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[ASPHALT MDX DESIGN (08K FORMULA) 0b ‘To determine an economical bend of te graded aggregates and ast hat wil produce an asp min ender to ‘meet be Ges properbes and quale of 8 Blumirous ms 1 soulshve susert agphatearsure a ued pavement It should nave sufeietstaity to say the damands orate without depteoerent 2 I shoud have sumicont vols inthe tial compacted mi fo alow 8 tight amount fr addons compaction indore load I sok have suien workabtyto pei ecient placament of mix wihout seprgton {VOIDS ~ smal a spaces nat occur Botweon the casted aggregate pace n 2 compacted mi ‘VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATE (VHA) ~spacos ht ext botween the aggregate parces in a compacted mix ‘neusing spaces filed wan aspha DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS PAVING MIXTURES (dob x Form) ‘The job mx formula focused i te selection of matonas wth prasenbes proparis, stay and dura of he surlasa course an ease nthe ming, spreedng, compaction and ishing Ie voves te folowing stops 1 "Selection of quay of aggrogates * shape 1 Sate tere + poforenel woting cnaacteriaies 2. Selecton of gradation of aggregates = werkabaty of mi + pervousness and sutace texture of pavement + overal econemny 9. Selection of ype an grade of btuminaus bros “eerkabty 1 ama earns * 29g consioratons + gosabon of apyregaos DDetaminatin of te erfet amount of Biuminaus Bade by Marshal or immersion ~ Compression Test. 125 EEEEE ESET EEE DEFINITIONS, ALLIGATOR CRACK - atstconecied crac ming a sores of mal Blocks esomtling a liga’ sha or chcken wi ASPHALT CONGRETE - hgprquaty, thorouhiy corto hot mitre of asphal camer and wal-gaded high Qty Soy-satie,nerougy eompacted tow unarm conse mas. ASPHALT EMULSION SLURRY SEAL ~ a mice of slowsetng emus sega war, egoregate ard minora er, froced ia susry consistancy and placed on pavement suace, ASPHALT LEVELING COURSE ~ layer ofa esl aggregate mits of varale cress sed fo eliinatekrepuarties ‘nine contro an aig surlace porto placarant of an ove ASPHALT PRIME COAT ~ on application of wiscosty culback to an absorbent sure, of @ mkeain appeton of fused asphat used ony on uneted base prio laoemert an asphalt peverer ‘ASPHALT SEAL COAT a thin phat surface ireament uted ts ware and improve the testa of an apo wearing Surface Depending onthe pupono, sal coats may er my rol be Soars wth sagregaw, The ma per of fo Sots ‘og sais, sgregae seals sy seal nd and ea, ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENTS ~ applications of asphalt tel 0 ny Np of rtd or pavenart uae, wih ot Snow « cover f mineral 99oat, at prodica an nreusein tks ons an 25 mm (1) ASPHALT TACK COAT = 6 very ght application of asphalt ap to an exiting aspnat or Portand coment concrete Surtca. se 19 ensure bend between te race bag paved and ta overdoing couee.Atchh simon dhe wih se she preferred asphat mate, ELEEDING OR FLUSHING ASPHALT —the upward moverant of api an aspha pavement eeuing inn formation of 2 Tar ofespat on ne auc 'BLOW.UP = he loalued bucking or shatesng of a 0:yp9 paver, occnngLauay al ranaverse cack ont. CCORRUGATIONS (ashboarding) 8 orm of piste movemontypfad by nope across te pavement ufece. [CRACK ~ separation one paveran ue to nti cause, kf acon of eectons fom an undeing pavement. DEFLECTION ~ ine down vorica movamart oa pavement surface due othe appleation oad othe nua DEPRESSIONS ~ calzed ow areas of te sz th tayo may ba accompanied by cracking DISINTEGARATION — ne tresing vp ot pavemant surace am srg! shapa FULL-OCPTH ASPHALT PAVEMENT ~ an asphalt puvemaet sci Wht uses aap mute oN courses above he sungase o peved abgrads. AFuDepih anal pavernen ad Grech he eared bb grate HYOROPLANING ~the dangerous action ofa vehi Beng can on a pavimet ver wich fc oF bw water hos formed on reacting carta geod the vel’ tested Ie a upon the water suace rts tan the paver restcaly ‘educa tha covers cone ne vnc, ICRO-SURFACING ~ a mixture of poly’ odie asphat erudlon, mineral aggtgal, rier ier, war and eter _csives prepay proportioned, med 8a apron on & pared sre OUSHED AGGREGATE ~ eggapate panies me pavemantsuaca wih edger tal have been rounded snd suraces moony atte [POTHOLES —towtshaped hols of varying sans nto pavemen, esuing fom healed dntgreon, PUUPING ~ sab movement under pasting ada ruling othe oecton of mura of wae, san, ay, anor a8 ong teanaverse orlongtudinal os and eack, er ang pavement edges, RAVELING — the rogrssive seperation of aggregate patos na pavement fim ne staca downward rom he des REFLECTION CRACKS ~ cracks asphalt overs thal reflect he cack pam athe paveret suture undeecth [RUTTING ~ channelized deprasions thet moy develop i he wheel Lacks ofan asa pavement ‘SHOVING ~ = fem of plastic movemen asuting fo loeaeaa bling othe pavemrt KIO HAZARD ~ any condton thet might cant o mating @ pavement sepa. SLIPPAGE CRACKS = cracks, sometimes crescent shaped, tat pit i the decon’of te hat of the wheels on the ‘averentsuace, caused by lack a bod between ho pavement ayers LUNOERSEALING ASPHALT high soteriog