom is about 1010
m, while that of nucleus is 1015 m.
d) On the basis of above observations and conclusions, Rutherford proposed the nuclear
model of atom (after the discovery of protons). According to this model :(i) The positive
charge and most of the mass of the atom was densely concentrated in extremely small
region. This very small portion of the atom was called nucleus by Rutherford. (ii) The
nucleus is surrounded by electrons that move around the nucleus with a very high speed
in circular paths called orbits. Thus, Rutherfords model of atom resembles the solar
system in which the nucleus plays the role of sun and the electrons that of revolving
planets. (iii) Electrons and the nucleus are held together by electrostatic forces of
attraction.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

4. The number of protons present in the nucleus is equal to atomic number (Z).the nucleus is equal
to atomic number (Z ).i.e.

Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in the

nucleus of an atom = number of electronsin a nuetral atom


5. Protons and neutrons present in the nucleus are collectively known as nucleons. The total
number of nucleons is termed as mass number (A) of the atom.mass number (A) = number of
protons (Z) + number of neutrons (n)
6. Isobars are the atoms with same mass number but different atomic number for example, 6C14and
14
7N .

On the other hand, atoms with identical atomic number but different atomic mass number

are known as Isotopes. e.g. 6C14 6C13 6C12 &

17Cl

35

,17Cl37

7. Drawbacks of Rutherford Model According to the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, charged


particles when accelerated should emit electromagnetic radiation (This feature does not exist for
planets since they are uncharged). Therefore, an electron in an orbit will emit radiation, the
energy carried by radiation comes from electronic motion. The orbit will thus continue to shrink.
Calculations show that it should take an electron only 108 s to spiral into the nucleus. But this
does not happen. Thus, the Rutherford model cannot explain the stability of an atom.
8. The frequency ( ), wavelength () and velocity of light (c) are related by the equation (2.5). c =
The other commonly used quantity specially in spectroscopy, is the wavenumber (- ). It is
defined as the number of wavelengths per unit length. Its units are reciprocal of wavelength unit,
i.e., m1.
9. H. Hertz performed a very interesting experiment in which electrons (or electric current) were
ejected when certain metals (for example potassium, rubidium, caesium etc.) were exposed to a
beam of light . The phenomenon is called Photoelectric effect. For photoelectric effect : hv =
hv0 + 1/2 m 2
10. Plancks quantum theory.

(i) The energy is

radiated or absorbed by a body not continuously but discontinuously in form of small packets.
(ii) Each packet is called quantum. In case of light, the quantum is called photon. The energy of
quantum is directly proportional to the frequency (v) of the radiation. E v E = hv, Where h
is Plancks constant. Its value is 6.625 10-34 Joule second.
11. The spectrum of radiation emitted by a substance that has absorbed energy is called an emission
spectrum. Atoms, molecules or ions that have absorbed radiation are said to be excited. To
produce an emission spectrum, energy is supplied to a sample by heating it or irradiating it and
the wavelength (or frequency) of the radiation emitted, as the sample gives up the absorbed
energy, is recorded.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

12. An absorption spectrum is like the photographic negative of an emission spectrum. A


continuum of radiation is passed through a sample which absorbs radiation of certain
wavelengths.
13. Line Spectrum of Hydrogen: When an electric discharge is passed through gaseous hydrogen,
the H2 molecules dissociate and the energetically excited hydrogen atoms produced emit
electromagnetic radiation of discrete frequencies. The hydrogen spectrum consists of several
series of lines named after their discoverers.
Series

n1

n2

Spectral region

Lyman

2,3

Ultraviolet

Balmer

3,4

Visible

Paschen

4,5..

Infrared

Brackett

5,6.

Infrared

Pfund

6,7.

Infrared

The Swedish spectroscopist, Johannes Rydberg, noted that all series of lines in the hydrogen spectrum

could be described by the following expression :


14. Bohrs Model For Hydrogen Atom
a) The electron in the hydrogen atom can move around the nucleus in a circular path of fixed
radius and energy. These paths are called orbits, stationary states or allowed energy states.
These orbits are arranged concentrically around the nucleus.
b) An electron can move only in those orbits for which its angular momentum is integral
multiple of h/2 that is why only certain fixed orbits are allowed.The angular
momentum of an electron in a given stationary state can be expressed as in equation

c) The energy of an electron in the orbit does not change with time. However, the electron
will move from a lower stationary state to a higher stationary state when required amount
of energy is absorbed by the electron or energy is emitted when electron moves from
higher stationary state to lower stationary state . The energy change does not take place
in a continuous manner.
d) The frequency of radiation absorbed or emitted when transition occurs between two
stationary states that differ in energy by E, is given by :

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

15. Bohrs theory can also be applied to the ions containing only one electron, similar to that present
in hydrogen atom. For example, He+ Li2+, Be3+ and so on. The energies of the stationary states
associated with these kinds of ions (also known as hydrogen like species) are given by the

expression
16. Limitations of Bohrs Model: It fails to account for the finer details (doublet, that is two closely
spaced lines) of the hydrogen atom spectrum observed by using sophisticated spectroscopic
techniques. This model is also unable to explain the spectrum of atoms other than hydrogen, for
example, helium atom which possesses only two electrons. Further, Bohrs theory was also
unable to explain the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of magnetic field (Zeeman effect)
or an electric field (Stark effect).
17. Dual Behaviour of Matter: The French physicist, de Broglie in 1924 proposed that matter, like
radiation, should also exhibit dual behaviour i.e., both particle and wavelike properties.
18. The de Broglie relation. :de Broglie relation state that the wavelength associated with a moving
object or an electron is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle.

h
h

where p is the momentum of particle = mv.


mv
p

19. Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle. It is not possible to determine the position and velocity
simultaneously for a sub-atomic particle like electron at any given instant to an arbitary degree of
precision. Consequently, it is not possible to talk of path of the electron in which it moves. If
x is uncertainty in position and P is uncertainty in momentum then
x.P

h
4

20. Orbital. It is a region or space where there is maximum probability of getting electron.
21. Quantum numbers. They are used to get complete information about electron, i.e., location,
energy, spin, etc. These quantum numbers also help to designate the electron present in an
orbital.
22. Principal quantum number. It specifies the location and energy of an electron. It is measure
of the effective volume of the electron cloud. It is denoted by n. Its possible values are 1, 2,
3,4 ..
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

23. Angular momentum quantum number. It is also called azimuthal quantum number. It
determines the shape of the orbital. It is denoted by l. The permitted values of l are 0, 1, 2,
etc., upto n1. For a given value of n, l = 0 to n 1 . e.g., if value of n is 4, l can have values
0, 1, 2, 3. It determines angular momentum.
24. Magnetic quantum number.

mvr l (l 1)

h
2

It is denoted by m and its value depends on value of l since

magnetism is due to angular momentum. It determines the magnetic orientation of an orbital,


i.e., the direction of orbital relative to magnetic field in which it is placed. Its permitted values
are - l to + l including zero, e.g., when l = 1, then m = -1, 0, +1. It has total number of values
equal to 2l + 1.
25. Spin quantum number. It indicates, the direction in which electron revolves. Spin is
magnetic property and is also quantized. It has two permitted values + or . The spin
angular momentum of an electron is constant and cannot be changed.
26. (n+l) rule: The relative order of energies of various sub-shells in a multi-electron atom can be
predicted with the help of (n+l) rule (also called Bohr-Bury rule)According to this rule a subshell with lower values of (n+l) has lower energy.In case two sub-shell has equal value of (n+l),
the sub-shell with lower value of n has lower energy
27. Paulis Exclusion Principle. No two electrons in an atom can have all the four quantum
numbers same. It can also be stated as An orbital can have maximum two electrons and they
must be of opposite spin quantum numbers.
28. Aufbau principle. Electrons are filled in the various orbitals in the increasing order of their
energies, i.e., orbital having lowest energy will be filled first and the orbital having highest
energy will be filled last.Increasing energy ofatomic orbitals for multi-electron atoms
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s <3p < 4s <3d < 4p <5s < 4d <5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s
29. Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity. No electron pairing takes place in p, d and f orbitals
until each orbital in the given sub-shell contains one electron, e.g., N (7) has electronic
configuration 1s2 2s2 2 p1x 2 p1y 2 p1z according to Hunds rule and not 1s 2 2s 2 2 p x2 2 p1y .
30. The valence electronic configurations of Cr and Cu, therefore, are 3d5 4s1 and 3d104s1
respectively and not 3d4 4s2 and 3d94s2. It has been found that there is extra stability(Stability of
Completely Filled and Half Filled Subshells) associated with these electronic configurations.
31. Three orbitals of 2p subshell (2px, 2py, and 2pz orbitals).
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

32. Five orbitals of 3d subshell (3dxy, 3dyz, 3dzx 3dx2-y2and 3dx2 orbitals).

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Unit-2
STRUCTURE OF ATOM

1.Questions based on sub-atomic particles (Electron, Protons and Neutrons) atomic


models, Thomson Model Of Atom, Rutherfords Nuclear Model Of Atom. Atomic
Number,Mass Number, Isobars, Isotopes, Drawbacks Of Rutherford Model.

1. Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in 35 Br80 .


2. The number of electrons, protons and neutrons in a species are equal to 18,16 and 16
respectively. Assign the proper symbol to the species.
3. How many neutrons and protons are there in the following nuclei? 6C13,8O16,12Mg24 ,26Fe56

88
38Sr

4. Write the complete symbol for the atom with the given atomic number (Z) and atomic mass (A)
(i) Z = 17 , A = 35. (ii) Z = 92 , A = 233. (iii) Z = 4 , A = 9.
5. Which of the following are isoelectronic species i.e., those having the same number of electrons?
Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, S2, Ar.
6. Give the number of electrons in the species H2+,H2 and O2+.
7. Calculate the number of electrons which will together weigh one gram.
8. Calculate the mass and charge of one mole of electrons.
9. Compare Electron, Protons and Neutrons.
10. Describe Thomson Model Of Atom.
11. Explain Rutherfords scattering experiment.. What conclusions regarding the structure of atom
were drawn by Rutherford on the basis of the observations of experiment? Give the major
drawbacks of Rutherford Model.
12. In Rutherfords experiment, generally the thin foil of heavy atoms, like gold, platinum etc. have
been used to be bombarded by the a-particles. If the thin foil of light atoms like aluminium etc. is
used, what difference would be observed from the above results?
13. Define the terms Atomic Number, Mass Number, Isobars, Isotopes,

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

ANSWER

1. Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in 35 Br80 .


Ans: no of protons =no of electrons =35; no of neutrons= 80-35= 45

2. The number of electrons, protons and neutrons in a species are equal to 18,16 and 16
respectively. Assign the proper symbol to the species.
Ans: [16S32]23. How many neutrons and protons are there in the following nuclei?
a.

13
6C ,

b.

16
8O ,ans:

c.

24
12Mg

d.

56
26Fe

, Ans: P=26, n=30

e.

38Sr

88

, Ans: P=38, n=50

ans P=6, n=7


P=8, n=8

, Ans: P=12, n=12

4. Write the complete symbol for the atom with the given atomic number (Z) and atomic mass
(A)
a. Z = 17 , A = 35.Ans: 17Cl35
b. Z = 92 , A = 233.Ans: 92U233
c. Z = 4 , A = 9. Ans: 4Be9
5. Which of the following are isoelectronic species i.e., those having the same number of
electrons? Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, S2, Ar.
Ans: i)Na+, Mg2+,
ii)K+, Ca2+, S2, Ar are isoelectronic.
6. Give the number of electrons in the species H2+,H2 and O2+.
Ans: 1,2,15

7. Calculate the number of electrons which will together weigh one gram.
Ans: mass of an electron: 9.1X10-28g;
No of electrons weighing 1 g= 1/9.1X10-28 =1.1X1027

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

8. Calculate the mass and charge of one mole of electrons.


Ans: mass of 1 electron: 9.1X10-28g; mass of 1 mole of electrons: 9.1X10-28g X6.022X1023
=54.8 X 10-5g
Charge on an electron= 1.6X 10-19Col
Charge on one mole of electrons= 1.6 X 10-19 X 6.022X1023= 9.635X104= 96500
coloumbs = 1faraday
2.Questions based on frequency wavelength wavenumber threshold frequency and work
function (W0 ), Photoelectric effect, Emission and Absorption Spectra, Line Spectrum
of Hydrogen, Bohrs model for hydrogen atom, radii of the stationary states, energy of
stationary state, Limitations of Bohrs Model

1. Define the terms frequency wavelength & wave number (Write mathematical forms also).
2.The Vividh Bharati station of All India Radio, Delhi, broadcasts on a frequency of 1,368 kHz (kilo
hertz). Calculate the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by transmitter. Which part of
the electromagnetic spectrum does it belong to?
3. The wavelength range of the visible spectrum extends from violet (400 nm) to red (750 nm). Express
these wavelengths in frequencies (Hz). (1nm = 10 9 m)
4. Calculate(a) wavenumber and (b) frequency of yellow radiation having wavelength 5800.
5. Yellow light emitted from a sodium lamp has a wavelength of 580 nm. Calculate the frequency and
wavenumber of the yellow light.
6. Find energy of each of the photons which (i) correspond to light of frequency 3 10 15Hz. (ii) have
wavelength of 0.50 .
7. Calculate the wavelength, frequency and wave number of a light wave whose period is 2.0 1010s.
8. Electrons are emitted with zero velocity from a metal surface when it is exposed to radiation of
0

) and work function (W0 ) of the metal.

9. Explain Photoelectric effect, Emission and Absorption Spectra


10. Give the postulates of Bohrs model. also write its Limitations.
11. Write a note on the Spectral Lines for Atomic Hydrogen.
12. What are the frequency and wavelength of a photon emitted during a transition from n = 5 state to
the n = 2 state in the hydrogen atom?
13. Calculate the energy associated with the first orbit of He + .What is the radius of this orbit?

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

14. What is the wavelength of light emitted when the electron in a hydrogen atom undergoes transition
from an energy level with n = 4 to an energy level with n = 2?
15 How much energy is required to ionise a H atom if the electron occupies n = 5 orbit? Compare your
answer with the ionization enthalpy of H atom ( energy required to remove the electron from n =1
orbit).
16. What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6
drops to the ground state?
17.(i) The energy associated with first orbit in the hydrogen atom is 2.18 10 18J atom1. What is the
energy associated with the fifth orbit?
(ii) Calculate the radius of Bohrs fifth orbit for hydrogen atom.
18. Calculate the wavenumber for the longest wavelength transition in the Balmer series of atomic
hydrogen.
19. What is the energy in joules, required to shift the electron of the hydrogen atom from the first Bohr
orbit to the fifth Bohr orbit and what is the wavelength of the light emitted when the electron returns to
the ground state? The ground state electron energy is 2.18 X 1011ergs.
20. The electron energy in hydrogen atom is given by En = (2.18 X 1018)/n2J. Calculate the energy
required to remove an electron completely from the n = 2 orbit. What is the longest wavelength of light
in cm that can be used to cause this transition?
21. What transition in the hydrogen spectrum would have the same wavelength as the Balmer transition
n = 4 to n = 2 of He+ spectrum?

ANSWER
2.The Vividh Bharati station of All India Radio, Delhi, broadcasts on a frequency of 1,368 kHz (kilo
hertz). Calculate the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by transmitter. Which part of
the electromagnetic spectrum does it belong to?
Ans: =1.368 X106= c/=> = 3 X 108/1.368 X 106= 219m.

3. The wavelength range of the visible spectrum extends from violet (400 nm) to red (750 nm). Express
these wavelengths in frequencies (Hz). (1nm = 10 9 m)
Ans: = c/= 3X108/400X10-9= 7.5X1014hertz
= c/=3X108/750X10-9= 4X1014hertz

4. Calculate(a) wavenumber and (b) frequency of yellow radiation having wavelength 5800.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Ans: = c/= 3X108/5800X10-10= 5.17X 1014hertz


Wave number (- )=1/ = 1/5.8X10-7=1.72 X 106

5. Yellow light emitted from a sodium lamp has a wavelength of 580 nm. Calculate the frequency and
wavenumber of the yellow light.
Ans: = c/= 3X108/5800X10-10= 5.17X 1014hertz
Wave number (- )=1/ = 1/5.8X10-7=1.72 X 106

6. Find energy of each of the photons which


(i) correspond to light of frequency 3 1015Hz.
Ans: E=h = 6.6X10-34 X3X1015 = 1.98X 10-18 Joules
(ii) have wavelength of 0.50 .
Ans: E= hc/= 6.6X10-34X3X108/0.5X10-10= 19.8/5X 10-15Joules =3.96 X 10-15Joules
7. Calculate the wavelength, frequency and wave number of a light wave whose period is 2.0 1010s.
Ans: 1/T= 1/2X10-10 = ;
= c/;
=c/ = 3X108/5X109= 6X10-2m

Wave number (- ) =1/= 1/6 X 10-2=167m-1

8. Electrons are emitted with zero velocity from a metal surface when it is exposed to radiation of
0

) and work function (W0 ) of the metal.

Ans: : work function = hc/= 6.6X10-34X3X108/6.8 X 10-7= 2.912 X10-19Joules


Threshold frequency = c/= 3X108/6.8 X 10-7= 4.4X1014

12. What are the frequency and wavelength of a photon emitted during a transition from n = 5 state to
the n = 2 state in the hydrogen atom?
Ans: E=-1312(1/52-1/22)= hc/ in kJoules/mole= 1312 X21X103/100X6.022X1023
= hc/E= 6.6X10-34X3X108X100 X6.022X1023 /1312X21X103=19.8X6.6X10-1/27552
=4.743 X10-7m= 4743X 10-10
Wavelength of the emitted photon is 4743A

= c/
= 3X108/4.743X10-7 = 6.325X1014
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

13. Calculate the energy associated with the first orbit of He + .What is the radius of this orbit?
E=-2.18 X10-18Z2/n2J = -2.18X10-18X22/12= -8.72X10-18J.

14. What is the wavelength of light emitted when the electron in a hydrogen atom undergoes transition
from an energy level with n = 4 to an energy level with n =2?
E=-2.18X10-18(1/22-1/42)
=-2.18X10-18X3/16= -0.40875X10-18
E= -0.40875X10-18 energy is released.
E= hc/= 6.6X10-34X3X108/
=6.6X10-34X3X108/0.40875X10-18= 48.44X10-8m=4844A

15 How much energy is required to ionize a H atom if the electron occupies n = 5 orbit? Compare your
answer with the ionization enthalpy of H atom (energy required to remove the electron from n =1 orbit).
E5= -2.18X10-18/52= -8.72X10-20J
E1=-2.18X10-18. Ionization energy of 1 H atom is 25 times the energy required to remove an
electron from n=5.

16. What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6
drops to the ground state?
Ans: 5+4+3+2+1=15 lines
17.(i) The energy associated with first orbit in the hydrogen atom is 2.18 10 18J atom1. What is the
energy associated with the fifth orbit?
(ii) Calculate the radius of Bohrs fifth orbit for hydrogen atom.
R=52.9(n2)/z= 52.9X25/1=1322.5pm

18. Calculate the wave number for the longest wavelength transition in the Balmer series of atomic
hydrogen.

longest wavelength is minimum energy ie34 transition


=109677(1/32-1/22)
=109677X5/36= 15233cm-1
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

= 6.565 X10-5cm =6.565X10-7m= 6565A

19. What is the energy in joules, required to shift the electron of the hydrogen atom from the first Bohr
orbit to the fifth Bohr orbit and what is the wavelength of the light emitted when the electron returns to
the ground state? The ground state electron energy is 2.18 X 1011ergs.
Ans: E=2.18X10-11(1/52-1/12)
E=2.18X10-11(24/25) = 2.09X10-11ergs.=2.09X10-18J
=hc/E= 6.6X10-34X3X108/2.09X10-18=9.474X10-8m =947.4A. This falls in the uv range

20. The electron energy in hydrogen atom is given by En = (2.18 X 1018)/n2J. Calculate the energy
required to remove an electron completely from the n = 2 orbit. What is the longest wavelength of light
in cm that can be used to cause this transition?
Ans:E2= 2.18X10-18/4=5.36X10-19J
=hc/E= 6.6X10-34X3X108/5.36X10-19= 3.694X10-7m= 3.694X10-5cm

Ie light of minimum wavelength3.694X10-5cm is required to remove the electron from n=2


21. What transition in the hydrogen spectrum would have the same wavelength as the Balmer transition
n = 4 to n = 2 of He+ spectrum?
E=-2.18X10-18X22X(1/22-1/42)=2.18X10-18X4X3/16= 1.635X10-18J
=hc/E= 6.6X10-34X3X108/1.635X10-18=12.11X10-8m= 1211A. This belongs to the uv range

and hence the llyman series.


E=2.18X10-18X(1-1/n2)=2.18X10-18X12/16
1-1/n2= 12/16=3/4
1/n2=1/4
Hence n=2. The transition 21 in the Hydrogen spectrum corresponds to the given
energy transition.
3..Questions based on Dual behaviour of matter (de Broglies relation), Heisenberg
uncertainty principle.

1. Explain Dual behaviour of matter.


2. State de Broglies relation. Give its mathematical expression.
3. What will be the wavelength of a ball of mass 0.1 kg moving with a velocity of 10 m s 1?
4. The mass of an electron is 9.1 X 10 kg. If its K.E. is 3.0 X10 25 J, calculate its wavelength.
5. Calculate the mass of a photon with wavelength 3.6 .
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

6. The velocity associated with a proton moving in a potential difference of 1000 V is 4.37 10 5ms1. If
the hockey ball of mass 0.1 kg is moving with this velocity,
Calculate the wavelength associated with this velocity.
7. If the velocity of the electron in Bohrs first orbit is 2.19 106ms1, calculate the de Broglie
wavelength associated with it.
8. Similar to electron diffraction, neutron diffraction microscope is also used for the determination of
the structure of molecules. If the wavelength used here is 800 pm, calculate the characteristic velocity
associated with the neutron.
9. Dual behaviour of matter proposed by de Broglie led to the discovery of electron microscope often
used for the highly magnified images of biological molecules and other type of material. If the velocity
of the electron in this microscope is 1.6 106ms1 , calculate de Broglie wavelength associated with this
electron.
10. Calculate the wavelength of an electron moving with a velocity of 2.05 X 107ms1
11. The mass of an electron is 9.1 X 1031kg. If its K.E. is 3.0 X 1025 J, calculate its wavelength.
12. Why de Broglies relation is not associated with ordinary objects.
13. State Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle. Give its mathematical expression.
14. A microscope using suitable photons is employed to locate an electron in an
atom within a distance of 0.1 . What is the uncertainty involved in the measurement of its velocity?
15. If the position of the electron is measured within an accuracy of + 0.002 nm, calculate the
uncertainty in the momentum of the electron. Suppose the momentum of the electron is h/4 0.05
nm, is there any problem in defining this value.
16. Show that the circumference of the Bohr orbit for the hydrogen atom is an integral multiple of the de
Broglie wavelength associated with the electron revolving around the orbit.
ANSWER

3. What will be the wavelength of a ball of mass 0.1 kg moving with a velocity of 10 m s 1?
Ans: =h/mv= 6.6X10-34/0.1X10= 6.6 X 10-34m
4. The mass of an electron is 9.1 X 10 kg. If its K.E. is 3.0 X10 25 J, calculate its wavelength.
Ans: KE= mv2=3X10-25; v2= 6X10-25= 60X10-26=> v=7.746X 10-13m/s
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/9.1X10-31X7.746X 10-13=9.363X10-12m

5. Calculate the mass of a photon with wavelength 3.6 .


Ans: v=3X108m/s
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/m X3X108


m=h/v = 6.6X10-34/3X108X3.6X10-10= 6.11X10-33kg
6. The velocity associated with a proton moving in a potential difference of 1000 V is 4.37
105ms1. If the hockey ball of mass 0.1 kg is moving with this velocity,
Calculate the wavelength associated with this velocity.
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/0.1X4.37X105= 1.51X10-38m
7. If the velocity of the electron in Bohrs first orbit is 2.19 106ms1, calculate the de Broglie
wavelength associated with it.
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/9.1X10-31X2.19X106= 3.3X10-10m

8. Similar to electron diffraction, neutron diffraction microscope is also used for the determination
of the structure of molecules. If the wavelength used here is 800 pm, calculate the characteristic
velocity associated with the neutron.
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/6.67X10-27kgXv = 8X10-10
v=6.6X10-34/6.67X10-27kgX8X10-10=125m/s

9. Dual behavior of matter proposed by de Broglie led to the discovery of electron microscope
often used for the highly magnified images of biological molecules and other type of material. If
the velocity of the electron in this microscope is 1.6 106ms1, calculate de Broglie wavelength
associated with this electron.
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/9.1X10-31X1.6X106= 4.5X10-10m
10. Calculate the wavelength of an electron moving with a velocity of 2.05 X 107ms1
=h/mv= 6.6X10-34/9.1X10-31X 2.05X107=3.538 X10-10m

14. A microscope using suitable photons is employed to locate an electron in an atom within a distance
of 0.1 . What is the uncertainty involved in the measurement of its velocity?
x.P

h
4

x.mv=h/4
v=h/4mx =6.6X10-34/4X3.14X9.1X10-31X10-11=5.77X10-6m/s

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

15. If the position of the electron is measured within an accuracy of + 0.002 nm, calculate the
uncertainty in the momentum of the electron. Suppose the momentum of the electron is h/4
0.05 nm, is there any problem in defining this value.
x.P

h
4

P=h/4Xx
P=6.6X10-34/4X3.14X0.002X10-9
P=2.69X 10-22kgm/s

4.QUESTIONS BASED ON QUANTUM NUMBERS, AUFBAU RULE, PAULI RULE,


HUNDS RULE, ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF ATOMS & IONS.

1. What information is provided by the four quantum numbers?


2. Using s, p, d, f notations, describe the orbital with the following quantum numbers
(a) n = 2, l = 1, (b) n = 4, l = 0, (c) n = 5, l = 3, (d) n = 3, l = 2 (e) n=1, l=0

(f) n = 3 l=1 (g) n = 4;

l =2 (h) n= 4; l=3.
3. What is the total number of orbitals associated with the principal quantum number n = 3?
4. What is the lowest value of n that allows g orbitals to exist?
5. An electron is in one of the 3d orbitals. Give the possible values of n, l and ml for this electron.
6. (i) An atomic orbital has n = 3. What are the possible values of l and ml?
(ii) List the quantum numbers (ml and l ) of electrons for 3d orbital.
(iii) Which of the following orbitals are possible? 1p, 2s, 2p, 2d, 4f ,6d and 3f.
7. Explain, giving reasons, which of the following sets of quantum numbers are not possible.(a) n = 0, l
= 0, ml = 0, ms = + (b) n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, m s = (c) n = 1, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = + (d) n = 2, l = 1,
ml = 0, ms = (e) n = 3, l = 3, ml = 3, ms = + (f) n = 3, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = +
8. (i)How many electrons in an atom may have the following quantum numbers?
(a) n = 4, m s = (b) n = 3, l = 0
(ii) How many sub-shells are associated with n = 4?
(iii) How many electrons will be present in the sub-shells having m s value of 1/2 for n = 4?
9. State (n+l) rule Aufbau rule & Pauli rule.
10. Give the electronic configuration of first 30 elements.
11. Explain the exceptional configuration of copper and chromium.
12. Give the electronic configurations of the following ions: Cu2+ Cr3+ Fe2+ S2- Fe2+ O2- Na+
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

13. Explain Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity with an example.


14. Indicate the number of unpaired electrons in : (a) P, (b) Si, (c) Cr, (d) Fe and (e) Kr.
15. The quantum numbers of six electrons are given below. Arrange them in order ofincreasing
energies. If any of these combination(s) has/have the same energy lists:
(1). n = 4, l = 2, ml = 2, ms = 1/2

(2). n = 3, l = 2, ml = 1, ms = +1/2

(3.) n = 4, l = 1, ml = 0 , ms = +1/2

(4.) n = 3, l = 2, ml = 2 , ms = 1/2

(5). n = 3, l = 1, ml = 1, ms = +1/2 (6). n = 4, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = +1/2


16. (i) Write the electronic configurations of the following ions: (a) H(b) Na+(c) O2(d) F
(ii) What are the atomic numbers of elements whose outermost electrons are represented by (a) 3s1 (b)
2p3 and (c) 3p5?
(iii) Which atoms are indicated by the following configurations? (a) [He] 2s1(b) [Ne] 3s23p3(c)[Ar]
4s23d1
17. An atom of an element contains 29 electrons and 35 neutrons. Deduce (i) the number of protons and
(ii) the electronic configuration of the element.
18. Among the following pairs of orbitals which orbital will experience the larger effective nuclear
charge? (i) 2s and 3s, (ii) 4d and 4f, (iii) 3d and 3p.
19. The unpaired electrons in Al and Si are present in 3p orbital. Which electrons will experience more
effective nuclear charge from the nucleus?
20 The bromine atom possesses 35 electrons. It contains 6 electrons in 2p orbital, 6 electrons in 3p
orbital and 5 electrons in 4p orbital. Which of these electron experiences the lowest effective nuclear
charge?
21. Draw the shapes of s,p,d & f orbitals.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

3.Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter


1. Dobereiner's Triads:In 1817 a German chemist Doberneiner identified certain groups of three
elements. These groups of three elements having similar properties was called triads. When three
elements were arranged in order of their increasing atomic masses, the atomic mass of the middle
element was roughly the mean of the atomic masses of the other two element
2. New Lands Law of octaves:When elements were arranged in order of their increasing relative
atomic masses. The properties of every eight elements were similar to the first one, like the
eighth note of a musical scale.This repetition in the properties of elements is just like the
repetition of eighth node in an octave of music.
3. Mendeleev's Periodic Law:The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic
function of their atomic masses.
4. Mendeleev's Periodic Table:When mendeleev started his work, 63 elements were known at that
time. He selected hydrogen and oxygen as they are very reactive and formed compounds with
most elements. Mendeleev's periodic table contains vertical columns called groups and
horizontal rows called periods. There were 7 periods and 8 groups. Noble gases were not known
at that time. So there was no group of noble gases.The elements in each group of the periodic
tables are similar to one another in many properties. The similar properties of the elements are
repeated periodically
(a).Merits of mendeleev's classification
Mendeleev's periodic law predicted the existence of some elements that had not been
discovered at that time
.Could predict the properties of several elements on the basis of their position in the
periodic table.
Could accommodate noble gases when they were discovered.
(b)Limitations of mendeleev's classification : The correct position could not be assigned to the hydrogen in the periodic table.
Wrong order of the atomic masses of some elements could not be explained.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

The position of isotopes could not be explained.


Uncertainty in prediction of new elements was there.

5. Modern periodic law: Properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic number.
6. Modern Periodic Table: This table was prepared was Bohr and is based upon the electronic
configuration of elements. The table consists of 18 vertical columns called groups Elements
having similar outer electronic configurations in their atoms are arranged in vertical columns,
referred to as groups . According to the recommendation of International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups are numbered from 1 to 18 and the table consists of 7
horizontal rows called periods. The first period contains 2 elements. The subsequent periods
consists of 8, 8, 18, 18 and 32 elements, respectively. The seventh period is incomplete and like
the sixth period would have a theoretical maximum (on the basis of quantum numbers) of 32
elements. In this form of the Periodic Table, 14 elements of both sixth and seventh periods
(lanthanoids and actinoids, respectively) are placed in separate panels at the bottom

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

7. .Notation

for

IUPAC

Nomenclature

of

Elements

With

>

100

8. We can classify the elements into four blocks viz., s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block
depending on the type of atomic orbital that are being filled with electrons.
9. s-Block Elements :The elements of Group 1 (alkali metals) and Group 2 (alkaline earth metals)
which have ns1and ns2 outermost electronic configuration belong to the s-Block Elements.
10. p-Block Elements The p-Block Elements comprise those belonging to Group 13 to 18 and these
together with the s-Block Elements are called the Representative Elements or Main Group
Elements. The outermost electronic configuration varies from ns2np1 to ns2np6 in each period.
11. d-Block Elements These are the elements of Group 3 to 12 in the centre of the Periodic Table.
These are characterised by the filling of inner d orbitals by electrons and are therefore referred to
as d-Block Elements. These elements have the general outer electronic configuration (n-1)d110

ns0-2 .

12. f-Block Elements The two rows of elements at the bottom of the Periodic Table, called the
Lanthanoids, Ce(Z = 58) Lu(Z = 71) and Actinoids, Th(Z = 90) Lr (Z = 103) are
characterised by the outer electronic configuration (n-2)f1-14 (n-1)d01ns2. The last electron added
to each element is filled in f- orbital. These two series of elements are hence called the InnerTransition Elements (f-Block Elements).
13. Variation in Atomic Radius in Period: The atomic size generally decreases across a period It is
because within the period the outer electrons are in the same valence shell and the effective
nuclear charge increases as the atomic number increases resulting in the increased attraction of
electrons to the nucleus.