poi apa ued 1 i cavlas Bares Portand cement cnet labs and ‘occasionally to comect the varie! agree! y rin Indi aah ‘UPHEAVAL = te lected upward aislacement of «paver. ot dus to sweling of he sub grag or some perion ofthe Conerte Pavements Block Crack Wonert) Deseription Interconnected eracks forming a series ‘of blocks approximately rectangular it shape, commonly distributed over the full pavement - Phares | & 2 Attributes Predominant erack width (mm) © Predominant cell width (ram) © Area affected (m?) Possible causes © nguficent sab thickness * Settlement of sub-base or subgrade © Advanced stage in pavement life cyele Recommended remedies © Narrow cracks in unreinforced slabs and medium cracks in all slabs will ‘need to be sealed: or © Stitched erack repair © Wide cracks will necessitate ether a bay replacement repair or a full depth repair MARCH Field assessment reference © Defeet Code - BC © Area cracking (a) Corner Crack conn) Deseription Crack linking @ transverse Joint to the slab cage of longitudinal join - Plates 3&4 Attributes © Crack width (mm) © Crack length (m) © Number of slabs affected Possible causes © Lack of load transfer joins © Dowel bar restraint near edge of slab © Ingress of solids into joint at edge of slab © ‘Acute angles in non-tectangular slabs © Loss of sb-base support Recommended remedies © Comer oF transverse fll depth repair [MARCH Field assessment reference © Defeet Code = NC © Transverse racking (my 7 Conte Pavements <<< EEE Diagonal Crack — (couse) Description Multi-directional eracks in the sb which are neither generally transverse, nor longitudinal, nor across the corners of bays Plates 5 & 6 Attributes © Crack width (mn) © Crack length (m) © Number of slabs affected Possible causes © Shrinkage of slab during curing, sssoviated with excess slab lengths or Joins sain too late © ‘Settement ofthe sub-base or subgrade © Rocking of slab © Instlicient slab thickness Recommended remedies © Narrow cracks in unreinforced slabs and medium cracks in ail slabs will need to be sealed; or ® ‘Stitched erack reps © Wide cracks will necessitate either @ bay pair fll dep repair replacement MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code- DC © Transverse cracking (mi) rs Longitudinal Crackicsmns) Description Unconnected erick running. longitudinally along the pavement Plates 7 & & Attributes © Crack width (om) © Crack lemath (ri) © Crack spacing (mm) © Ara affected (m) Postible causes © Differential setement © Lateral shrinkage excessive sub width sociated with Recommended remedies © Narrow cracks in reinforced slabs require no immediate action © Namtow cracks in unreinforeed slabs and medium ericks in slabs of al types should be remealicd by means of stitched eric © Wide cracks in all. slabs should be remedied either by longitudinal full depth repair or by moans of a bay replacement real [MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Coe - LC Longitudinal racking (en) Ginerse Paver ne + Shrinkage Crack Description ‘Short and obligue indirection and charactristeally do not normally extend to the edges of the slab. Initially they ave ‘comparatively shallow in depth but a$ result of subsequent heating and cooling, wetting and deying, itis likely that some at least wall eventually extend across the fill ‘width and through the full depth ofthe stb = Plates 9 & 10 Attributes ® Predominant width of crack (mm) © Crack length (rm) © Number of slabs affected Possible causes © Inadequate curing Recommended remedies © Very minor, narrow plastic shrinkage cracks may be selfanneaing and consequently require no remedial © Sealing ofthe cracks © Full depth repair © Demolition and reconstruction ofthe slab bby means of bay replacement pair MARCH Field assessment reference * Defect Code- KC Area eracking (m) Transverse Crack (one Deseript Crack or break running tansversely across the pavemendlab - Plates 11 & 12 Attributes © Crack width (om) © Crack spacing (mm) © Crack length (my © ‘Area affected’) Possible causes © Shrinkage of slab during curing, associated with contraction joints being sawn too late or excessive slab length Dowel bar restraint st joints Subsbase restraint (lack of separation layer or excessive imeyularity of sub: base) © Insufficient slab thickness © Rocking © Developing fom joints (ease of tuamatchod joins in two parallel slabs) Recommended remedies © Medium width cracks = form a groove and seal © Wide racks - transverse full depth rept © Full bay reconstruction MARCH Field assessment reference © Detect Code - TC © Transverse cracking (m) Joint Stepping Description Differential vertial displacement of abuting slabs at joims or eracks = Plates 13 & 14 (synonym - faulting) Attributes © Difference in elevation (mim) across the Joint or erack © Number of slabs affected Possible enuses * Lack of effective load tansfer dowel and tie bars at jointeracks © Poor sub-baselsubgrade support © Loss of sub-base material owing to pumping Recommended remedies © Total reconstruction of the slab and its subgrade © Slab lifting in