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Li

Be

Ne

14. Variation in Atomic Radius in Group: Within a family or vertical column of the periodic table,
the atomic radius increases regularly with atomic number as). as we descend the groups, the
principal quantum number (n) increases and the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus.
This happens because the inner energy levels are filled with electrons, which serve to shield the
outer electrons from the pull of the nucleus. Consequently the size of the atom increases as
reflected in the atomic radii.
15. The atomic radii of noble gases are not considered here. Being monatomic, their (non-bonded
radii) values are very large. In fact radii of noble gases should be compared not with the covalent
radii but with the van der Waals radii of other elements.
16. A cation is smaller than its parent atom because it has fewer electrons while its nuclear charge
remains the same. The size of an anion will be larger than that of the parent atom because
the addition of one or more electrons would result in increased repulsion among the electrons
and a decrease in effective nuclear charge. For example, the ionic radius of fluoride ion (F ) is
136 pm whereas the atomic radius of fluorine is only 64 pm. On the other hand, the atomic radius
of sodium is 186 pm compared to the ionic radius of 95 pm for Na+.
17. Isoelectronic species :Atoms and ions which contain the same number of electrons.. For
example, O2, F, Na+ and Mg2+ have the same number ofelectrons (10). Their radii would be
different because of their different nuclear charges. The cation with the greater positive charge
will have a smaller radius because of the greater attraction of the electrons to the nucleus. Anion
with the greater negative charge will have the larger radius. In this case, the net repulsion of the
electrons will outweigh the nuclear charge and the ion will expand in size.
18. Ionization Enthalpy: It represents the energy required to remove an electron from an isolated
gaseous atom (X) in its ground state. In other words, the first ionization enthalpy for an element
X is the enthalpy change (iH) for the reaction depicted in equation. X (g) X+(g) + e . The
ionization enthalpy is expressed in units of kJ mol1. We can define the second ionization
enthalpy as the energy required to remove the second most loosely bound electron; it is the
energy required to carry out the reaction shown in equation X+(g)X2+(g) + e . Energy is
always required to remove electrons from an atom and hence ionization enthalpies are always
positive. The second ionization enthalpy will be higher than the first ionization enthalpy because
it is more difficult to remove an electron from a positively charged ion than from a neutral atom.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

In the same way the third ionization enthalpy will be higher than the second and so on. The term
ionization enthalpy, if not qualified, is taken as the first ionization enthalpy.
19. Variation in Ionization Enthalpy in Group: As we descend in a group the first ionization
enthalpy generally decreases .Because as we go down a group, the outermost electron being
increasingly farther from the nucleus, there is an increased shielding of the nuclear charge by the
electrons in the inner levels. In this case, increase in shielding outweighs the increasing nuclear
charge and the removal of the outermost electron requires less energy down a group.
20. Variation in Ionization Enthalpy in Period: The first ionization enthalpy generally increases as
we go across a period. When we move from left to right in period, successive electrons are added
to orbitals in the same principal quantum level and the shielding of the nuclear charge by the
inner core of electrons does not increase very much to compensate for the increased attraction of
the electron to the nucleus. Thus, across a period, increasing nuclear charge outweighs the
shielding. Consequently, the outermost electrons are held more and more tightly and the
ionization enthalpy increases across a period

21. Electron Gain Enthalpy: When an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom (X) to convert it
into a negative ion, the enthalpy change accompanying the process is defined as the Electron
Gain Enthalpy (egH). Electron gain enthalpy provides a measure of the ease with which an atom
adds an electron to form anion as represented by equation. X(g) + e X(g) . Depending on the
element, the process of adding an electron to the atom can be either endothermic or exothermic.
For many elements energy is released when an electron is added to the atom and the electron
gain enthalpy is negative. For example, group 17 elements (the halogens) have very high
negative electron gain enthalpies because they can attain stable noble gas electronic
configurations by picking up an electron. On the other hand, noble gases have large positive
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

electron gain enthalpies because the electron has to enter the next higher principal quantum level
leading to a very unstable electronic configuration.
22. Variation in electron gain enthalpies in Group & period: The variation in electron gain
enthalpies of elements is less systematic than for ionization enthalpies. As a general rule,
electron gain enthalpy becomes more negative with increase in the atomic number across a
period. The effective nuclear charge increases from left to right across a period and consequently
it will be easier to add an electron to a smaller atom since the added electron on an average
would be closer to the positively charged nucleus. We should also expect electron gain enthalpy
to become less negative as we go down a group because the size of the atom increases and the
added electron would be farther from the nucleus. This is generally the case. However, electron
gain enthalpy of O or F is less negative than that of the succeeding element. This is because
when an electron is added to O or F, the added electron goes to the smaller n = 2 quantum level
and suffers significant repulsion from the other electrons present in this level. For the n = 3
quantum level (S or Cl), the added electron occupies a larger region of space and the electronelectron repulsion is much less.
23. Electronegativity: A qualitative measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to
attract shared electrons to itself is called electro negativity Linus Pauling, an American scientist,
in 1922 assigned arbitrarily a value of 4.0 to fluorine, the element considered to have the greatest
ability to attract electrons. Electronegativity generally increases across a period from left to right
(say from lithium to fluorine) and decrease down a group (say from fluorine to astatine) in the
periodic table.
24. Anomalous Properties of Second Period Elements: The first element of each of the groups 1
(lithium) and 2 (beryllium) and groups 13-17 (boron to fluorine) differs in many respects from
the other members of their respective group. For example, lithium unlike other alkali metals, and
beryllium unlike other alkaline earth metals, form compounds with pronounced covalent
character; the other members of these groups predominantly form ionic compounds. In fact the
behaviour of lithium and beryllium is more similar with the second element of the Group 1, 2
,13, 14, 15, 16 ,17. following group i.e., magnesium and aluminum, respectively. This sort of
similarity is commonly referred to as diagonal relationship in the periodic properties. The
anomalous behaviour is attributed to their small size, large charge/ radius ratio and high
electronegativity of the elements. In addition, the first member of group has only four valence
orbitals (2s and 2p) available for bonding, whereas the second member of the groups have nine
valence orbitals (3s, 3p, 3d). As a consequence of this, the maximum covalency of the first
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

member of each group is 4 (e.g., boron can only form[BF4]- , whereas the other members of the
groups can expand their valence shell to accommodate more than four pairs of electrons e.g.,
aluminum forms [AlF6]3- ). Furthermore, the first member of p-block elements displays greater
ability to form p p multiple bonds to itself (e.g., C = C, C C, N = N, N N) and to other
second period elements (e.g., C = O, C = N, C N, N = O) compared to subsequent members of
the same group.

Unit-3
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

1. Questions based on Modern Periodic Table

1. Which important property did Mendeleev use to classify the elements in his periodic table and did he
stick to that?
2. What is the basic difference in approach between the Mendeleevs Periodic Law
and the Modern Periodic Law?
$3. What would be the IUPAC name and symbol for the elements with atomic number 101 to 120?
4. Write a detailed note on the present form of the periodic Table (Modern Periodic Table.) Draw
colourful Periodic Table.
5. (a) How is group, period and block of elements predicted.
(b) Give the electronic configuration and in terms of period group and block where would you locate
the elements with Z= 17, 19. 24, 26, 29, 31,34,38, 40, 51,55,114 ,117 and 120 ?
6. How would you justify the presence of 18 elements in the 5th period of the Periodic Table?
7. On the basis of quantum numbers, justify that the sixth period of the periodic table should have 32
elements.
8. .Write the general outer electronic configuration s, p, d, & f block elements.
9. Give five properties each of s, p, d, & f block elements.
10. Why do elements in the same group have similar physical and chemical properties?
2. Questions based on Atomic Radius & Ionic Radius

1. How is atomic radius expressed in terms of different types of radius?


2. How does the atomic radius vary in a period and in a group? How do you explain the variation?
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

3. Why atomic radius of noble gases are not considered in comparison.


4. Explain why cations are smaller and anions larger in radii than their parent atom? Or
Describe the theory associated with the radius of an atom as it (a) gains an electron
(b) Loses an electron
$5. What do you understand by isoelectronic species? Name a species that will be isoelectronic with
each of the following atoms or ions.(i)F- (ii)Ar (iii)Mg+2 (iv)Rb+
$$6. Consider the following species: N3-, O2-, Na+,Mg+2, and Al+3
(a)What is common in them? (b)Arrange them in the order of increasing ionic radii.
7.Arrange the following in order of increasing radii: (a)N,O,P (b)F,Cl,Br (c)I-,I,I+
$8. Which of the following species will have the largest and the smallest size Mg, Mg2+, Al, Al3+.
9.A student reported the radii of Cu,Cu+ and Cu+2 as 96,122 & 72 ppm respectively do you agree with
results.
3.Questions based on Ionization Enthalpy its Variation and factors affecting it.

$1. (a)Define Ionization enthalpy. Give its unit.


(b)Explain the term successive ionization energies.
$2. How does the Ionization vary in a period and in a group? How do you explain the variation?
$3. Among the second period elements the actual ionization enthalpies are in the order
Li<B<Be<C<O<N<F<Ne
Explain why (i) Be has higher ionization enthalpy than B.
(ii)O has lower ionization enthalpy than N and F?
$4. How would you explain the fact the first ionization enthalpy of sodium is lower than that of
Magnesium but its second ionization enthalpy is higher than that of Magnesium?
5. What are the various factors due to which the ionization enthalpy of the main group elements tends to
decrease down a group?
6. .The first ionization enthalpy values (in KJ mol-1) of group 13 are:
B

Al

Ga

In

Tl

801

577

579

558

589

How would you explain this deviation from the general trend?
7. (a)Arrange C,N,O and F in the decreasing order of their second ionization enthalpy and explain
briefly.
(b)Explain why the first ionization enthalpy of Carbon is more than that of Boron but the reverse is true
for second ionization enthalpy

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

8. Would you expect the first ionization enthalpy for two isotopes of the same element to be same or
different? Justify your answer.
4.Questions based on electron gain enthalpy its Variation and factors affecting it

$1. Define the term electron gain enthalpy.


$2. How does the electron gain enthalpy in a period and in a group? How do you explain the variation?
$3. Would you expect the second electron gain enthalpy of O as positive, more negative or less negative
than the first? Justify your answer?
$4. Which of the following pairs of elements would have a more negative electron gain enthalpy? (i) O
or F (ii)F or Cl (iii) O or S.Give reason to support your answer
5. Which of the following will have the most negative electron gain enthalpy and which the least
negative? P, S, Cl, F.Explain your answer.
6. In each of the following sets, arrange the elements in the increasing order of their negative electron
gain enthalpies: (i)C,N,O (ii)O,N,S (iii) Cl,S,Ar (iv)F,Cl,Br
5.Miscellenous Questions

1. Which element do you think would have been named by


(i) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (ii) Seaborgs group?
2. What is the significance of the terms isolated gaseous atom and ground state while defining the
ionization enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy?
3. Energy of an electron in the ground state of the hydrogen atom is 2.18 10 18J. Calculate the
ionization enthalpy of atomic hydrogen in terms of J mol1.
4. What is the difference between the terms electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity?
5. How would you react to the statement that the electronegativity of N on Pauling scale is 3.0 in all the
nitrogen compounds?
6. Use the periodic table to answer the following questions.
(a) Identify an element with five electrons in the outer subshell. (b) Identify an element that would tend
to lose two electrons.(c) Identify an element that would tend to gain two electrons. (d) Identify the group
having metal, non-metal, liquid as well as gas at the room temperature.
7. The increasing order of reactivity among group 1 elements is Li < Na < K < Rb <Cs whereas that
among group 17 elements is F > CI > Br > I. Explain.
8. Assign the position of the element having outer electronic configuration (i) ns2np4 for n=3(ii)(n-1)d2
ns2 (iii)(n-2)f7 (n-1)d1ns2 for n=6 in the periodic table.
9. Predict the formulas of the stable binary compounds that would be formed by the combination of the
following pairs of elements.
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(a) Lithium and oxygen (b) Magnesium and nitrogen (c) Aluminum and iodine (d) Silicon and oxygen
(e) Phosphorus and fluorine (f) Element 71 and fluorine (g) silicon and bromine (h) aluminum and
sulphur.
10. Considering the elements B, Al, Mg, and K, the correct order of their metallic character is 11.
Considering the elements B, C, N, F, and Si, the correct order of their non-metallic character is:
12. Considering the elements F, Cl, O and N, the correct order of their chemical reactivity in terms of
oxidizing property is:
13. Show by a chemical reaction with water that Na2O is a basic oxide and Cl2O7 is an acidic oxide.
14. Considering the atomic number and position in the periodic table, arrange the following elements in
the increasing order of metallic character : Si, Be, Mg, Na, P.
15. The element with atomic number 119 has not been discovered. What would be the IUPAC name and
symbol of this element? Also predict the electronic configuration, group and period of this element.
16. Which element has the highest negative electron gain enthalpy, ionization enthalpy and
eletronegativity?

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

4.Chemical bonding and Molecular Structure


Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter
1. Lewis dot structures are shorthand to represent the valence electrons of an atom. The structures

are written as the element symbol surrounded by dots that represent the valence electrons.
2. Covalent Bonds- The bond formed between two atoms by mutual sharing of electrons between

them so as to complete their octets or duplets. When two atoms share one electron pair they are
said to be joined by a single covalent bond.e.g H2 If two atoms share two electron pairs of
electrons, the covalent bond between them is called a double bond. e.g O2 If two atoms share
three electron pairs of electrons, the covalent bond between them is called a double bond. e.g N2
3.

Octet Rule- Kossel and Lewis in 1916 developed an important theory of chemical combination
between atoms known as electronic theory of chemical bonding. According to this, atoms can
combine either by transfer of valence electrons from one atom to another or by sharing of
valence electrons in order to attain their octet. This is known as octet rule.

4. Limitations of octet rule-

a) Incomplete octet of the central atom: In some compounds the number of electrons surrounding
the central atom is less than eight. This is especially the case with elements having less than four
valence electrons. Examples-

LiCl ,BeCl2 , BCl3

b) Odd-electron molecules: In molecules with an odd number of electrons like nitric oxide, NO and
nitrogen dioxide, the octet rule is not satisfied for all the atoms.
c) The expanded octet : Elements in and beyond the third period of the periodic table have, apart
from 3s and 3p orbitals, 3d orbitals also available for bonding. In a number of compounds of
these elements there are more than eight valence electrons around the central atom. This is
termed as the expanded octet. Some of examples of such compounds are: PF5, SF6.
d) This theory does not account for the shape of molecules.

5. Electrovalent bond or Ionic Bond: The chemical bond as result of transfer of electron from one

atom(electropositive) to another atom (electronegative).Ionic bonds will be formed more easily


between elements with comparatively low ionization enthalpies and elements with comparatively

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

high negative value of electron gain enthalpy. Most ionic compounds have cations derived from
metallic elements and anions from non-metallic elements.
6. Formation of Ionic Bond

7. Bond length is defined as the equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a

molecule.
8. Bond Angle:It is defined as the angle between the orbital containing bonding electron pairs

around the central atom in a molecule/complex ion. It gives some idea regarding the distribution
of orbital around the central atom in a molecule/complex ion and hence it helps us in determining
its shape
9. Bond enthalpy: It is defined as the amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds of a

particular type between two atoms in a gaseous state. The unit of bond enthalpy is kJ mol1
10. Bond Order : The Bond Order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms in a

molecule. E.g.: Bond Order of O2= 2. With increase in bond order, bond enthalpy increases and
bond length decreases.
11. Resonance: According to the concept of resonance, whenever a single Lewis structure cannot

describe a molecule accurately, a number of structures with similar energy, positions of nuclei,
bonding and the non- bonding pairs of electrons are taken as the canonical structures of the
hybrid which describes the molecule accurately
12. Polarity of bonds: In case of heteronuclear molecules like HCl, the shared pair of electron

between the two atoms gets displaced more towards chlorine since the electronegativity of
chlorine is far greater than that of hydrogen. The resultant covalent bond is called a polar
covalent bond.
13. Dipole moment: As a result of polarization, the molecule possesses the dipole moment which

can be defined as the product of charge and the distance between the centers of positive and
negative charge. It is usually designated by a Greek letter . Mathematically, it is expressed as
follows:
Dipole moment ( ) = charge (Q) X distance of separation (r)

14. VSEPR Theory


KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

The shape of a molecule depends upon the number of valence shell electron pairs (bonded
or nonbonded) around the central atom.
Pairs of electrons in the valence shell repel one another since their electron clouds are
negatively charged.
These pairs of electrons tend to occupy such positions in space that minimize repulsion
and thus maximise distance between them.
The valence shell is taken as a sphere with the electron pairs localising on the spherical
surface at maximum distance from one another.
A multiple bond is treated as if it is a single electron pair and the two or three electron
pairs of a multiple bond are treated as a single super pair.
Where two or more resonance structures can represent a molecule, the VSEPR model is
applicable to any such structure.
The repulsive interaction of electron pairs decrease in the order: Lone pair (lp) Lone
pair (lp) > Lone pair (lp) Bond pair (bp) > Bond pair (bp) Bond pair (bp)
Geometry of Molecules on the basis of VSEPR Theory
Bond pair Lone

Shape

Examples

pair
2

Linear

BeCl2

Trigonal Planar

BCl3

Bent

SO2

Tetrahedral

CH4

Pyramidal

NH3, ,PH3,

V-shape

H2O

Trigonal bipyramidal

PCl5

See saw

SF4

T-shaped

CIF3,

Linear

XeF2

Square pyramidal

CIF5, IF5

Square planar

XeF4,

Distorted Octahedral

XeF6

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

15. Hybridization: It can be defined as the process of intermixing of the orbitals of slightly different

energies so as to redistribute their energies, resulting in the formations of new set of orbitals of
equivalent energies and shape.

Salient Features of hybridization :

The number of hybrid orbitals is equal to the number of the atomic orbitals that get hybridised.

The hybridised orbitals are always equivalent in energy and shape.

The hybrid orbitals are more effective in forming stable bonds than the pure atomic orbitals.

These hybrid orbitals are directed in space in some preferred direction to have minimum
repulsion between electron pairs and thus a stable arrangement.

16. Types of Hybridisation

sp hybridisation- This type of hybridisation involves the mixing of one s and one p orbital
resulting in the formation of two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals.e.g.BeCl2
sp2 hybridisation- In this hybridisation there is involvement of one s and two p-orbitals in
order to form there equivalent sp2 hybridised orbitals. e.g.BCl3
sp3 hybridisation- When there is mixing of one s and three p-orbitals of the valence shell to
form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energies and shape. e.g.CH4
17. Molecular orbital. It gives electron probability distribution around a group of nuclei in a

molecule. They are filled in the same way as atomic orbitals. Molecular orbitals are formed by
linear combination of atomic orbitals.

18. Bonding molecular orbital. A molecular orbital that is formed by addition overlap (i.e., when

the lobes of atomic orbitals overlap with the same sign) of two atomic orbitals is known as
bonding molecular orbital. It is represented as
MO A B Its energy is lower than the atomic orbitals from which it is formed. It

favours bonding.

19. Anti-bonding molecular orbital. A molecular orbital that is obtained by the subtraction overlap

(i.e., when the lobes of atomic orbitals overlap with the opposite sign) of two atomic orbitals is
know as anti-bonding molecular orbital. It is represented as
* MO A B Its energy is higher than the atomic orbitals from which it is formed. It

does not favour bonding.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

20. Bond order. It is defined as half of the difference between number of electrons in bonding and

anti-bonding orbitals, i.e., B.O. = (Nb Na) where Nb are number of electrons in bonding
orbitals and Na are number of electrons in anti-bonding orbitals. Bond order helps in estimating
stability of atom.
21. Relationship between electronic configuration and molecular behaviour :

(a)

If Nb is greater than Na, the molecule is stable.

(b) The molecule is unstable if Na is greater than Nb.


(c)

The molecule is also unstable if Na is equal to Nb because anti-bonding effect is stronger than
bonding effect.

22. Sigma ( ) molecular orbitals. A molecular orbital which is formed from the overlap of two s

atomic orbitlas or head to head overlap of one s and p-atomic orbitals or head to head overlap of
two p-atomic orbitals, is known as sigma molecular orbital.
23. pi ( ) molecular orbitals. A molecular orbital which is formed by lateral overlap of two

parallel p-orbitals is known as pi( ) molecular orbital.

24. Conditions for the Combination of Atomic Orbitals. The linear combination of atomic

orbitals takes place only if the following conditions are satisfied :


(i)

The combining atomic orbitals must have same or nearly same energy.

(ii) The combining atomic orbitals must have the same symmetry about the molecular axis. By
convention, z-axis is taken as the molecular axis.
(iii) The combining atomic orbitals must overlap to the maximum extent. Greater the extent of
overlapping, the greater will be electron density between the nuclei of a molecular orbital.

25. Energy level Diagrams for Molecular Orbitals. The increasing order of energies of various

molecular orbitals for O2 and F2 is given below.


*

1s 1s 2s 2s 2 p z 2 p x 2 p y 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z
However, this sequence of energy levels of molecular orbitals is not correct for
remaining molecules Li2, Be2, B2, C2, N2. For instance, it has been observed
experimentally that for molecules such as B2, C2, N2 etc., the increasing order
of energies of various molecular orbitals is

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

1s 1s 2s 2s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z
The important characteristic feature of this order is that the energy of 2 p z
molecular orbital is higher than that of 2 p x and 2 p y molecular orbitals in
these molecules.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Unit-4
CHEMICAL BONDING &MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
1. Questions based on Lewis dot symbols & structures, Covalent Bond,
Formal Charge, Electrovalent Bond & octet rule

1.Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements : Mg, Na, B, O, N,
Br.Cl,F,Li,Al,Be,P,As,S,Xe, H
2. Write Lewis symbols for the following atoms and ions: S2,Al3+ and H
3. Define Covalent Bond. Explain its types with examples.
4.Draw the Lewis structures for the following molecules&ions: H2S, SiCl4,
BeF2,CO23,BeCl2,BCl3,SiCl4,AsF5,H2S,PH3,PCl5,SF6,NH3,SF4,ClF3,BrF5,XeF4,NO35. Explain some compounds which are exceptions to Octet rule.
6. What is Formal Charge? Calculate the formal charge on all elements of O3 & CO32.
7. Define Electrovalent Bond or Ionic Bond. Write the favorable factors for the
formation of ionic bond.
8. Use Lewis symbols to show electron transfer between the following atoms to form
Cations and anions: (a) K and S (b) Ca and O (c) Al and N (d)Al and O
9. (a) Define octet rule. Write its significance and limitations.(b)What is Coordinate
Bond or Dative Bond.
2. Questions based on VSEPR theory, Resonance, Dipole moment,
Valence Bond Theory., hybridization of atomic orbitals

10.(a)Give the main points of VSEPR theory


(b) Discuss the shape using the VSEPR model: H2S, SiCl4, BeF2, CO23 , BeCl2, BCl3,
SiCl4, AsF5, H2S, PH3,PCl5,SF6,NH3,SF4,ClF3,BrF5,XeF4,NO311. Although geometries of NH3 and H2O molecules are distorted tetrahedral, bond
angle in water is less than that of ammonia. Discuss.
12. Define Resonance. Explain the structure of CO32 ion in terms of resonance.
13. Write the resonance structures for SO3, NO2 and NO3- , CO2
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

14. Explain the Dipole moment. How it is helpful in predicting polar & Non polar
nature of compounds.
15. Explain why BeH2 molecule has zero dipole moment although the B-H bonds are
polar.
16. Which out of NH3 and NF3 has dipole moment and why?
17. Arrange the bonds in order of increasing ionic character in the molecules: LiF,
K2O, N2, SO2 and ClF3.
18. Explain the formation of Hydrogen molecule on basis of Valence Bond Theory.
19. (a) Distinguish between a sigma ( ) and a pi ( ) bond
(b)What is the total number of sigma and pi bonds in the following molecules?
(a)

C2H2 (b) C2H4.

20. What is meant by hybridization of atomic orbitals?


21. Describe sp,sp2, sp3 hybrid orbitals using suitable examples.
22. Describe the change in hybridization (if any) of the Al atom in the following
reaction: AlCl3 + Cl- AlCl423. Is there any change in the hybridization of B and N atoms as a result of the
following reaction:

BF3 + NH3 F3B.NH3

24. Predict the hybrid state of central atom in the following compounds: H2S, SiCl4,
BeF2, CO23 , BeCl2, BCl3, SiCl4, AsF5, H2S, PH3,PCl5,SF6,NH3,SF4,ClF3,BrF5,XeF4.
25. Explain the concept of hybridization in PCl5 .Why are axial bonds longer as
compared to equatorial bonds in PCl5.
26. Which hybrid orbitals are used by carbon atoms in the following molecules?
(a) CH3-CH3 (b) CH3-CH=CH2 (c) CH3-CH2-OH (d)CH3-CHO (e) CH3-COOH
(f) H2C=CH-CH2-CCH
3. Questions based on Atomic orbitals , Molecular orbital configuration
and energy diagram, Bond order & Hydrogen bond

27. Write the conditions for the combination of atomic orbitals.


28. Distinguish between bonding molecular orbital & anti bonding molecular orbital.
29.Write the molecular orbital configuration and energy diagram for(i)O2+, O2, O2-,
O22- (ii)N2,N2+,N2- (iii) Be2, H2, C2
30. Draw the energy diagram for H2, Be2, N2,&O2.
31. a) What is meant by the term bond order. Write the significance of bond order
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(b) Compare the relative Stability of the following species and indicate their magnetic
properties. (i)O2+, O2, O2-, O22- (ii) N2, N2+,N232. Use the molecular orbital theory to explain why Be2 molecule does not exist.
33.(a) Define hydrogen bond .Explain its types with suitable examples.
(b) Is it weaker or stronger than the van der Waals forces?

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

5.States of Matter
Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter
1. Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction and repulsion between
interacting particles (atoms and molecules). This term does not include the
electrostatic forces that exist between the two oppositely charged ions and the
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together i.e., covalent bonds. Attractive
intermolecular forces are known as van der Waals forces, in honour of Dutch
scientist Johannes van der Waals (1837-1923).
2. Dipole - Dipole Forces:Dipole-dipole forces act between the molecules
possessing permanent dipole. Ends of the dipoles possess partial charges and
these charges are shown by Greek letter delta (

3. Dipole -Induced Dipole Forces: This type of attractive forces operate between
the polar molecules having permanent dipole and the molecules lacking
permanent dipole. Permanent dipole of the polar molecule induces dipole on
the electrically neutral molecule by deforming its electronic cloud.Thus an

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

induced dipole is developed in the other molecule

.
4. Dispersion Forces or London Forces:Atoms and nonpolar molecules are
electrically symmetrical and have no dipole moment because their electronic
charge cloud is symmetrically distributed. But a dipole may develop
momentarily even in such atoms and molecules. This can be understood as
follows. Suppose we have two atoms A and B in the close vicinity of each
other (Fig. 5.1a NCERT page 133). It may so happen that momentarily
electronic charge distribution in one of the atoms, say A, becomes
unsymmetrical i.e., the charge cloud is more on one side than the other (Fig.
5.1 b and c NCERT page 133). This results in the development of
instantaneous dipole on the atom A for a very short time. This instantaneous
or transient dipole distorts the electron density of the other atom B, which is
close to it and as a consequence a dipole is induced in the atom B. The
temporary dipoles of atom A and B attract each other. Similarly temporary
dipoles are induced in molecules also. This force of attraction was first
proposed by the German physicist Fritz London, and for this reason force of
attraction between two temporary dipoles is known as London force. Another
name for this force is dispersion force.
5. Hydrogen bond: Hydrogen bond is represented by a dotted line ( ) while a
solid line represents the covalent bond. Thus, hydrogen bond can be defined as
the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with the
electronegative atom (F, O or N) of another molecule this is special case of
dipole-dipole interaction..

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

6. Boyles Law (Pressure Volume Relationship): At constant temperature, the


pressure of a fixed amount (i.e., number of moles n) of gas varies inversely
with its volume. This is known as Boyles law.
p

1
(at constant T & V)
V

i.e. p = K1

1
V

pV= K1 p1V1=p2V2

p1 p 2

V1 V 2

7. Charles Law (Temperature Volume Relationship): It states that pressure


remaining constant, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature.i.e. V T (at constant P & V)
V =K2T

V
=K2
T

V1 V 2

T1 T 2

8. Gay Lussacs Law (Pressure-Temperature Relationship): It states that at


constant volume, pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the
temperature. Mathematically, . P T (at constant V & n)
p =K3T

P
=K3
T

9. Avogadro Law (Volume Amount Relationship): It states that equal


volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure
contain equal number of molecules. i.e. V n i.e. V =K4n.

Since

volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles; one mole of


each gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP)* will have same volume.
Standard temperature and pressure means 273.15 K (0oC) temperature and 1
bar (i.e., exactly 105 pascal) pressure
10. Ideal gas: A gas that follows Boyle

law and

Avogadro law strictly.


11. Ideal Gas Equation: pV = n RT
12. Universal Gas Constant :R is called gas constant. It is same for all gases. R=
8.314 Pa m3 K1 mol1 = 8.314 102 bar L K1 mol1 = 8.314 J K1 mol1
13. Equation of state.

P1V 1 P 2V 2
=
T1
T2

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

14. Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance:M=

dRT
P

15. Daltons Law of Partial Pressures: It states that the total pressure exerted by
the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of
individual gases i.e., the pressures which these gases would exert if they were
enclosed separately in the same volume and under the same conditions of
temperature. In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by the individual gas is
called partial pressure. Mathematically,

pTotal = p1+p2+p3+......(at

constant T, V) where pTotal is the total pressure exerted by the mixture of


gases and p1, p2 , p3 etc. are partial pressures of gases.
16. KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OFGASES:
Gases consist of large number of identical particles (atoms or
molecules) that are so small and so far apart on the average that the
actual volume of the molecules is negligible in comparison to the empty
space between them. They are considered as point masses. This
assumption explains the great compressibility of gases.explains the
great compressibility of gases.
There is no force of attraction between the particles of a
gas at ordinary temperature and pressure. The support for
this assumption comes from the fact that gases expand
and occupy all the space available to them.
Particles of a gas are always in constant and random motion. If the
particles were at rest and occupied fixed positions, then a gas would
have had a fixed shape which is not observed.

Particles of a gas move in all possible directions in straight


lines. During their random motion, they collide with each
other and with the walls of the container. Pressure is
exerted by the gas as a result of collision of the particles
with the walls of the container.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Collisions of gas molecules are perfectly elastic. This means that total
energy of molecules before and after the collision remains same.
17. Behaviour Of Real Gases: Deviation From Ideal Gas:Real gases show
deviations from ideal gas law (a)Pressure correction: pressure exerted by the
gas is lower than the pressure exerted by the ideal gas.

(b)Volume Correction: (Vnb) where nb is approximately the total volume


occupied by the molecules themselves. Here, b is a constant.
18. Van der Waals equation.equation.:

Constants a and b are called van der Waals constants

19. Significance of Vander wall parameter: Vander wall parameter a is the measure
of intermolecular forces while b is the measure of effective size of gaseous
molecules Unit of a = bar L3 mol-2 Unit of b = L mol-1

20. The deviation from ideal behaviour can be measured in terms of


compressibility factor Z, which is the ratio of product pV and nRT.
Mathematically Z=

pV
nRT

21. The temperature at which a real gas obeys ideal gas law over an appreciable
range of pressure is called Boyle temperature or Boyle point.
22. Critical temperature (TC)of a gas is highest temperature at which liquifaction
of the gas first occurs. Liquifaction of so called permanent gase Volume of one
mole of the gas at critical temperature is called critical volume (VC) and
pressure at this temperature is called critical pressure (pC). The critical
temperature, pressure and volume are called critical constants.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

23. Surface tension is defined as the force acting per unit length perpendicular to
the line drawn on the surface of liquid. It is denoted by Greek letter . It has
dimensions of kg s2 and in SI unit it is expressed as N m1.
24. Viscosity is a measure of resistance to flow which arises due to the internal
friction between layers of fluid as they slip past one another while liquid flows.
Strong intermolecular forces between molecules hold them together and resist
movement of layers past one another. Greater the viscosity, the more slowly
the liquid flows. Viscosity of liquids decreases as the temperature rises because
at high temperature molecules have high kinetic energy and can overcome the
intermolecular forces to slip past one another between the layers.
25. Viscosity coefficient is the force when velocity gradient is unity and the area
of contact is unit area. Thus is measure of viscosity. SI unit of viscosity
coefficient is 1 newton second per square metre (N s m2) = pascal second (Pa s
= 1kg m1s1).

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Unit-5
STATES OF MATTER
1.Questions based on Intermolecular forces ,Boyles Law, Charless
Law, Gay Lussacs Law, Avogadros Law

1. What are Intermolecular forces? Explain its different types with suitable
example
2. State Boyles Law. Give its mathematical Expression & graphical
representation.
3. A balloon is filled with hydrogen at room temperature. It will burst if pressure
exceeds 0.2 bar. If at 1 bar pressure the gas occupies 2.27 L volume, up to what
volume can the balloon be expanded?
4. What will be the minimum pressure required to compress 500 dm3 of air at 1
bar to 200 dm3 at 30C?
5. A vessel of 120 mL capacity contains a certain amount of gas at 35 C and 1.2
bar pressure. The gas is transferred to another vessel of volume 180 mL at 35
C. What would be its pressure?
6. State Charless Law. Give its mathematical Expression & graphical
representation.
7. On a ship sailing in pacific ocean where temperature is 23.4 C , a balloon is
filled with 2 L air. What will be the volume of the balloon when the ship
reaches Indian ocean, where temperature is 26.1C ?
8. A student forgot to add the reaction mixture to the round bottomed flask at 27
C but instead he/she placed the flask on the flame. After a lapse of time, he
realized his mistake, and using a pyrometer he found the temperature of the
flask was 477 C. What fraction of air would have been expelled out?
9. . State Gay Lussacs Law. Give its mathematical Expression & graphical
representation.
10. State Avogadros Law. Give its mathematical Expression.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

ANSWER

3. A balloon is filled with hydrogen at room temperature. It will burst if pressure


exceeds 0.2 bar. If at 1 bar pressure the gas occupies 2.27 L volume, up to what
volume can the balloon be expanded?
Ans:
P1V1=P2V2
1X2.27=0.2 X V2
V2=2.27/0.2=11.35L
4. What will be the minimum pressure required to compress 500 dm3 of air at 1
bar to 200 dm3 at 30C?
Ans: P1V1=P2V2
1X500=P2X200
P2=500/200= 2.5bar
5. A vessel of 120 mL capacity contains a certain amount of gas at 35 C and 1.2
bar pressure. The gas is transferred to another vessel of volume 180 mL at 35
C. What would be its pressure?
Ans: P1V1=P2V2
1.2 X120 =P2X180
P2=0.8bar
6.
7. On a ship sailing in pacific ocean where temperature is 23.4 C , a balloon is
filled with 2 L air. What will be the volume of the balloon when the ship
reaches Indian ocean, where temperature is 26.1C ?
Ans: V1/T1=V2/T2
2/296.4=V2/299.1
V2=2.018l
8. A student forgot to add the reaction mixture to the round bottomed flask at 27
C but instead he/she placed the flask on the flame. After a lapse of time, he

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

realized his mistake, and using a pyrometer he found the temperature of the
flask was 477 C. What fraction of air would have been expelled out?
Ans: V1/T1=V2/T2
V1/300=V1+x/750
750/300=(V1+x)/x
2.5=(V1/x)+1
1.5=V1/x
x/V1 =0.67
x= 0.67V1
The amount of air expelled out is 0.67 times the volume of the flask
0.67/1.67= 0.4011fraction of air is expelled.
2. Questions based on Ideal gas equation., combined gas law
equation,Daltons Law of Partial Pressures

9. Derive Ideal gas equation. Give combined gas law equation.


10. Using the Ideal gas equation Show that the density of the gas is proportional to
the gas pressure p.
11. At 25C and 760 mm of Hg pressure a gas occupies 600 mL volume. What
will be its pressure at a height where temperature is 10C and volume of the
gas is
12. At 0C, the density of a certain oxide of a gas at 2 bar is same as that of
dinitrogen at 5 bar. What is the molecular mass of the oxide?
13. . Pressure of 1 g of an ideal gas A at 27 C is found to be 2 bar. When 2 g of
another ideal gas B is introduced in the same flask at same temperature the
pressure becomes 3 bar. Find a relationship between their molecular masses.
640 mL.
14. What will be the pressure exerted by a mixture of 3.2 g of methane and 4.4 g
of carbon dioxide contained in a 9 dm3 flask at 27 C ?