conjunetion with either Pressure on vacuum grouting undertaken, im secordance with specialist sub- Possible enuses © Saturated base oF subgrade * Rupture of surface coure due to traffic acing and britleness ofthe © Inada pavenient thickness © Developing fiom a surface showing block cracking Recommended remedies Full depth reconstruction - removing the ‘wet material and installing dame © Skin patches or sealing with emulsion and sand can be wsed a8 emporaty repair MARCH Field assessment reference * Defect Cove CC © Major deterioration (1?) inwrino Diagonal Crack Dever An unconnected crack which generally takes a ‘agonal line across pavement - Plates 32 & 3 Aibuces Predominant width of erack (i) © Length (im) © Arca affected (on) Possible causes © Reflection of shrinkage erack or joint in and underlying cemented material Differential setements ‘embankments, cuts or structures Tree 1091s Service installation . between Recommended remedies Frill and seal the crack with bituminous emulsion slury oF eubuck bituraen mixed with sand © Cold mil and resurface MARCH Field assessment reference ® Defect Code - DC Maj deterioration (m?) Longitudinal Crack junio Deseription Crack cning longitutinally along, the pavement. Can occut singly or as series of Almost parallel cracks. Some limited branching may occur - Plates 34,35 & 36 Attributes © Width of dominant erack (mm) © Length of dominant crack (rm) © Spacing (mm) © ‘Area affected (m®) Possible eases (9), ocuring singly * Poot longitudinal joint construction © Differential movement in the case of pavement widening © Bitumen hardening Incipient slips for rou on slopes (6) Occurring as a series of almost parallel cracks © Volume change of expansive ey subgrade Ditfeeotial sotemaent of subgrade, eg bbepwoen cut and ill Incipient slips for ros on slopes Recommended remedies © ill and. seal the crack with bituminous ‘emulsion slurry of cutback bitumen mined with sand ‘Cold ml and resurface © Improvement of stability ofthe slopes MARCH Field assessment reference © eDefeet Code - LCMajor deterioration (rm) 702 Slippage Cracks Description Half moon or erescent shaped crack in the direction of traffic, commonly associated with shoving ~ Plates 37 & 38 (synonym ~ shear rack, crescent crack) ae © Predominant with of eracks (ram) Bh eatscr Possible causes Seesearceneee Sepia peo belt Coe Bearing cou, nadie bon may be due to dus, di, ol or the absence of aack coat a * Slippage of wearing course at road locations with high shearing stresses (braking and acecleration zones) ra * Low modulus base course Recommended remedies tree eee eee eee ce epee | FE Severson sae tpind pea seen amas :” serial MARCH Ficld assessment reference » Defeat Cole 8C Esra Carerdteae eraeeieel ie tee ees Be sccrovsion x Singage exten in depth below the wearing go mn Transverse Crack smi) Description “Transverse rupture across the pavemedt Plate 39 & 40, for bituminous surfacing over bridge ‘deck of concrete slabs the crack reflect movement or paitern in the underlying pavement structure and is refered to as fefletion crack = Plate 41 Aucibutes © Predominant crack wid (om) © Spacing (mm) © Length m) © Arenalfected (m Possible eauses © Construction joint or shrinkage crack (due {e low temperature or bitumen hardening) in surfacing course © relletion of cracking from lean concrete or ‘comet bases movement of underlying pavement Recommended remedies © Fill and. seal the crack with bituminous ‘emulsion slurry or eutback bitumen mixed with sand © For longer ‘tack, ref Divisions sm solution for eflecion to R&D. of Structures MARCH Field waseosment reference © Defect Code - TC © Major deterioration (mi?) 103 t Bi corrugations Bh decrpson Transverse undulations, closely and regularly BBE spaced Pats 42045 (synoayan«iples) : Attributes © Maximum depth under 1.2 m straightedge (oun) © crest to crest spacing (mm) © Length of pavement affected (em) Foc c © Low in service stability of bituminous mix BE ov cisoie Road locations under high tangential tafe es ee as considerable heavy tafe - braking Pierre remetes BE 7 Corpse ze rene by cat iting ad resurfacing with polymer modified WB ssascu rat aesmert ferene Deteot Code “CR Weaning course deterioration (an) Depression (iwnions) Deseription Localised area within a pavement with clevations lower than the surounding area May not be confined to whcelpaths and could extend aeross sever wheats - Plates 46 Attributes © Maximum depth under 1.2 m seaightedge ‘u) © rea of depression (i) Possible causes © Senement of service trenches © Consolidation of tolated areas of soft oF poorly compacted subgrade or tmbinkment materials © Setiement duet the instability of tembinkmient Recommended remedies © Patching to restore the area to the same gr as the surrounding pavement Focally down into filipoorty ‘compacted subgrade and. replace with shew compacted ill and pavement MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code - DW (wieracks) © Defest Code - DP (wo cracks) © Maximum depth of depression < 50° mm = mir deterioration (F) Maniqnum depth of depression 2 50 mm = major deterioration (mr) 708 Rutting Description Longitudinal deformation ina wheelpath - Plates 47,48 & 49 (synonym - channelling) © Maximum depth (under a transverse 1.2 m straight edge) (ram) © Length (m) Possible causes © Inadequate compaction in surfacing or base © Plastic deformation of bituminous materials (low) observed longitudinally, It is accelerated by the combined effect of ‘fie and high temperature Settlement of underlying subgrade under traffic © Surscural failure of subgrade courses and Recommended remedies © Leveling the pavement by regulating course ‘nd fllowe by «bituminous overlay © Dig down to bottom of distress material and replace MARCH Field assessment reference ® Defeet Code - RU © Mawimam depth of rut < 20 som » wearing course deterioration (m=) > Masinnum depth of rut 2 20 mm - whee! track ring (m) Le. assessed as lengths of ating Shoving Description Bulging of the road surface generally parallel to the direction of trafic: and/or horizontal Aisplacement of surfacing inaerals mainly in the direction of traffic where braking oF acceleration movement oecur - Plates 50 & $1 Attributes © Maximum depth of bulge under 1.2m straight ge from high point © Area affected (mi) Possible causes nalequate © aoc ond betcen pavement layers © Stop and start of vehicles a intersections © Pressure exerted by a cement concrete pavement at transition point with bituminous pavement © Low oid content in surficing or other layer nth in surfacing or base Recommended remedies © Square up and remove the shoving for full Tayer depth followed by pating with hot polymer modified bituminns material MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code - SV © Maximum depth ofthe shoved area < SOmm wearing course deterioration (Im) © Maximum depth of the shoved area 2 0mm major deterioration (1m 707 [ Flushing p= ee en ee newest ca a ca tenes aes $1 yoo Meng) D acetates © tea affected (m) D> ercetge ty ae sone mere) frome * Bxortve binder conten of weaing coun [mimesis > reneaton of aggregate into base (low ‘tenth base) |, [uni arent MARCH Feld assessment reference © Defeet Code - FL © Wearing course deteriration (m) Polishing Desc Smooth and rounding of the upper surfice of the roadstone, usually occurs inthe wheeltmcks. Identified partly by” relative appearance and feel of trafficked and non- traficked areas, Polished areas will feel ‘clatvely smooth and will sometimes. be noticeably shiny. The quality of polishing ‘cannot be quantified by observation «Plates 55 856 Adteibutes © ca atest () Possible causes © Inadequate resistance to polishing of surface xref, particularly in ares of heavy traffic movements or where high stesses aze developed between surface and tyes. Recommended remedies © Cold mill and resurface with standard bituminous wearing course or textured wearing couse i high skidding resistence MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Cade - PO. © Wearing course deterioration (x) Ravelling (amines) Description Progressive disintegration of the pavement surface by oss of both binder and aggregates Plates 57, $8 & $9 Attributes © Area affected (mi?) Possible causes * Separation of bituminous flim — fiom auureyates (sipping) due to water action, chemicals (including hydrocarbon oils) or mechanical forces © Disintegration of aggregates © Poor construction (segregation, faulty mix design, overheating of mix, bad compaction, inadequate coating of aggregates’ or aggregates badly embedded) Recommended remedies © Cold mill and resurfee MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code - RW (wieracks) * Defect Code - RV (wo cracks) © Weating course deterioration (m) Delamination Description Loss of discrete and large area of the Wearing course layer. Usually there is a clear delineation ofthe wearing course and the layer below - Plate 60 (synonym - peeling) Attributes © Thickness of ayer(s) removed (mm) © Area (ypial) of unividua Joes (m7) © Number of defects Possible causes © Inadequite cleaning or inadequate tack cbat before placement of upper layers ® Seepage of water through cracks to break ‘ond between surface and lower layers © Insufficient thickness oF stubiliy of wearing © Full dumage of surface kyer © Patching ove failed pavement Recommended remedies © Patch afer squaring defective aren ® Cold mill and resurface MARCH Field assessment reference * Wearing course deterioration ("9 Wt Potholes {Simos Description Imvegulrly shaped holes of various sizes inthe paventcnt - Paces 61 & 62 Attributes BE vepicrpates nm ® Arca of pothole (wm) | Possible causes © Developing from another defeet such as too thin a surfacing layer, too many fines et t resulting in disintegration with removal of material by waffic over weakened spots con the surface UF _ © vost ea to ase course trough « ‘racked pavement surface kK Recommended remedies © Temporary repair involves cleaning the hole [Ee iting rth eter te cat at or bituinows vewring core etal + romana ty ig | ae ee Bf sisncu rt assent tense Se aera oy wets sou