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

15. What will be the pressure of the gaseous mixture when 0.5 L of H2 at 0.8 bar
and 2.0 L of dioxygen at 0.7 bar are introduced in a 1L vessel at 27C?
16. Density of a gas is found to be 5.46 g/dm3 at 27 C at 2 bar pressure. What
will be its density at STP?
17. . 34.05 mL of phosphorus vapour weighs 0.0625 g at 546 C and 0.1 bar
pressure. What is the molar mass of phosphorus?
18. Calculate the temperature of 4.0 mol of a gas occupying 5 dm3 at 3.32 bar. (R =
0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1).
19. Calculate the total pressure in a mixture of 8 g of dioxygen and 4 g of
dihydrogen confined in a vessel of 1 dm3 at 27C. R = 0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1.
20. Calculate the volume occupied by 8.8 g of CO2 at 31.1C and 1 bar pressure.
R = 0.083 bar L K1 mol1.
21. 2.9 g of a gas at 95 C occupied the same volume as 0.184 g of dihydrogen at
17 C, at the same pressure. What is the molar mass of the gas?
22. A mixture of dihydrogen and dioxygen at one bar pressure contains 20% by
weight of dihydrogen. Calculate the partial pressure of dihydrogen.
23. . State Daltons Law of Partial Pressures. Express partial pressure in terms of
mole fraction.

ANSWER
11. At 25C and 760 mm of Hg pressure a gas occupies 600 mL volume. What will
be its pressure at a height where temperature is 10C and volume of the gas is
640m L
Ans P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
760X600/298=P2X640/283
P2=760X600X283/298X640= 676.6 mm of Hg
12. At 0C, the density of a certain oxide of a gas at 2 bar is same as that of
dinitrogen at 5 bar. What is the molecular mass of the oxide?
Ans: PV=nRT
PV= (m/M)RT
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

d=M1P1/RT= M2P2/RT
M1P1= M2P2
M1=28X5/2=70
13. Pressure of 1 g of an ideal gas A at 27 C is found to be 2 bar. When 2 g of
another ideal gas B is introduced in the same flask at same temperature the
pressure becomes 3 bar. Find a relationship between their molecular masses.
Ans: na=1/Ma; nb=2/Mb
PV=nRT
2V=1/MaRT V=(1/Ma)RT/2
3V=(2/Mb +1/Ma)RT V=(2/Mb +1/Ma)RT/3
(1/Ma )RT/2= (2/Mb +1/Ma)RT/3
(1/Ma )=2/3 (2/Mb +1/Ma)
(1/3Ma )=4/3Mb
1/Ma=4/MbMb = 4Ma
14. What will be the pressure exerted by a mixture of 3.2 g of methane and 4.4 g
of carbon dioxide contained in a 9 dm3 flask at 27 C ?
Ans: PV=nRT
n= (3.2/16+ 4.4/44)=0.3
P=0.3moleX0.083bardm3/K/moleX300K/9dm3
P=0.83bar.

15. What will be the pressure of the gaseous mixture when 0.5 L of H2 at 0.8 bar
and 2.0 L of dioxygen at 0.7 bar are introduced in a 1L vessel at 27C?
Ans: PV=nRT
P1V1=PxV2 0.5X0.8= Px.1 pressure of H2 in the flask=Px=0.40bar
P1V1=PxV20.7X2=Pxx1 pressure of oxygen in the flask= 1.4bar
Pressure of the gaseous mixture=1.4 + 0.4 = 1.8bar.
16. Density of a gas is found to be 5.46 g/dm3 at 27 C at 2 bar pressure. What
will be its density at STP?
Ans: d= PM/RT M=dRT/P= 5.46X 0.083X300/2= 70
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

d= (1.013X70)/(0.083X273)= 3.13 g/dm3

17. 34.05 mL of phosphorus vapour weighs 0.0625 g at 546 C and 0.1 bar
pressure. What is the molar mass of phosphorus?
Ans: d=( 0.0625 x1000/34.05)g/L
M=dRT/P=1.836 X 0.08314X 819/0.1= 1250
18. Calculate the temperature of 4.0 mol of a gas occupying 5 dm3 at 3.32 bar. (R =
0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1).
Ans: PV=nRT
T=PV/nR=( 3.32X5)/(4X0.083)= 50K

19. Calculate the total pressure in a mixture of 8 g of dioxygen and 4 g of


dihydrogen confined in a vessel of 1 dm3 at 27C. R = 0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1.
n= nO2+nH2= 8/32 + 4/2 =0.25 +2= 2.25moles
PV=nRT; P=nRT/V= 2.25X0.083X300/1= 56.025 bar

20. Calculate the volume occupied by 8.8 g of CO2 at 31.1C and 1 bar pressure.
R = 0.083 bar L K1 mol1.
Ans: PV=nRT; n=8.8/44= 0.2
V= nRT/P= 0.2X0.083X304.1/1= 5.05L

21. 2.9 g of a gas at 95 C occupied the same volume as 0.184 g of dihydrogen at


17 C, at the same pressure. What is the molar mass of the gas?
Ans: PV= nRT
V=nRT/P= (0.184/2)XRX290/P=(2.9/M)XRX368/P
0.092X290=368X2.9/M
M= 368X2.9/0.092X290= 40

22. A mixture of dihydrogen and dioxygen at one bar pressure contains 20% by
weight of dihydrogen. Calculate the partial pressure of dihydrogen.
Ans: let 20g H2 + 80g O2
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

n= 20/2 + 80/32= 10 +2.5= 12.5


Mole fraction of H2= 10/12.5= 0.8
pH2= 0.8XP
3.Questions based on Kinetic molecular theory of gases, Vander Waal
modified the ideal gas equation, Surface Tension & Viscosity

27. Critical temperature for CO2 and CH4 are 31.0C and 81.9C respectively.
Which of these has stronger intermolecular forces and why?
Ans: CO2 has stronger forces of attraction because it can be liquefied more
easily ie at a higher temperature.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

6.Thermodynamics
Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter
1. System and the Surroundings: A system in thermodynamics refers to that
part of universe in which observations are made and remaining universe
constitutes the surroundings. The surroundings include everything other
than the system. System and the surroundings together constitute the
universe. The wall that separates the system from the surroundings is called
boundary
2. Types of the System:
Open System: In an open system, there is exchange of energy and
matter between system and surroundings.
Closed System In a closed system, there is no exchange of matter,
but exchange of energy is possible between system and the
surroundings.
Isolated system :In an isolated system, there is no exchange of
energy or matter between the system and the surroundings
3. State of a System: The state of a system means the condition of the system
which is described in terms of certain observable properties such as
temp(T), pressure(p), volume (v), etc. of the systems. These properties of a
system are called state variables.
4. State Functions: A physical quantity is solid to be state functions of its
value depends only upon the state of the system and does not depend upon
the path by which this state has been attained.
5. Internal Energy: a quantity which represents the total energy of the
system. It may be chemical, electrical and mechanical or any other type of
energy you may think of, the sum of all these is the energy of the system. In
thermodynamics, we call it the internal energy, U of the system.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

6. Isothermal Process: When a process is carried out in such a manner that


the temp remains constant throughout this process, it is called an isothermal
process.
7. Adiabatic Process: Process is carried out in such a manner that no heat can
flow from the system to the surrounding or vice versa.
8. Isochoric Process: Process during which the volume of the system is kept
constant.
9. Isobaric Process: Process during which the pressure of the system is kept
constant. .
10. The positive sign expresses that Work (wad) is positive when work is done
on the system. Similarly, if the work is done by the system,wad will be
negative.
11. The q is positive, when heat is transferred from the surroundings to the
system and q is negative when heat is transferred from system to the
surroundings.
12. First law of Thermodynamics: Statement: Energy can neither be created
nor destroyed, however it may be converted from one form to another.
or
The total energy of the universe remains constant although it may undergo
transformation from one to another.
Mathematical expression = U = q + w
13. A process or change is said to be reversible, if a change is brought out in
such a way that the process could, at any moment, be reversed by an
infinitesimal change. A reversible process proceeds infinitely slowly by a
series of equilibrium states such that system and the surroundings are
always in near equilibrium with each other. Processes other than reversible
processes are known as irreversible processes.

14. Difference between Reversible Process & Irreversible Process


KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Reversible Process

Irreversible Process

1. The process is carried out


infinitesimally slowly
2. At

any

stage,

equilibrium

is

1. It is carried out rapidly


2. Equilibrium

may

exist

the

only after the completion

not

of the process.

disturbed
3. It takes infinite time for
completion.
4. Work obtained in this

3. It takes a finite time for


completion.
4. Work obtained in this
process is not maximum

process is maximum.
15. Enthalpy, H: The enthalpy H [Greek word enthalpien, heat content] is
defined as : H = U + pV For finite changes at constant pressure, we can
write above equation as H = U + pV Since p is constant, we can write
H = U + pV since pV=ngRT ,therefore H = U + ngRT
16. Extensive property: An extensive property is a property whose value
depends on the quantity or size of matter present in the system. For
example, mass, volume, internal energy, enthalpy, heat capacity, etc. are
extensive properties.
17. Intensive property: Those properties which do not depend on the quantity
or size of matter present are known as intensive properties. For example
temperature, density, pressure etc. are intensive properties.
18. Specific heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of one unit mass of a substance by one degree celsius (or one
kelvin). For finding out the heat, q, required to raise the temperatures of a
sample, we multiply the specific heat of the substance, c, by the mass m,
and temperatures change, T as q=cmT =CT .
19. Relationship between Cp and CV for an ideal gas: Cp -CV=R
20. Bomb calorimeter: For chemical reactions, heat absorbed at constant
volume, is measured in a bomb calorimeter . Here, a steel vessel (the bomb)
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

is immersed in a water bath. The whole device is called calorimeter. The


steel vessel is immersed in water bath to ensure that no heat is lost to the
surroundings. A combustible substance is burnt in pure dioxygen supplied
in the steel bomb. Heat evolved during the reaction is transferred to the
water around the bomb and its temperature is monitored. Since the bomb
calorimeter is sealed, its volume does not change i.e., the energy changes
associated with reactions are measured at constant volume. Under these
conditions, no work is done as the reaction is carried out at constant volume
in the bomb calorimeter. Even for reactions involving gases, there is no
work done as V = 0. Temperature change of the calorimeter produced by
the completed reaction is then converted to qV, by using the known heat
capacity of the calorimeter with the help of equation (18).
21. Enthalpy Change of a reaction: The enthalpy change accompanying a
reaction is called the reaction enthalpy. The enthalpy change of a chemical
reaction is given by the symbol rH.
rH = (sum of enthalpies of products) (sum of enthalpies of reactants).
rH=ai HProducts- bi HReactants
22. The standard enthalpy of reaction is the enthalpy change for a reaction
when all the participating substances are in their standard states. The
standard state of a substance at a specified temperature is its pure form at1
bar. Standard conditions are denoted by adding the superscript o to the
symbol H, e.g., H o
23. The enthalpy change that accompanies melting of one mole of a solid
substance in standard state is called standard enthalpy of fusion or molar
enthalpy of fusion, fusHo.e.g. H2O(s)H2O(l);fusH0 =6.00 kJ mol1 .
24. Amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of a liquid at constant
temperature and under standard pressure (1bar) is called its standard
enthalpy of vaporization or molar enthalpy of vaporization, vapH0. e.g.
H2O(l)H2O(g);vapH0 =40.79 kJ mol1
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

25. Standard enthalpy of sublimation, subH0 is the change in enthalpy when


one mole of a solid substance sublimes at a constant temperature and under
standard pressure (1bar). Sublimation is direct conversion of a solid into its
vapour. Solid CO2 (dry ice) sublimes at 195K with subH 0=25.2 kJ mol1;
naphthalene sublimes slowly and for this subH 0=73.0 kJ mol-1
26. .The standard enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of a
compound from its elements in their most stable states of aggregation (also
known as reference states) is called Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation.
Its symbol is fH0.
27. .Standard enthalpy of combustion is defined as the enthalpy
change per mole (or per unit amount) of a substance, when it
undergoes combustion and all the reactants and products being
in their standard states at the specified temperature.
28. Enthalpy of atomization (symbol: aH0): It is the enthalpy change
on breaking one mole of bonds completely to obtain atoms in
the gas phase. In case of diatomic molecules, like dihydrogen
the enthalpy of atomization is also the bond dissociation
enthalpy. In some cases, the enthalpy of atomization is same
as the enthalpy of sublimation.
29. Bond Enthalpy (symbol: bondH0):
rH=bondenthapiesreactants- bondenthapiesproducts
30. Enthalpy of Solution (symbol : solH0 ): Enthalpy of solution of a
substance is the enthalpy change when one mole of it dissolves in a
specified amount of solvent. The enthalpy of solution at infinite dilution is
the enthalpy change observed on dissolving the substance in an infinite
amount of solvent when the interactions between the ions (or solute
molecules) are negligible.
31. Lattice Enthalpy The lattice enthalpy of an ionic compound is
the enthalpy change which occurs when one mole of an ionic
compound dissociates into its ions in gaseous state.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

32. Hesss Law: Enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in
one step or in a series of steps. This may be stated as follows in the form of:
If a reaction takes place in several steps then its standard reaction enthalpy
is the sum of the standard enthalpies of the intermediate reactions into
which the overall reaction may be divided at the same temperature.rH0
=rH1+rH2 + rH3

For example: C(s) +

1/2O2 (g)CO(g) rH0 =-110.5 kJmol-1


(g)CO2(g) rH0 =-283.0 kJmol-1

CO(g) + 1/2O2
C(s) + O2

(g)CO2 (g) rH0 = -393.5 kJmol-1


33. Spontaneous Process: A process which occurs by its ones i.e. Without the
intervention of an outside agency.
34. Non Spontaneous Process: A process which can neither take place by itself
nor by initiation is called a non spontaneous process.
35. Driving Force: The force which is responsible for spontaneity of a process
is called the driving force.
36. Entropy(S): Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the system.
37. Entropy change (S): It is defined as the amount of heat (q) observed
isothermally and reversibly divided by the absolute temp(T) at which the
heat is absorbed.
S =

q
T

38. Entropy of fusion : S fusion =


Where,

H fusion
Tm

H fusion = Entropy of fusion per mole


Tm = Melting point
SVAP

VAP
Tb

HVAP = Entropy of vaporization per mole


Tb =Boiling point
39. Second Law Of Thermodynamics

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

The entropy of universe is continuously increasing due to spontaneous


process taking place in it.
S system + S surrounding > 0
i.e. S total > 0
40. Gibbs Free Energy (G) : It is defined as maxm amount of energy available to
a system during the process that can be converted into useful work. It is a
measure of capacity to do useful work.
G = H TS

this equation is also known as Gibbs Helmholtz


equation

G is a state function. G is change in free energy.


G TS

41. If G is negative, process is spontaneous when G =0,the process is in


equilibrium if G is positive, the process does not take place.
42. Standard Free Energy Change (G0) : It is defined as free energy change
measured at 298 K and 1 atm Pressure.
43. Standard Free energy of formation: ( f G ) It is free energy change when
1 mole of compound is formed from its constituting elements in their
standard state.
r G pf G (products) R f G (reac tan ts)

44. Gibbs Energy Change and Work


In case of galvanic cell, Gibbs energy change r G ,is related to the electrical
work done by the cell.
Thus r G = -nFEcell
If reactants and products are in their standard states
r G = -nFE cell, Here E cell is the standard cell potential.

45. Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium Constant


r G RT ln K
r G 2.303RT log K

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Some Important Formulas(Thermodynamics)


U=q+w
H = U + pV
H = U + ngRT
Cp -CV=R
rH=ai HProducts- bi HReactants
rH=bondenthapiesreactants- bondenthapiesproducts
.rH0 =rH1+rH2 + rH3

S fusion =

H fusion
Tm

G TS

r G pf G (products) R f G (reac tan ts)

r G = -nFEcell

rG = -2.303RT log K

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Unit-6
THERMODYAMICS

1.Questions based on system, different types of system


surroundings, First law of thermodynamics, internal energy
1. Define the term system and surroundings. Explain the different types of
system.
2. Explain the terms: state variables, adiabatic process, work, heat & internal
energy.
3. Define First law of thermodynamics. Give its mathematical expression.
4. (a) In a process, 701 J of heat is absorbed by a system and 394 J of work is
done by the system. What is the change in internal energy for the process?