Sorenson) Patol xed in depth below he wring Da eo or tciorion tm ' © Defect Code PHL Kerb Defects Description Misalignment, dislocation, subsidence or any other types of damage of kerb stones ~ Plates O&O Attributes © Length of kerb affected (em) = Difference in. elevation (mm) between subsided Kerb and adjoining footway Possible enuses © Poor sub-basesubgrade support © adequate side support ® Settlement of service trenches fed remedies Reco © Relay or replace kerb MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code - KB © Kerb deterioration (m) 14 Frrreerererrrrraaiiin Blockwork Defects Deseription Dislocation, subsidence, tilting, cracking or missing of paving blocks (defects on a larger seale should be recorded under Cracking Depression, or Uneven Surface where appropriate) - Plates 65 1068 Attributes © rea affected () Possible causes © Loss of sub-base suppor © Settlement of servies wenches Consolidation of isolated areas of soft or poorly compacted subgrade or tmibankment materials Recommended remedies © Remove blocks adjpining the hole, excavate ‘ally down into fill poorly compacted subgride, replace with new compacted fil, and relay Blocks MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Code - BD © Major footway deterioration (a) Cracking Desription Interconnected or isolated cracks of any shape = Plates 69 & 70 Attributes © Predominant erack width (mm) © ren affected im) Possible causes © nsuficiont slab thickness © Serlement of sub-base or subgrade © Vehicle damage Recommended remedies © Narrow cracks and medium cracks in all slabs will need to be sealed © Wide cracks will necessitate cither a bay replacement repair o a fll depth repair MARCI Field assessment reference © Defoot Code - CK © Major Footway deterioration (n?) Depression (Footy) Description Localised area with elevations lower than the surrounding area Plates 71 & 72 Aributes © Maximum depth under 1.2 m straightedge (om) © Area of depression (mi) Possible cnuses © Logs of sub-base support © Settlement of service trenches © Consolidation of isolated areas of sof or poorly compacted subgrade or ‘embankment materials © Vehicle damage © Excite Josally down into fill * poorly ‘compacted subgrade and replace) with fnew compacted fill, ropace pavement layer or relay blocks © patching MARCH Field assessment reference © Desfest Cade - DP © Minor footway deterioration (7?) Ravelling Foamy) Description Promestvedsmepnion of mace fit os of mar (inde then loss of apaeBns = Phe Auibutes © Area affected (om) Possible causes © Overworking of the surface Poor quality concrete Inadequate curing of concrete Local cement deficiency bituminous paving, refer to Raveling (Bituminous) on page 36 during Recommended remedies © Reconstruct paving [MARCH Field assessment reference © Defect Cade - RY © Minor fuoivay deterioration (rm?) Uneven Surface Description Unevenness oF ups and downs of the footway Attributes © ea of footway affected (x) Possible causes © Abrasion and polished aggregate © Incorrect selection of aggregates ® Poor constuction finishing © Lowstrength mortar wom from surface by wrattie Recommended remedies © Reconstruct paving MARCH Field nssessment reference ® Defeet Code - UN © Minor footvay deterioration (m’) 8 QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES ON ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION The allowing are considerations in andar that an asphalt pavement can perform sasfatory ‘A. Design of Asphalt Mx ‘= The proportioning of aggregate and anak shou De based on adoro tn rises A Job-mix formuin should be set and stray flowed na batens of the asphalt x + The formula shoul ince provisions on ‘Grading of aogregetee temperature of agorepate ana asphat *_ parcontage of asphalt 1 temperate of mature atthe time of compaction 8. Quoity cont of Materials + Aggregates shouldbe tha highest qualiy availabe as thay constitu abut 6 percent ofthe mix + Thay shouldbe hard, durable and nol war prefrontal 1 ltnacessary, en adoive shouldbe ebisnod fox bor bond between agp nd aggregate * Crushed aggregates ae bate than an ordinary gravel and sand + Bituminous mais used as Linder should swlsfactory pase the speed caqucements pir 1 Incorporatien in mo design ©. Foundeton Control ‘The slabity of eny engrneering structure is stiongly dependant on is foundabon. In an asp avemont whose thickness 1 colatvely ha, (usually 4 to 6 wneres), ts song Y= pray “dependent onthe founcation. Thorafora, ts npetant the! we Basa enor sub Dave should rot have only sufcent hicknoss but should also be properly constucted to alan high sabhty D. Drainage Conta Drainage Is cstical item in asphalt pavement than in PCCP. An asphalt mixture which hae Boon submerged under water, although compacted to ha roquired degree of compan can love om {50 t0 76 percent ofits dry stength, An eephalt motu in order to ba aceeplabo should not lose ‘more than 25 percent of is dry stengin when subjected a the standard inmersion-compressin teat The presence of water within the pavement and is surouncngs ts one of tho causes in the ‘ccurence of defects inte pavement, bocause Surface drainage systom i important 1 prevent intusion of watar into the pavement since {8085 water softens the asofsu base course including the sub rade * Tho underground srainogesysiom is ikewise important to preven he inruson of watr from cuits of he road + Slope drainage system is also imports to protec the sop fom erosion + Periodical patio for inspection of aainage functon is necessary mn order to moniter ond ‘maintain me existing drainage facies, E Constucton Control ‘+ Aschelt work should be done only infer and sunny wasthar ‘+ Asphalt mix should bo spread unfariy ona dy base which has been primed or tacked coated. Should got be soead on a damp bass or actly on standing water + Attno time of compacton, the trperatue af tne mature shad be in accodance withthe jo ‘mix formula, *+ The cogroe of compaction should be checked by conducting the field density test ater ‘compaction. Refing shal continua Uni the requeed dana alae, + Prime coating of ta base and seat ceasing of i finshed aaphal pavement ere necessary recedes n espa fad consttucion and shou never be omitod 119 MARSHALL MIX DESIGN CRITERIA | ~isavy Tate ‘Surface & E200 Marshall Method (eats erm aha Pars V0 Fe 9 Rsghal WER) ——~ Notes “All ntena. ck jus stabity valuo lone, must be considered in designing an aaprat paving mic. Hot mix ‘sepha Bases that do not eet toe cron whan last at 60°C (140 "F) esata Hf hey meet Pm tong when tested af 38°C (100'F) and ar placed 100 me (4 mchos) or more bsow to surface. This recommendaton apples ony fo rogons having a range of camatic condone seni ta those prevain) ‘rrouphout most ct the United ial. A cen lowor fost tomparature may be consered in pions having more exreme elmabe condor. 2, rate dlasticatone Ugh “Trac enatons fesuting in a Design EAL ‘sknbutor should have ahaaing devo which wil ol ovetoa the arrows mails ond sould be slot ary hm pray wid fem 100 m0 4m 3 Appicaoan efor th epplcaton of prime coat the fl with ot the surtac shou bo dean fom dit and ober tjectonable materi and hoxkd be sight) sprayed wi wat ut na satura, whe required ‘The btumnous matetais shoud be appa by s pressure sirbulor at speci tompralu ne at len eppieaten ret ranging tom to 2 Karseg “Te prime coat should not be disturbed frat aast 24 hous and should rot be opened io wae unt ated an cured sufsoiy, "Areas not aocessbie toe stile shouldbe sprayed manualy has po ‘Medod of easuremont and Payment: !Bursnous prime coat shal be meesured by te tne and rayment shal be ful compancaton for fuiching fans placing al materi, aber, eaubment, fois a icomale naoaesary compte ys em 120 ITEM 302. Bituminous Tack Coat This the preparation and weatment of and btunsoous or cement concrete surface wth bituminous matali reparation forthe construction of a burinous euaco cout m aecordance apa Spoccatons ‘Mates Reguiroment ‘The btunieous rata should ether be: 12 Raped Cunng (RC) CucboekAschalt ‘Tris is asphat coment wh low boling pert pevelaan Gt such as gasolna or naps > smultieg Asphalt Tai gcollidalapersion of asphat in wator Fis choclate colored beore use end uns lack whan the amon te broken Construction Requirements: 1" Sutoea Cancion ‘Guninovs Tack Coat shoul! be apphod ont to surace, whlch are ary or Sly mo. should not bbe aopied wren the woathor is foggy or rany 2, Equpment ‘The lack coat shouldbe sprayed by a pressure ditt of notes than C00 ers capacity mounted on ‘eumatic tres which produevs a load of not more ti N (100 Kg) per cenimotor wih of We. The rosaure ditiouor shoud Rave a heating dovce whch wil nt overeat the Blumnaus malas ad hull be oe fo vary te spray wt Rom 100 mo 4m 3. Appleaten’ Before the aplicaton of prime coat, the fl with of ho suriace should be lean fom diet and other cbjeevonable acs and shuld be sigh sprayod wi Water bu not Strata, wen rogue ‘Tho bturinous mate 3 shoud be appted by a proses dnb at spaciid temperature and at fan eppcaion ate ranging rm #1 2 Roraea Mm, ‘The prime coat seus net be disturbed To fi asst 24 hows and should rot be opened o Wale antl nas pana and cured suelo ‘reas net accessible ot dito or shoul! be sprayed manu ‘The sxplcation ata should bo witin 0.29 07 Wevea\m. an tat katie shovkd be Kept of the tack coat at an emes. Method of Measurement: Biuminous pra cost shat ba maasured by the lon and payment shat be ful compensaton for ‘umshing a placing all malas, labor, equipment, ols ars nce ecesry to complet ten TEM 310 Bituminous Concrete Sutece Course, Hot Lal Thos consists of consructog a Piuminaus Concrete Surisce Course composed of aguegates, mineral ter lind baumiceus metona! med in & Genital pla, Cons an a Nat on proparot base Mn Besordance ‘wih pans and spoctenions Materials Roquionions slob Formula ‘The biturncus micure shat be composed of bw folowing. 