(b)

Calculate the internal energy change when the system absorbs 5 KJ of heat and
1KJ of work
5. Express the change in internal energy of a system when(i) No heat is absorbed
by the system from the surroundings, but work (w) is done on the system. What
type of wall does the system have?(ii) No work is done on the system, but q
amount of heat is taken out from the system and given to the surroundings.
What type of wall does the system have?(iii) w amount of work is done by the
system and q amount of heat is Supplied to the system. What type of system
would it be?
2.Questions based on system Enthalpy & its types.
6. Explain the term Enthalpy. Give its mathematical expression.
7. If water vapour is assumed to be a perfect gas, molar enthalpy change for
vapourisation of 1 mol of water at 1bar and 100C is 41kJ mol1. Calculate the
internal energy change, when (i) 1 mol of water is

aporized at 1 bar pressure

and 100C. (ii) 1 mol of water is converted into ice.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

8. The reaction of cyanamide, NH2CN (s), with Dioxygen was carried out in a
bomb

calorimeter, and U was found to be -742.7 KJ/mol at 298K. Calculate

Enthalpy change for the reaction at 298K

NH 2 CN (s)+

3 /2 O2 (g) N2 (g) +CO 2(g) +H2O(l)


9. Enthalpies of formation of CO (g), CO2 (g), N2O (g) and N2O4 (g) are -110, 393, 81 and 9.7 KJ/mol respectively. Find the value of rH for the reaction;
N2O4 (g) + 3 CO (g) N2O (g) + 3CO2 (g)
10. Given: N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g);rH0 = -92.4 KJ/mol. Calculatef H0NH3
(g).
11. The enthalpy of combustion of methane, graphite and dihydrogen at 298 K are,
890.3 kJ mol1 393.5 kJ mol1, and 285.8 kJ mol1 respectively. Calculate
the Enthalpy of formation of CH4 (g).
12. For the process to occur under adiabatic conditions, the correct condition isi)
T = 0 (ii) p = 0 (iii) q = 0 (iv) w = 0
13. . What is the enthalpies of all elements in their standard states.
14. Enthalpy of combustion of carbon to CO2 is 393.5 kJ mol1. Calculate the heat
released upon formation of 35.2 g of CO2 from carbon and dioxygen gas.
15. The combustion of 1 mol of benzene takes place at 298K .After combustion
CO2 and H2O are formed and 3267KJ/mol of heat is liberated .calculate f H0
(C6H6) Given: f H0 = -286 KJ/mol , f H0 = -393 KJ/mol
16. Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of CH3OH (l) from the following
data:CH3OH (l) + 3/2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l); rH0 = -726 KJ/mol
C (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) ; C H0 = -393 KJ/mol
H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l); f H0 = -286 KJ/mol
17. Calculate the enthalpy change for the process :
CCl4 (g) C (g) + 4Cl (g) and calculate the bond enthalpy of C-Cl in CCl4 ( g)
vap H0 (CCl4 ) = 30.5 KJ/mol, f H0 (CCl4 ) = -135.5 KJ/mol
a H0 (C ) = 715 KJ/mol a H0 (Cl2 ) = 242 KJ/mol
18. Define the Extensive, intensive properties & Heat capacity.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

19(a) Give the relationship between Cp and Cv.


(b)Write a note on Bomb Calorimeter.
20. Explain the following terms with suitable examples: (a) Standard enthalpy of
reaction (b)standard enthalpy of formation (c) enthalpy of fusion (d) enthalpy of
vaporization (e) enthalpy of Sublimation (f) enthalpy of Combustion (g) )enthalpy
of Hydration (h) ) enthalpy of Atomization (i)Bond enthalpy
3. Questions based on Hesss law of constant heat summation, Born
Haber cycle, Entropy. Gibbs Energy
21. Explain Hesss law of constant heat summation with an example.
22. Explain Born Haber cycle & lattice enthalpy.
23. Define Entropy. Give mathematical expressions related to it.
24. Predict in which of the following, entropy increases/decreases:
(i) A liquid crystallizes into a solid.
(ii) Temperature of a crystalline solid is raised from 0 K to 115 K.
(iii) 2NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3( s)+CO2 (g) + H2O( g)
(iv) H2 (g) 2H(g)
25. Define Gibbs Energy. Give its mathematical expression. What is Gibbs energy
criteria of Spontaneity.
26. For the reaction at 298K, 2A + B C,H = 400 KJ/mol and S = 0.2 KJ/mol
K At what temperature will the reaction become spontaneous?
27. For the reaction, 2Cl (g) Cl2 (g), What are the signs of H and S?
28.For the reaction: 2A (g) + B (g) 2D (g), U0 = -10.5 KJ and S0 = - 44.1J/K
Calculate G0 for the reaction, and predict whether the reaction will occur
spontaneously.
29. The equilibrium constant for a reaction is 10.Caculate G0, T =300K,
R = 8.314 J/K mol
30. Calculate the value of G0 for the conversion of Oxygen to Ozone,
3/2 O2 (g) O3 (g) at 298 K , if Kp for this conversion is 2.47 10-29 .
31. Find out the value of equilibrium constant for the following reaction at 298 K.
2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) NH2CONH2(aq ) + H2O(l )
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Standard Gibbs energy change, rG0 at\ the given temperature is 13.6 kJ mol1.
32. Calculate the entropy change in surroundings when 1.00 mol of H2O(l) is
formed under standard conditions. f H0 = 286 kJ mol1.
33 What is meant by entropy? Predict the sign of entropy change (S) in each
of the following:
(a) Temperature of crystalline solid is raised from 0K to 115 K
(b) A liquid crystallizes into solid
(c) 2 NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (g) + CO2 (g)
(d) 2 SO2(g) + O2 (g)

<==>2SO3(g)

(e) H2(at 298K,1 atm) H2(at 298K,10 atm)


(f) H2O(at 298K,1 atm) H2O (at 330K,1 atm)
(g) 2 NH4NO3 (s) at 1 atm & 373K 2 N2(g) + 4 H2O + O2 (g)
(h) When rubber band is stretched.
(i) When an egg is boiled
(j) C(graphite) C(diamond)
(k) I2(g) I2(s)
(l)Hg(l) Hg(g)
(m) AgNO3(s) AgNO3(aq)
(n) Dissolution of iodine in a solvent
(o) A partition is removed to allow two gases to mix
(p) HCl is added to AgNO3 solution and precipitate of AgCl is obtained
(q) crystallization of copper sulphate from its saturated solution

34 Give reasons for the following:


(a) A real crystal has more entropy than an ideal crystal
(b) The dissolution of NH4Cl in water is endothermic still it dissolves in water .
(c ) Why does a mole of water at 00C have greater entropy than a mole of ice at
00C ?
(d) Neither q nor w is a state function but q+w is a state function.
(e) Thermodynamically an exothermic reaction is sometimes not spontaneous.
(f) The entropy of steam is more than that of water at its boiling point.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(g) The equilibrium constant for a reaction is greater than one if rG0 for it is
less than zero .
(h) Endothermic reactions are carried out at higher temperature.
(i) Evaporation of water is endothermic process but spontaneous .
(j) When an ideal gas expands in vacuum, there is neither absorption nor
evolution of heat .
(k) Why does entropy of a solid increase on fusion ?
(l) Why a non-spontaneous reaction becomes spontaneous when coupled with a
suitable spontaneous reaction ?
(m) why for predicting the spontaneity of a reaction , free energy criteria is
better than the entropy criteria ?
(n) Why internal energy is a state function but work is not ?
(o) Why is standard heat of formation of diamond not zero although it is an
element ?
(p) Why is entropy of a solution higher than that of pure liquid ?
(q) acetic acid and hydrochloric acid react with KOH solution . The enthalpy of
neutralization of acetic acid
is -55.8 kJ per mole while that of hydrochloric acid is -57.3 kJ/mol. Why?

35 Justify the following statements


(a) An exothermic reaction is always thermodynamically spontaneous .why?
(b)The entropy of a substance increases on going from liquid to vapour state at
any temperature.
( c) At low temperatures enthalpy change dominates G expression and at high
temperatures it is the entropy which dominate the value of G .
(d) Many thermodynamically feasible reactions do not occur under ordinary
conditions.
(e) Reactions with G0 < 0 always have an equilibrium constant greater than
one.
36Define/ Discuss the following terms:(Give examples and chemical equation
wherever necessary )
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Standard enthalpy of combustion


(b) Lattice enthalpy (c) Enthalpy of solution
(d) Standard enthalpy fusion / vapourisation / sublimation

(e) Enthalpy of

atomization
(f) Bond enthalpy for diatomic and polyatomic molecule. (g) Calorific value

(h)

Enthalpy of Neutralisation .
(i) State variables/ state functions

(j) System

(k) work

(l) isobaric and

isochoric process.
37Differentiate between the following (with examples )
(a) Intensive and extensive properties
(b) Enthalpy of formation and Enthalpy of reaction.
(c) Enthalpy and Internal energy

(d) Heat capacity and specific heat capacity.

(e) Reversible and Irreversible process (f) Adiabatic and Isothermal process.
(g) State function and path function

(h) Exothermic and Endothermic reaction.

(i) Isolated, Open, Closed, Adiabatic Systems

(j) Heat and Work.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

7.Equilibrium(Part-I)
Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter
1. Equilibrium represents the state of a process in which the properties like
temperature, pressure etc do not show any change with the passage of time
2. Chemical equilibrium: When the rates of the forward and reverse reactions
become equal, the concentrations of the reactants and the products remain
constant. This is the stage of chemical equilibrium. This equilibrium is dynamic in
nature as it consists of a forward reaction in which the reactants give product(s)
and reverse reaction in which product(s) gives the original reactants. Equilibrium
is possible only in a closed system at a given temperature. A mixture of reactants
and products in the equilibrium state is called an equilibrium mixture.
3. In a Homogeneous system, all the reactants and products are in the same phase.
For example, in the gaseous reaction, N2 (g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g), reactants and
products are in the homogeneous phase.
4. Equilibrium in a system having more than one phase is called heterogeneous
equilibrium. The equilibrium between water vapor and liquid water in a closed
container is an example of heterogeneous equilibrium. H2O(l) H2O(g)
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

5. Henry Law:-It states that the mass of a gas dissolved in a given mass of a solvent
at any temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solvent
6. Law of Chemical Equilibrium: It may be stated as, at a given temperature the
ratio of product of equilibrium concentration of the products to that of the reactants
with each concentration terms raised to power equal to the respective
stoichiometric coefficient in the balanced chemical reaction has a constant value.
This constant value is known as Equilibrium constant. For a general reaction of the
type aA + bB cC + dD
Kc = [C]c[D]d /[A]a [B]b

This expression is known as Law Of Chemical

Equilibrium
7. Relationship between Kp and Kc: Kp = Kc(RT) n
8. Units of Equilibrium Constant: The value of equilibrium constant Kc can be
calculated by substituting the concentration terms in mol/L and for Kp partial
pressure is substituted in Pa, kPa, bar or atm. This results in units of equilibrium
constant based on molarity or pressure, unless the exponents of both the numerator
and denominator are same. For the reactions

(i)H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI, Kc

and Kp have no unit.(ii)N2O4(g) 2NO2 (g), Kc has unit mol/L and Kp has unit
bar
9. Characteristics Of Equilibrium Constant
Equilibrium constant is applicable only when concentrations of the reactants
and products have attained their equilibrium state.
The value of equilibrium constant is independent of initial concentrations of
the reactants and products.
Equilibrium constant is temperature dependent having one unique value for
aparticular reaction represented by a balanced equation at a given temperature.
The equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction is equal to the inverse of the
equilibrium constant for the forward reaction.
The equilibrium constant K for a reaction is related to the equilibrium constant
of the corresponding reaction, whose equation is obtained by multiplying or
dividing the equation for the original reaction by a small integer.
10. Applications of equilibrium constant :

Predict the extent of a reaction on the basis of its magnitude.


KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Predict the direction of the reaction, and


Calculate equilibrium concentrations.
11. Le Chateliers Principle: It states that if a system in equilibrium is subjected to a
change of concentration, temperature or pressure, the equilibrium shifts in a
direction that tends to undo the effect of the change imposed.
Effect of change of concentration: When the concentration of any of the
reactants or products in a reaction at equilibrium is changed, the composition of
the equilibrium mixture changes so as to minimize the effect of concentration
change. For eg:- H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)
If H2 is added to the reaction mixture at equilibrium, the equilibrium of the
reaction is disturbed. In order to restore it, the reaction proceeds in a direction
whereas H2 is consumed i.e more of H2 and I2 react to form HI and finally the
equilibrium shifts in forward direction.
Effect of change of pressure: When the pressure is increased the equilibrium
shifts in the direction in which the number of moles of the gas decreases.
Consider the reaction, CO (g) + 3H2 (g) CH4 (g) + H2O (g) Here, 4 mol of
gaseous reactants (CO + 3H2) become 2 mol of gaseous products (CH4 (g) + H2O).
so by Le Chateliers principle. The increase in pressure will shift the equilibrium
in the forward direction, a direction in which the number of moles of the gas or
pressure decreases.
Effect of change of Temperature: When a change in temperature occurs, the
value of equilibrium constant changes. In general, the temperature dependence of
the equilibrium constant depends on the sign of H for the reaction. The
equilibrium constant for an exothermic reaction (-ve H) decreases as the
temperature increases. The equilibrium constant for an endothermic reaction (+ve
H) increases as the temperature increases. When the Temperature is increased the
equilibrium shifts in the direction in of endothermic reaction.
Consider a reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) H = -92.38Kj/mol
According to Le Chateliers principle, raising the temperature shifts the equilibrium
to left (backward direction i.e direction of endothermic reaction) and decreases the
equilibrium concentration of ammonia.

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Effect of Inert Gas Addition: If the volume is kept constant and an inert gas such
as argon is added which does not take part in the reaction, the equilibrium remains
undisturbed. It is because the addition of an inert gas at constant volume does not
change the partial pressures or the molar concentrations of the substance involved
in the reaction. The reaction quotient changes only if the added gas is a reactant or
product involved in the reaction.
Effect of a Catalyst: A catalyst increases the rate of the chemical reaction by
making available a new low energy pathway for the conversion of reactants to
products. It increases the rate of forward and reverse reactions that pass through
the same transition state and does not affect equilibrium. Catalyst lowers the
activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions by exactly the same
amount. Catalyst does not affect the equilibrium composition of a reaction
mixture. It does not appear in the balanced chemical equation or in the equilibrium
constant expression.

Summary of Le Chateliers Principle

Type of Effect or Change

Direction of Equilibrium

Addition of more reactants

Forward direction

Addition of more products

Backward direction

Increase in temperature

Towards endothermic reaction

Decrease in temperature

Towards exothermic reaction

Addition of Catalyst

No effect

Increase in Pressure

where the no. of gaseous moles are less

Decrease in Pressure

where the no. of gaseous moles are more

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Addition of Inert gas at const.Volume

No effect

Addition of Inert gas at const.pressure

where the no. of gaseous moles are more

Unit-7
EQUILIBRIUM(Part-I)
1.Question based on law of chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium constant,
Applications of Equilibrium Constants, Relation Between Kp & Kc.

1. What do mean by law of chemical equilibrium? Explain with an example.

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

2. Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc for each of the
following reactions:

3. Find out the value of Kc for each of the following equilibria from the value
of Kp:

4.

Wri
te the balanced chemical equation corresponding to this equilibrium
constant expression for a gas reaction. \

5. What is Kc for the following equilibrium when the equilibrium


concentration of each substance is: [SO2]= 0.60M, [O2] = 0.82M and [SO3]
= 1.90M 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
6. The following concentrations were obtained for the formation of NH3 from
N2 and H2 at equilibrium at 500K. [N2] = 1.5 102M. [H2] = 3.0 102 M
and [NH3] = 1.2 102M. Calculate equilibrium constant.
7. At equilibrium, the concentrations ofN2=3.0 103M, O2 = 4.2 103M and
NO= 2.8 103M in a sealed vessel at800K. What will be Kc for the
reaction:N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g)
8. PCl5, PCl3 and Cl2 are at equilibrium at 500 K and having concentration
1.59M PCl3, 1.59M Cl2 and 1.41 M PCl5.Calculate Kc for the reaction,PCl5
PCl3 + Cl2

9. For the equilibrium,2NOCl(g) 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) the value of the


equilibrium constant, Kc is 3.75 106 at 1069 K. Calculate the Kp for the
reaction at this temperature?
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

2.Question based on Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations, Le


Chateliers principleEffect of Pressure Change, Concentration
Change, Temperature Change, Inert Gas Addition & Catalyst

10. The value of Kc = 4.24 at 800K for the reaction,

CO (g)

+ H2O (g) CO2 (g) + H2 (g) Calculate equilibrium concentrations of


CO2, H2, CO and H2O at 800 K, if only CO and H2O are present initially at
concentrations of 0.10M each.The value of Kp for the reaction,CO2 (g) + C
(s) 2CO (g) is 3.0 at 1000 K. If initially p CO2= 0.48 bar and p CO = 0
bar and puregraphite is present, calculate theequilibrium partial pressures of
CO and CO2.
11. A sample of pure PCl5 was introduced into an evacuated vessel at 473 K.
After equilibrium was attained, concentration of PCl5 was found to be0.5
101 mol L1. If value of Kc is 8.3 103, what are the concentrations of
PCl3 and Cl2 at equilibrium?PCl5 (g) PCl3 (g) + Cl2(g)
12. What do you mean by Lechateliers principle? Explain with an example?
13. Does the number of moles of reaction products increase, decrease or remain
same when each of the following equilibria is subjected to a decrease in
pressure by increasing the volume?

14. Which of the following reactions will get affected by increasing the
pressure?Also, mention whether change will cause the reaction to go into

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

forward or backward direction.