2 Aggregates © hysrates ime D minal far 4 baumincus mateo! ‘At eas nee wesks price to production, tho convact i requred o submit he folowing for ach proposed mature 5. debe formal sampes anu soees of components 5. Labora test ate 4 viscontylomperatiorlaborsnge “Te ob. torn shout contin he flowing fern, ‘erconiage of eoaregates passing cach specie save Derooniage of etme mara aba azded Selvery teriperature of mixture ‘ens ona porcentage ot acevo 1 bo used kind and percantage of rineral arto be used am Surtace Tolerances A. 3.m staight edge wil be used fo check the pavernent surace al sits selected by the Engng, wil be sppild a tangas, a well ag pote to ie center offs roadbed The variation of te ertace from the testing edge of ho sagt edge betwen ary wo conacts wih he suacs Sha ol ex200g 6 Nm. Sustace tests wi be mada imately ler ine! compactoo and any vations detect shal be coractoa by removing or ating maton, 22 may be necaseay, Rolin anal tien be conned 8 space’ ‘Ano tral ling. smoothnots of tho course shel bo cached agan and any see deectva m tecture or composition shal be corected, inéuding removal snd replacement of unsatsfector material st conacors expance ‘Method of Mesaurement and Basis of Payment Biumeous mires are measured and pid by ones. Computsons of payment sha be based on te ineiness ond constes of cores taken and fhe pavements wth and lngin represented by Ne ore tinermse, cre saps shal be taken om tbe comets pevrnan or every 100 LM pa lao to dato tne soresponcing inickness and donates forthe compxtaton of weg tones. The once and payment shal te fil sompansston for fmishng materials, handing, ming. haug, plaeg, ring compacting, labor. ‘pment tools and ineasntals necessary to compet histor ‘Spreading and Finishing “The biumnous mx sha be spread and Shuck off no grado and elvalon estolshed it sha Do lsiibuted by bturanous pavers over he ara wah of prackcable part width The iongiudeal ant the top ayer, when shat oft fo under ayer by apprcximally 15 cr (ncn), shouldbe the Centar of to paver "lacing and frshing by hand woos ae alowed on ataas where (regular anc unavoxablecbstaios ‘exst Placing trparatire forthe mixes not be los han 107°C (225°), messed in the uk peo ‘umpng Sompaction ‘The mature should be thoroughly compacied by @ ler ienedily ater me mists has boon spread, stuckof and irogulantos adsted ‘ne surtace should be rolled when the midure si proper condition and wien the roling does not cause undorapacarren racking an shoving. Phases of Rating: 4) Breakavem Roling ~ cared ou by soo! whose 2 _Inlarmediate Roling ~ eamad au by praumat ler 3. Final Raling ~taromove to rake ado byte ote oles sd te mi tb 200-225 °F Roling shou begin at me das ne procao ongtnaly Soware the rad cenerina, each sip verapping ‘en. Fal ne Tolar with, graualy progressing ia fw cio ft toad Rowe shoud conte un make ‘eumnatd. a minimus density of 80 mass Sof na wiareten| maximum dansty maaan bs preporions ofS Jom fonna has en obtained Compaction with the uso fot hand lampers smoothing Kons of madiancal tampa wi ba atowod along forms, Cubs, headers, wails ana omer places not accersle othe roles oints ‘Transvers joints sa be forma by cutting back on tho provious can 6 expose tho fu dept of the course. A ‘rush eoa! of burinous meleral shal be used On conlacl surfaces Of Uansverse jms Defoe addtional rials place gant bo previously rood mates, Hydrated Lime Typa N or S should bo used for tho ilo requromgat to barns pat me range pavements wi grater rositanos tha cement atactso Water CChemnical Requirements for Hydrated Lime shoud content the following standars chemical require Cataum ang agnosi Onces 50m “Wonsatie bass min % bucause iw expected to 1a Carbon Dono (ut recived basis maxi W samplos tak at th place of Manutoctre 5% I samp taken at ho place 7% LUnnyecatd ones (a8 recowed basis) oe Type 8. max 5 om Physical Requirement for Hydrated Lime as Reskue etaind on 80 600 mm (No. 20) seve shal no be mor han 05796 reusinadon @ 0075 mm (Ne. 200) sieve shat net be more tan 15% > Pletony Paty rom Type S, Special Hysrat shall avo a plasty four of not less than 200 whan tsted ‘wh 30 minutes eer mang wih wee Grading coqurement fr Hyated Line Sieve Designation Samm US, twas % Passing ‘0880 No.20 100 07s No.200 95100 Micture Proportion Biumnovs matersis shoud be tom 6.0 to 8.0 mass parent ofthe lla dy aggregate. The exact Percentage fo be used shal be fed by the Engnoar in accordance wih the j-mia forma and ober culty onto requrements yore lime to be added fo the mixure dung tbe mixing operation shoud be 0. to 1.0 mess poroant of wry Bggregate bes’. The tower parcanage Int In oppeeabia to predominant caicareous oregates ‘Sampling for Hydet ‘Samples shal be taken at we pace of maniac Gat tw dastnuton woreod by Canceed pares amples shal be taken wun 24 hes ofthe roves of ee mate when taken cher than th place of mantae, I should be conducted quick 1o avid undue exposure of mstoal t ar Samples should not be akon rom broken packages ‘A Teast ona ofthe packages shall ba sampled and st leat 5 packagos shot bo sampod. Inavicuat packages shoul be taken fem venous parts of the un Boing sampled. A sampling ube soul be Used 1 ‘obtain a bast 0. kg. fem each package. The matoal obtanod sal be MorugPly mrs 9nd quarered ‘rao