15. Dihydrogen gas is obtained from natural gas by partial oxidation with
steam as per following endothermic reaction:
CH4[g] + H2O [g]

CO [g] + 3H2[g]

a) Write as expression for Kp for the above reaction.


b) How will the values of Kp and the composition of equilibrium mixture
be affected by
i)

Increasing the pressure

ii)

Increasing the temperature

iii)

Using a catalyst

16. Describe the effect of: - a) Addition of H2 b) Addition of CH3OH c)


Removal of CO d) Removal of CH3OH
reaction: 2 H2[g] + CO[g]

On the equilibrium of the

CH3OH [g]

17. At 473 K, equilibrium constant Kc for decomposition of phosphorus


pentachloride, PCl5 is 8.3 10-3. If decomposition is depicted as,
(g)

PCl5

PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) rH0 = 124.0 kJ mol1

a) write an expression for Kc for the reaction.


b) what is the value of Kc for the reverse reaction at the same temperature. c)
what would be the effect on Kc if (i) more PCl5 is added (ii) pressure is
increased(iii) the temperature is increased ?
3.Question based on Relationship Between Equilibrium Constant K,
And Gibbs Energy G
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

18. The value of G0 for the phosphorylation of glucose in glycolysis is 13.8


kJ / mol. Find the value of Kc at 298 K
19. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives, Sucrose + H2O

Glucose + Fructose

Equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction is 2 X 1013 at 300K. Calculate G0


at 300K.
20. Calculate a) G0 and b) the equilibrium constant for the formation of NO2
from NO and O2 at 298K NO (g) + O2 (g)

NO2 (g) where fG0 (NO2)

= 52.0 kJ/mol fG0 (NO) = 87.0 kJ/mol fG0 (O2) = 0 kJ/mol.

Question 7.1:
A liquid is in equilibrium with its vapour in a sealed container at a fixed
temperature. The volume of the container is suddenly increased.
a) What is the initial effect of the change on vapour pressure?
b) How do rates of evaporation and condensation change initially?
c) What happens when equilibrium is restored finally and what will be the final
vapour pressure?

Answer
(a) If the volume of the container is suddenly increased, then the vapour pressure
would decrease initially. This is because the amount of vapour remains the same,
but the volume increases suddenly. As a result, the same amount of vapour is
distributed in a larger volume.
(b) Since the temperature is constant, the rate of evaporation also remains constant.
When the volume of the container is increased, the density of the vapour phase
decreases. As a result, the rate of collisions of the vapour particles also decreases.
Hence, the rate of condensation decreases initially.
(c) When equilibrium is restored finally, the rate of evaporation becomes equal to
the rate of condensation. In this case, only the volume changes while the
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

temperature remains constant. The vapour pressure depends on temperature and


not on volume. Hence, the final vapour pressure will be equal to the original
vapour pressure of the system.
Question 7.2:
What is Kc for the following equilibrium when the equilibrium concentration of
each substance is: [SO2] = 0.60 M, [O2] = 0.82 M and [SO3] = 1.90 M?

Answer
The equilibrium constant (Kc) for the give reaction is:

Hence, Kc for the equilibrium is

Question 7.3:
At a certain temperature and total pressure of 105 Pa, iodine vapour contains
40% by volume of I atoms

Calculate Kp for the equilibrium.

Answer
Partial pressure of I atoms,

Partial pressure of I2 molecules,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Now, for the given reaction,

Question 7.4:
Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc for each of the following
reactions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Answer

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.5:
Find out the value of Kc for each of the following equilibria from the value of
Kp:

Answer
The relation between Kp and Kc is given as:
Kp = Kc (RT) n
(a) Here,
n = 3 2 = 1
R = 0.0831 barLmol1K1
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

T = 500 K
Kp = 1.8 102
Now,
Kp = Kc (RT) n

(b) Here,
n = 2 1 = 1
R = 0.0831 barLmol1K1
T = 1073 K
Kp= 167
Now,
Kp = Kc (RT) n

Question 7.6:
For the following equilibrium,

Both the forward and reverse reactions in the equilibrium are elementary
bimolecular reactions. What is Kc, for the reverse reaction?

Answer
It is given that
Then,

for the forward reaction is

for the reverse reaction will be,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.7:
Explain why pure liquids and solids can be ignored while writing the equilibrium
constant expression?

Answer
For a pure substance (both solids and liquids),

Now, the molecular mass and density (at a particular temperature) of a pure
substance is always fixed and is accounted for in the equilibrium constant.
Therefore, the values of pure substances are not mentioned in the equilibrium
constant expression.

Question 7.8:
Reaction between N2 and O2 takes place as follows:

If a mixture of 0.482 mol of N2 and 0.933 mol of O2 is placed in a 10 L reaction


vessel and allowed to form N2O at a temperature for which Kc = 2.0 1037,
determine the composition of equilibrium mixture.

Answer
Let the concentration of N2O at equilibrium be x.
The given reaction is:
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Therefore, at equilibrium, in the 10 L vessel:

The value of equilibrium constant i.e.,

= 2.0 1037 is very small. Therefore,

the amount of N2 and O2 reacted is also very small. Thus, x can be neglected from
the expressions of molar concentrations of N2 and O2.
Then,

Now,

Question 7.9:
Nitric oxide reacts with Br2 and gives nitrosyl bromide as per reaction given
below:

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

When 0.087 mol of NO and 0.0437 mol of Br2 are mixed in a closed container at
constant temperature, 0.0518 mol of NOBr is obtained at equilibrium. Calculate
equilibrium amount of NO and Br2.

Answer
The given reaction is:

Now, 2 mol of NOBr are formed from 2 mol of NO. Therefore, 0.0518 mol of
NOBr are formed from 0.0518 mol of NO.
Again, 2 mol of NOBr are formed from 1 mol of Br.
Therefore, 0.0518 mol of NOBr are formed from

mol of Br, or

0.0259 mol of NO
The amount of NO and Br present initially is as follows:
[NO] = 0.087 mol [Br2] = 0.0437 mol
Therefore, the amount of NO present at equilibrium is:
[NO] = 0.087 0.0518
= 0.0352 mol
And, the amount of Br present at equilibrium is:
[Br2] = 0.0437 0.0259
= 0.0178 m

Question 7.10:
At 450 K, Kp= 2.0 1010/bar for the given reaction at equilibrium.

What is Kc at this temperature?

Answer
For the given reaction,
n = 2 3 = 1
T = 450 K
R = 0.0831 bar L bar K1 mol1
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

= 2.0 1010 bar 1


We know that,

Question 7.11:
A sample of HI (g) is placed in flask at a pressure of 0.2 atm. At equilibrium the
partial pressure of HI (g) is 0.04 atm. What is Kp for the given equilibrium?

Answer
The initial concentration of HI is 0.2 atm. At equilibrium, it has a partial pressure
of 0.04 atm. Therefore, a decrease in the pressure of HI is 0.2 0.04 = 0.16. The
given reaction is:

Therefore,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Hence, the value of Kp for the given equilibrium is 4.0.

Question 7.12:
A mixture of 1.57 mol of N2, 1.92 mol of H2 and 8.13 mol of NH3 is introduced
into a 20 L reaction vessel at 500 K. At this temperature, the equilibrium
constant, Kc for the reaction
Is the reaction mixture at equilibrium? If not, what is the direction of the net
reaction?

Answer
The given reaction is:

Now, reaction quotient Qc is:

Since
Again,

, the reaction mixture is not at equilibrium.


. Hence, the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction.

Question 7.13:
The equilibrium constant expression for a gas reaction is,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Write the balanced chemical equation corresponding to this expression.

Answer
The balanced chemical equation corresponding to the given expression can be
written as:

Question 7.14:
One mole of H2O and one mole of CO are taken in 10 L vessel and heated to
725 K. At equilibrium 40% of water (by mass) reacts with CO according to the
equation,

Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction.

Answer
The given reaction is:

Therefore, the equilibrium constant for the reaction,

Question 7.15:
At 700 K, equilibrium constant for the reaction

is 54.8. If 0.5 molL1 of HI(g) is present at equilibrium at 700 K, what are the
concentration of H2(g) and I2(g) assuming that we initially started with HI(g) and
allowed it to reach equilibrium at 700 K?
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Answer
It is given that equilibrium constant

for the reaction

is 54.8.
Therefore, at equilibrium, the equilibrium constant
will be

for the reaction

Let the concentrations of hydrogen and iodine at equilibrium be x molL1


.

Hence, at equilibrium,

Question 7.16:
What is the equilibrium concentration of each of the substances in the
equilibrium when the initial concentration of ICl was 0.78 M?

Answer
The given reaction is:

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Hence, at equilibrium,

Question 7.17:
Kp = 0.04 atm at 899 K for the equilibrium shown below. What is the equilibrium
concentration of C2H6 when it is placed in a flask at 4.0 atm pressure and
allowed to come to equilibrium?

Answer
Let p be the pressure exerted by ethene and hydrogen gas (each) at equilibrium.
Now, according to the reaction,

We can write,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Hence, at equilibrium,

Question 7.18:
Ethyl acetate is formed by the reaction between ethanol and acetic acid and the
equilibrium is represented as:

(i) Write the concentration ratio (reaction quotient), Qc, for this reaction (note:
water is not in excess and is not a solvent in this reaction)
(ii) At 293 K, if one starts with 1.00 mol of acetic acid and 0.18 mol of ethanol,
there is 0.171 mol of ethyl acetate in the final equilibrium mixture. Calculate the
equilibrium constant.
(iii) Starting with 0.5 mol of ethanol and 1.0 mol of acetic acid and maintaining
it at 293 K, 0.214 mol of ethyl acetate is found after sometime. Has equilibrium
been reached?

Answer

(i) Reaction quotient,


(ii) Let the volume of the reaction mixture be V. Also, here we will consider that
water is a solvent and is present in excess.
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

The given reaction is:

Therefore, equilibrium constant for the given reaction is:

(iii) Let the volume of the reaction mixture be V.

Therefore, the reaction quotient is,

Since

, equilibrium has not been reached.

Question 7.19:

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

A sample of pure PCl5 was introduced into an evacuated vessel at 473 K. After
equilibrium was attained, concentration of PCl5 was found to be 0.5 101 mol
L1. If value of Kc is 8.3 103, what are the concentrations of PCl3 and Cl2 at
equilibrium?

Answer
Let the concentrations of both PCl3 and Cl2 at equilibrium be x molL1. The given
reaction is:

Now we can write the expression for equilibrium as:

Therefore, at equilibrium,

Question 7.20:
One of the reactions that take place in producing steel from iron ore is the
reduction of iron (II) oxide by carbon monoxide to give iron metal and CO2.
FeO (s) + CO (g)

Fe (s) + CO2 (g); Kp= 0.265 at 1050 K.

What are the equilibrium partial pressures of CO and CO2 at 1050 K if the initial
partial pressures are: pCO = 1.4 atm and

= 0.80 atm?

Answer
For the given reaction,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Since

, the reaction will proceed in the backward direction.

Therefore, we can say that the pressure of CO will increase while the pressure of
CO2 will decrease.
Now, let the increase in pressure of CO = decrease in pressure of CO2 be p.
Then, we can write,

Therefore, equilibrium partial of


And, equilibrium partial pressure of

Question 7.21:
Equilibrium constant, Kc for the reaction
at 500 K is 0.061.
At a particular time, the analysis shows that composition of the reaction mixture
is 3.0 mol L1 N2, 2.0 mol L1 H2 and 0.5 mol L1 NH3. Is the reaction at
equilibrium? If not in which direction does the reaction tend to proceed to reach
equilibrium?

Answer
The given reaction is:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Now, we know that,

Since

, the reaction is not at equilibrium.

Since

, the reaction will proceed in the forward direction to reach

equilibrium.

Question 7.22:
Bromine monochloride, BrCl decomposes into bromine and chlorine and
reaches the equilibrium:

for which Kc= 32 at 500 K. If initially pure BrCl is present at a concentration of


3.3 103 molL1, what is its molar concentration in the mixture at equilibrium?

Answer
Let the amount of bromine and chlorine formed at equilibrium be x. The given
reaction is:

Now, we can write,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Therefore, at equilibrium,

Question 7.23:
At 1127 K and 1 atm pressure, a gaseous mixture of CO and CO2 in equilibrium
with solid carbon has 90.55% CO by mass

Calculate Kc for this reaction at the above temperature.

Answer
Let the total mass of the gaseous mixture be 100 g.
Mass of CO = 90.55 g
And, mass of CO2 = (100 90.55) = 9.45 g
Now, number of moles of CO,
Number of moles of CO2,
Partial pressure of CO,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Partial pressure of CO2,

For the given reaction,


n = 2 1 = 1
We know that,

Question 7.24:
Calculate a) Gand b) the equilibrium constant for the formation of NO2 from
NO and O2 at 298 K

where fG (NO2) = 52.0 kJ/mol


fG (NO) = 87.0 kJ/mol
fG (O2) = 0 kJ/mol

Answer
(a) For the given reaction,
G = G( Products) G( Reactants)
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

G = 52.0 {87.0 + 0}
= 35.0 kJ mol1
(b) We know that,
G = RT log Kc
G = 2.303 RT log Kc

Hence, the equilibrium constant for the given reaction Kc is 1.36 106
Question 7.25:
Does the number of moles of reaction products increase, decrease or remain
same when each of the following equilibria is subjected to a decrease in pressure
by increasing the volume?
(a)
(b)
(c)

Answer
(a) The number of moles of reaction products will increase. According to Le
Chateliers principle, if pressure is decreased, then the equilibrium shifts in the
direction in which the number of moles of gases is more. In the given reaction, the
number of moles of gaseous products is more than that of gaseous reactants. Thus,
the reaction will proceed in the forward direction. As a result, the number of moles
of reaction products will increase.
(b) The number of moles of reaction products will decrease.
(c) The number of moles of reaction products remains the same

Question 7.26:
Which of the following reactions will get affected by increasing the pressure?
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Also, mention whether change will cause the reaction to go into forward or
backward direction.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Answer
The reactions given in (i), (iii), (iv), (v), and (vi) will get affected by increasing the
pressure.
The reaction given in (iv) will proceed in the forward direction because the number
of moles of gaseous reactants is more than that of gaseous products.
The reactions given in (i), (iii), (v), and (vi) will shift in the backward direction
because the number of moles of gaseous reactants is less than that of gaseous
products.

Question 7.27:
The equilibrium constant for the following reaction is 1.6 105 at 1024 K.

Find the equilibrium pressure of all gases if 10.0 bar of HBr is introduced into a
sealed container at 1024 K.

Answer
Given,
for the reaction i.e.,
Therefore, for the reaction

the equilibrium constant will

be,

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Now, let p be the pressure of both H2 and Br2 at equilibrium.

Now, we can write,

Therefore, at equilibrium,

Question 7.28:
Dihydrogen gas is obtained from natural gas by partial oxidation with steam as
per following endothermic reaction:

(a) Write as expression for Kp for the above reaction.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(b) How will the values of Kp and composition of equilibrium mixture be affected
by
(i) Increasing the pressure
(ii) Increasing the temperature
(iii) Using a catalyst?

Answer
(a) For the given reaction,

(b) (i) According to Le Chateliers principle, the equilibrium will shift in the
backward direction.
(ii) According to Le Chateliers principle, as the reaction is endothermic, the
equilibrium will shift in the forward direction.
(iii) The equilibrium of the reaction is not affected by the presence of a catalyst. A
catalyst only increases the rate of a reaction. Thus, equilibrium will be attained
quickly.

Question 7.29:
Describe the effect of:
a) Addition of H2
b) Addition of CH3OH
c) Removal of CO
d) Removal of CH3OH
on the equilibrium of the reaction:

Answer
(a) According to Le Chateliers principle, on addition of H2, the equilibrium of the
given reaction will shift in the forward direction.
(b) On addition of CH3OH, the equilibrium will shift in the backward direction.
(c) On removing CO, the equilibrium will shift in the backward direction.
(d) On removing CH3OH, the equilibrium will shift in the forward direction.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.30:
At 473 K, equilibrium constant Kc for decomposition of phosphorus
pentachloride, PCl5 is 8.3 10-3. If decomposition is depicted as,
rH = 124.0 kJmol1
a) Write an expression for Kc for the reaction.
b) What is the value of Kc for the reverse reaction at the same temperature?
c) What would be the effect on Kc if (i) more PCl5 is added (ii) pressure is
increased? (iii) The temperature is increased?

Answer

(a)
(b) Value of Kc for the reverse reaction at the same temperature is:

(c) (i) Kc would remain the same because in this case, the temperature remains the
same.
(ii) Kc is constant at constant temperature. Thus, in this case, Kc would not change.
(iii) In an endothermic reaction, the value of Kc increases with an increase in
temperature. Since the given reaction in an endothermic reaction, the value of Kc
will increase if the temperature is increased.

Question 7.31:
Dihydrogen gas used in Habers process is produced by reacting methane from
natural gas with high temperature steam. The first stage of two stage reaction

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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

involves the formation of CO and H2. In second stage, CO formed in first stage is
reacted with more steam in water gas shift reaction,

If a reaction vessel at 400C is charged with an equimolar mixture of CO and


steam such that

4.0 bar, what will be the partial pressure of H2 at

equilibrium? Kp= 10.1 at 400C

Answer
Let the partial pressure of both carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas be p. The given
reaction is:

It is
Now,

Hence, at equilibrium, the partial pressure of H2 will be 3.04 bar.


Question 7.32:
Predict which of the following reaction will have appreciable concentration of
reactants and products:
a)
b)
c)
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Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Answer
If the value of Kc lies between 103 and 103, a reaction has appreciable
concentration of reactants and products. Thus, the reaction given in (c) will have
appreciable concentration of reactants and products.

Question 7.33:
The value of Kc for the reaction
3O2 (g)

2O3 (g)

is 2.0 1050 at 25C. If the equilibrium concentration of O2 in air at 25C is 1.6


102, what is the concentration of O3?

Answer
The given reaction is:

Then, we have,

Hence, the concentration of

Question 7.34:
The reaction, CO(g) + 3H2(g)

CH4(g) + H2O(g) is at equilibrium at 1300 K

in a 1L flask. It also contain 0.30 mol of CO, 0.10 mol of H2 and 0.02 mol of
H2O and an unknown amount of CH4 in the flask. Determine the concentration
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

of CH4 in the mixture. The equilibrium constant, Kc for the reaction at the given
temperature is 3.90.

Answer
Let the concentration of methane at equilibrium be x.

It is given that Kc = 3.90.


Therefore,

Hence, the concentration of CH4 at equilibrium is 5.85 102 M.

Question 7.35:
What is meant by the conjugate acid-base pair? Find the conjugate acid/base for
the following species:

Answer
A conjugate acid-base pair is a pair that differs only by one proton.
The conjugate acid-base for the given species is mentioned in the table below.
Species Conjugate acid-base
HNO2
CN

HCN (acid)

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

HClO4
F

HF (acid)

OH

H2O (acid) /O2 (base)

S2

HS (acid)

Question 7.36:
Which of the followings are Lewis acids? H2O, BF3, H+, and

Answer
Lewis acids are those acids which can accept a pair of electrons. For example, BF3,
H+, and

are Lewis acids.

Question 7.37:
What will be the conjugate bases for the Brnsted acids: HF, H2SO4 and HCO3?

Answer
The table below lists the conjugate bases for the given Bronsted acids.
Bronsted acid Conjugate base
F

HF
H2SO4

Question 7.38:
Write the conjugate acids for the following Brnsted bases: NH2, NH3 and
HCOO.

Answer
The table below lists the conjugate acids for the given Bronsted bases.
Bronsted base Conjugate acid
NH3
NH3
HCOO

HCOOH
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.39:
The species: H2O,

, and NH3 can act both as Brnsted acids and

bases. For each case give the corresponding conjugate acid and base.

Answer
The table below lists the conjugate acids and conjugate bases for the given species.
Species Conjugate acid Conjugate base
H2 O

H3 O+

OH

H2CO3
H2SO4
NH3

Question 7.40:
Classify the following species into Lewis acids and Lewis bases and show how
these act as Lewis acid/base: (a) OH (b) F (c) H+ (d) BCl3.

Answer
(a) OH is a Lewis base since it can donate its lone pair of electrons.
(b) F is a Lewis base since it can donate a pair of electrons.
(c) H+ is a Lewis acid since it can accept a pair of electrons.
(d) BCl3 is a Lewis acid since it can accept a pair of electrons.
Question 7.41:
The concentration of hydrogen ion in a sample of soft drink is 3.8 103 M.
what is its pH?

Answer
Given,

pH value of soft drink

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.42:
The pH of a sample of vinegar is 3.76. Calculate the concentration of hydrogen
ion in it.

Question 7.43:
The ionization constant of HF, HCOOH and HCN at 298K are 6.8 104, 1.8
104 and 4.8 109 respectively. Calculate the ionization constants of the
corresponding conjugate base.

Answer
It is known that,

Given,
Ka of HF = 6.8 104
Hence, Kb of its conjugate base F

Given,
Ka of HCOOH = 1.8 104
Hence, Kb of its conjugate base HCOO

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Given,
Ka of HCN = 4.8 109
Hence, Kb of its conjugate base CN

Question 7.44:
The ionization constant of phenol is 1.0 1010. What is the concentration of
phenolate ion in 0.05 M solution of phenol? What will be its degree of ionization
if the solution is also 0.01M in sodium phenolate?

Answer
Ionization of phenol:

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Now, let be the degree of ionization of phenol in the presence of 0.01 M


C6H5ONa.

Also,

Question 7.45:
The first ionization constant of H2S is 9.1 108. Calculate the concentration of
HS ion in its 0.1 M solution. How will this concentration be affected if the
solution is 0.1 M in HCl also? If the second dissociation constant of H2S is 1.2
1013, calculate the concentration of S2 under both conditions.

Answer
(i) To calculate the concentration of HS ion:
Case I (in the absence of HCl):
Let the concentration of HS be x M.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Case II (in the presence of HCl):


In the presence of 0.1 M of HCl, let

(ii) To calculate the concentration of

be y M.

Case I (in the absence of 0.1 M HCl):

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(From first ionization, case I)


Let
Also,

(From first ionization, case I)

Case II (in the presence of 0.1 M HCl):


Again, let the concentration of HS be X' M.
(From first ionization, case II)
(From HCl, case II)

Question 7.46:
The ionization constant of acetic acid is 1.74 105. Calculate the degree of
dissociation of acetic acid in its 0.05 M solution. Calculate the concentration of
acetate ion in the solution and its pH.

Answer

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Degree of dissociation,

c = 0.05 M
Ka = 1.74 105

Thus, concentration of CH3COO = c.

Hence, the concentration of acetate ion in the solution is 0.00093 M and its Ph is
3.03.

Question 7.47:
It has been found that the pH of a 0.01M solution of an organic acid is 4.15.
Calculate the concentration of the anion, the ionization constant of the acid and
its pKa.

Answer
Let the organic acid be HA.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Concentration of HA = 0.01 M
pH = 4.15

Now,

Then,

Question 7.48:
Assuming complete dissociation, calculate the pH of the following solutions:
(a) 0.003 M HCl

(b) 0.005 M NaOH

(c) 0.002 M HBr

(d) 0.002 M KOH

Answer
(i) 0.003MHCl:

Since HCl is completely ionized,

Now,

Hence, the pH of the solution is 2.52.


KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(ii) 0.005MNaOH:

Hence, the pH of the solution is 11.70.


(iii) 0.002 HBr:

Hence, the pH of the solution is 2.69.


(iv) 0.002 M KOH:

Hence, the pH of the solution is 11.31.

Question 7.49:
Calculate the pH of the following solutions:
a) 2 g of TlOH dissolved in water to give 2 litre of solution.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

b) 0.3 g of Ca(OH)2 dissolved in water to give 500 mL of solution.


c) 0.3 g of NaOH dissolved in water to give 200 mL of solution.
d) 1mL of 13.6 M HCl is diluted with water to give 1 litre of solution.

Answer
(a) For 2g of TlOH dissolved in water to give 2 L of solution:

(b) For 0.3 g of Ca(OH)2 dissolved in water to give 500 mL of solution:

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

(c) For 0.3 g of NaOH dissolved in water to give 200 mL of solution:

(d) For 1mL of 13.6 M HCl diluted with water to give 1 L of solution:
13.6 1 mL = M2 1000 mL
(Before dilution) (After dilution)
13.6 103 = M2 1L
M2 = 1.36 102
[H+] = 1.36 102
pH = log (1.36 102)
= ( 0.1335 + 2)

Question 7.50:
The degree of ionization of a 0.1M bromoacetic acid solution is 0.132. Calculate
the pH of the solution and the pKa of bromoacetic acid.

Answer

Concentration, c = 0.1 M
Thus, the concentration of H3O+ = c.
= 0.1 0.132
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

= 0.0132

Now,

Question 7.51:
The pH of 0.005M codeine (C18H21NO3) solution is 9.95. Calculate its ionization
constant and pKb.

Answer
c = 0.005
pH = 9.95
pOH = 4.05
pH = log (4.105)

Question 7.52:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

What is the pH of 0.001 M aniline solution? The ionization constant of aniline


can be taken from Table 7.7. Calculate the degree of ionization of aniline in the
solution. Also calculate the ionization constant of the conjugate acid of aniline.

Answer
Kb = 4.27 1010
c = 0.001M
pH =?
=?

Thus, the ionization constant of the conjugate acid of aniline is 2.34 105.

Question 7.53:
Calculate the degree of ionization of 0.05M acetic acid if its pKa value is 4.74.
How is the degree of dissociation affected when its solution also contains (a)
0.01 M (b) 0.1 M in HCl?

Answer

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

When HCl is added to the solution, the concentration of H+ ions will increase.
Therefore, the equilibrium will shift in the backward direction i.e., dissociation of
acetic acid will decrease.
Case I: When 0.01 M HCl is taken.
Let x be the amount of acetic acid dissociated after the addition of HCl.

As the dissociation of a very small amount of acetic acid will take place, the values
i.e., 0.05 x and 0.01 + x can be taken as 0.05 and 0.01 respectively.

Case II: When 0.1 M HCl is taken.


Let the amount of acetic acid dissociated in this case be X. As we have done in the
first case, the concentrations of various species involved in the reaction are:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.54:
The ionization constant of dimethylamine is 5.4 104. Calculate its degree of
ionization in its 0.02 M solution. What percentage of dimethylamine is ionized if
the solution is also 0.1 M in NaOH?

Answer

Now, if 0.1 M of NaOH is added to the solution, then NaOH (being a strong base)
undergoes complete ionization.

And,
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

It means that in the presence of 0.1 M NaOH, 0.54% of dimethylamine will get
dissociated.
Question 7.55:
Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in the following biological fluids
whose pH are given below:
(a) Human muscle-fluid, 6.83
(b) Human stomach fluid, 1.2
(c) Human blood, 7.38
(d) Human saliva, 6.4.

Answer
(a) Human muscle fluid 6.83:
pH = 6.83
pH = log [H+]
6.83 = log [H+]
[H+] =1.48 107 M
(b) Human stomach fluid, 1.2:
pH =1.2
1.2 = log [H+]
[H+] = 0.063
(c) Human blood, 7.38:
pH = 7.38 = log [H+]
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

[H+] = 4.17 108 M


(d) Human saliva, 6.4:
pH = 6.4
6.4 = log [H+]
[H+] = 3.98 107

Question 7.56:
The pH of milk, black coffee, tomato juice, lemon juice and egg white are 6.8,
5.0, 4.2, 2.2 and 7.8 respectively. Calculate corresponding hydrogen ion
concentration in each.

Answer
The hydrogen ion concentration in the given substances can be calculated by using
the given relation:
pH = log [H+]
(i) pH of milk = 6.8
Since, pH = log [H+]
6.8 = log [H+]
log [H+] = 6.8
[H+] = anitlog(6.8)
=
(ii) pH of black coffee = 5.0
Since, pH = log [H+]
5.0 = log [H+]
log [H+] = 5.0
[H+] = anitlog(5.0)
=
(iii) pH of tomato juice = 4.2
Since, pH = log [H+]
4.2 = log [H+]
log [H+] = 4.2
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

[H+] = anitlog(4.2)
=
(iv) pH of lemon juice = 2.2
Since, pH = log [H+]
2.2 = log [H+]
log [H+] = 2.2
[H+] = anitlog(2.2)
=
(v) pH of egg white = 7.8
Since, pH = log [H+]
7.8 = log [H+]
log [H+] = 7.8
[H+] = anitlog(7.8)
=
Question 7.57:
If 0.561 g of KOH is dissolved in water to give 200 mL of solution at 298 K.
Calculate the concentrations of potassium, hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. What is
its pH?

Answer

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.58:
The solubility of Sr(OH)2 at 298 K is 19.23 g/L of solution. Calculate the
concentrations of strontium and hydroxyl ions and the pH of the solution.

Answer
Solubility of Sr(OH)2 = 19.23 g/L
Then, concentration of Sr(OH)2

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.59:
The ionization constant of propanoic acid is 1.32 105. Calculate the degree of
ionization of the acid in its 0.05M solution and also its pH. What will be its
degree of ionization if the solution is 0.01M in HCl also?

Answer

Then, representing propionic acid as HA, we have:

Question 7.60:
The pH of 0.1M solution of cyanic acid (HCNO) is 2.34. Calculate the ionization
constant of the acid and its degree of ionization in the solution.

Answer
c = 0.1 M
pH = 2.34
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.61:
The ionization constant of nitrous acid is 4.5 104. Calculate the pH of 0.04 M
sodium nitrite solution and also its degree of hydrolysis.

Answer
NaNO2 is the salt of a strong base (NaOH) and a weak acid (HNO2).

Now, If x moles of the salt undergo hydrolysis, then the concentration of various
species present in the solution will be:

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Therefore, degree of hydrolysis


= 2.325 105

Question 7.62:
A 0.02 M solution of pyridinium hydrochloride has pH = 3.44. Calculate the
ionization constant of pyridine

Answer
pH = 3.44
We know that,
pH = log [H+]

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.63:
Predict if the solutions of the following salts are neutral, acidic or basic:
NaCl, KBr, NaCN, NH4NO3, NaNO2 and KF

Answer
(i) NaCl:

Therefore, it is a neutral solution.


(ii) KBr:

Therefore, it is a neutral solution.


(iii) NaCN:

Therefore, it is a basic solution.


(iv) NH4NO3

Therefore, it is an acidic solution.


(v) NaNO2

Therefore, it is a basic solution.


(vi) KF

Therefore, it is a basic solution.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Question 7.64:
The ionization constant of chloroacetic acid is 1.35 103. What will be the pH
of 0.1M acid and its 0.1M sodium salt solution?

Answer
It is given that Ka for ClCH2COOH is 1.35 103.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

ClCH2COONa is the salt of a weak acid i.e., ClCH2COOH and a strong base i.e.,
NaOH.

Question 7.65:
Ionic product of water at 310 K is 2.7 1014. What is the pH of neutral water at
this temperature?

Answer
Ionic product,
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Hence, the pH of neutral water is 6.78.

Question 7.66:
Calculate the pH of the resultant mixtures:
a) 10 mL of 0.2M Ca(OH)2 + 25 mL of 0.1M HCl
b) 10 mL of 0.01M H2SO4 + 10 mL of 0.01M Ca(OH)2
c) 10 mL of 0.1M H2SO4 + 10 mL of 0.1M KOH

Answer
(a)

Thus, excess of

= .0015 mol

(b)

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Since there is neither an excess of

or

, the solution is neutral. Hence, pH

= 7.
(c)

Excess of

= .001 mol

= 1.30

Question 7.67:
Determine the solubilities of silver chromate, barium chromate, ferric hydroxide,
lead chloride and mercurous iodide at 298K from their solubility product
constants given in Table 7.9 (page 221). Determine also the molarities of
individual ions.

Answer
(1) Silver chromate:

Let the solubility of

Molarity of

be s.

= 2s = 2 0.65 104 = 1.30 104 M


KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

= s = 0.65 104 M

Molarity of

(2) Barium chromate:

Let s be the solubility of


Thus,

Molarity of

= s and

=s

= Molarity of

(3) Ferric hydroxide:

Let s be the solubility of

Molarity of
Molarity of
(4) Lead chloride:

Let KSP be the solubility of

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Molarity of
Molarity of chloride =
(5) Mercurous iodide:

Let s be the solubility of

Molarity of
Molarity of

Question 7.68:
The solubility product constant of Ag2CrO4 and AgBr are 1.1 1012 and 5.0
1013 respectively. Calculate the ratio of the molarities of their saturated
solutions.

Answer
Let s be the solubility of Ag2CrO4.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Let s be the solubility of AgBr.

Therefore,

the ratio

of

the molarities

of

their

saturated

solution is

Question 7.69:
Equal volumes of 0.002 M solutions of sodium iodate and cupric chlorate are
mixed together. Will it lead to precipitation of copper iodate? (For cupric iodate
Ksp = 7.4 108).

Answer
When equal volumes of sodium iodate and cupric chlorate solutions are mixed
together, then the molar concentrations of both solutions are reduced to half i.e.,
0.001 M.
Then,

Now, the solubility equilibrium for copper iodate can be written as:

Ionic product of copper iodate:

Since the ionic product (1 109) is less than Ksp (7.4 108), precipitation will not
occur.

Question 7.70:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

The ionization constant of benzoic acid is 6.46 105 and Ksp for silver benzoate
is 2.5 1013. How many times is silver benzoate more soluble in a buffer of pH
3.19 compared to its solubility in pure water?

Answer
Since pH = 3.19,

Let the solubility of C6H5COOAg be x mol/L.


Then,

Thus, the solubility of silver benzoate in a pH 3.19 solution is 1.66 106 mol/L.
Now, let the solubility of C6H5COOAg be x mol/L.

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

Hence, C6H5COOAg is approximately 3.317 times more soluble in a low pH


solution.

Question 7.71:
What is the maximum concentration of equimolar solutions of ferrous sulphate
and sodium sulphide so that when mixed in equal volumes, there is no
precipitation of iron sulphide? (For iron sulphide, Ksp = 6.3 1018).

Answer
Let the maximum concentration of each solution be x mol/L. After mixing, the
volume of the concentrations of each solution will be
reduced to half i.e., .

If the concentrations of both solutions are equal to or less than 5.02 109 M, then
there will be no precipitation of iron sulphide

Question 7.72:

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

What is the minimum volume of water required to dissolve 1g of calcium


sulphate at 298 K? (For calcium sulphate, Ksp is 9.1 106).

Answer

Let the solubility of CaSO4 be s.

Molecular mass of CaSO4 = 136 g/mol


in gram/L = 3.02 103 136

Solubility of
= 0.41 g/L

This means that we need 1L of water to dissolve 0.41g of CaSO4


Therefore, to dissolve 1g of CaSO4 we require

of water.

Question 7.73:
The concentration of sulphide ion in 0.1M HCl solution saturated with hydrogen
sulphide is 1.0 1019 M. If 10 mL of this is added to 5 mL of 0.04 M solution of
the following: FeSO4, MnCl2, ZnCl2 and CdCl2. in which of these solutions
precipitation will take place?

Answer

For precipitation to take place, it is required that the calculated ionic product
exceeds the Ksp value.
Before mixing:

After mixing:
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI

This ionic product exceeds the Ksp of ZnS and CdS. Therefore, precipitation will
occur in CdCl2 and ZnCl2 solutions.

*********************************

THE END************************

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


Zonal Institute Of Education And Training; Bhubaneswar
Study Material- Chemistry- Class XI