amples of vt lesen 28 hg, Each lb otn ans sealed erty ble or Lime Construction Requirements Burinous Pant mix shal tbe paead en wot surace. or whan weather conden would proven he proper randing or trashing of te Benin atures, Conssuction Equipment 1 Brursnaus Meng Plant 2. Hauing equpment 3 Blumnous Pavers 3 Rowe [Conattioning the Existing Surface Sele placing the biuminous mature, te exsing suraoe shal be cleaned of Wose or doltercus ‘atari and srtaces such as cubs, gully, manholes ard chor sutures shal bo parted wih Ev, unr ‘oan of rurinovs maton 424 = . ‘ASPHALT MIX DESIGN (JOB-MIK FORMULA) jective ‘To determine an econknical blend of tw graced aggregates and asphalt Nat wil produce an asp mixin oder to moet Ine desred properties and quls of btumaus mb 4 I¢shoulshave suticsn!asphatio ensure a curable pavement 2 eould have sufficntstbiy fo salty the deriands oF trae witout dplocement 3. it sheukd ave sficant vod te Tal compacted mx 10 iow & sgh amount fo atonal compaction Ue ea 4H ahoukd Mae suficent work fo emi eficiot placament of mix without sepraguton. ai oO med Sn [AIR VOIDS - smal or spacas that oeaurBokawan hw coated aggrepal partes i a compected mix VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATE (VHA) ~ spacos that st totwaon the aggregate paces in compacted mix sing epacos log wah asphalt DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS PAVING MIXTURES ‘Wob Mix Formula) ‘he job mix formula fosused! in me Ealocton of matonas wi proscbes properties, stbity and dura ofthe ‘tiaoe coures and eaea nthe mbang, spreading. corescton and fishing, Itinvaves te folowing saps: 3 Selection at quay of aggregates * shape 4 face tone + preferential wotieg charactonstes 2. Seiseton of gradation of aggragatos = workablty of mi oniousness and surface texte of paraent 1 Sveral economy ‘3 Selecen of ype and grade of brumnous binds * workablty 1 Spa cenaaecatens + gyavaven of oagregais 4 Detctnaton ofthe eoneet amount of Bumina’® Bir by ksishalor nmin ~ Compression Tas EXAMPLE (ob mix Feemula) AGGREGATE GRADATION . Siove Stes © Porcant Pasting 19.00 mn (a) 100 1250 mm uz} ss 850 mm (ue 6 475 mma 4) a 2:35 mm ts 8) 2 138 mn to 1) 2» 0.600 mm (630), 0 ‘9.300.mm (#50) ia (0350.mm (100) 7 (0075 mm (7200) 5 Asp Contant By woightofmsc % 6.420. Torrance: (9H) 004 woo% Temperature of Mix 50°C (906*F) (41) 16°C @5"F) ‘SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF MATERIALS: 381m, max, size agregates, App (8SG} = 2789 OSimm max. size aggregator 27 Minorl sana (dy 8-1) = 2h CComposta Aggregnis | Computed specie graviy 2789 Etouive spect gy, 204 ‘Asphat Coment 1020 PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION MATERIALS: 19mm. max sze spgregaies 2000 951mm max. size sogregnes 2558 inert sara (ery $1) ae28 ‘Asphalt Comant baa so000 TEST PROPERTIES OF mix (Marchal ethos - M92) Rost Sait, pounds 2,980 Frow, 0.01 nah unt th30 oid in txt ma 570 Vode mera 899% 1820 SOURCES OF MATERIALS 3mm. max. size aggrogotes ‘Angono, fz 51mm max sizesopregeios | Angono. Rizal Moeral and (ry 8 2 ngeno, ia ‘Asphalt Conant hit Pevoloum Cor. Toleranon war far br G4 Gia (4 Gia G4 12 ‘Specitestons 1.800 min Zoomer s0-70 140 mn 128 BEBE EBB RR EB EBUBEEBBHRE BES DESIGN CRITERI FR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE (ASPHALT INSTITUTE, 1992) z 1G | uae MEDIUM | ‘STABILITY (kN) 33 a ) en AND DESIGN AIR VOIDS MAX. STONE SIZE (mm) 95 125 19 26 975 50 DESION ARVOMS'S)! 4 4 a dg) MINIMUM WMA (%) 4 1 1 1 10s Detoxmation The specimens are tex 2d for stability and flow at 60°C as sf cilied in the standard procedure 2b 4JOBMDX FORMULA BY MARSHALL STABILITY METHOD won So: ea ropoue «258 ‘Regd. Ph the COMk Ae Vos Sabi Fw [Comput the average Asha Content Hosting Tomperauce Aga etng Topo apnat Cert Meg ene omnes Iota Heeing Teme. PROCEDURES: 1 Math te Composta Appagte ls conegondg Aspe Contant "alin Aophat Cr aha Gomonte Sauget, [it tbe Asphint Cort an Compose Aapegsss ut tne motu rete mad anata Totes rsd ike 1 tr Gora na mute Ts blown ve especie Esra! he spc an tow teatro oa on Mesure hw ovetye aight of spocmen ‘Weigh he apecmen'n awa. Let Specter ssomarge mateo mines 10 Woe te specimen win eth and wagh (680) 11, more hespecmenin wat bah e500 ie 150°C 12 Gate specran ton he water at weigh seg. at ne mle using te span 75 thows ‘COMMON ABUSES IN ASPHALT vemaating of Asphat + excess temperate of only 90 degraes Calas wi cause tne ae of hardening to reas by gh (®) Using the wang type of Aspe {Stow sang typeof enti otal cost sing ncomect amount apa + Wasehat Peder dee te aggregate wi be dialogs by uate 1 _lihere ia an excess of asphalt ier he mre wil bacome st an bleed under ate improper Carson Pcie + Asal ding intent weater ‘eslecing compaction Aspnalig bal drnad road eecon Neplocin ne underng pat fered [COMMON PROBLEMS IN ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION & THEIR REMEDIES Lo Sonne |: SSE enn i [a F [im aes Shy t Lage iapartestopsthr win crocs | a al | Raton Capes at — ras ‘Seam Refs han end fara noone oeeeaee con racney | Eee ee sarees Sd Sonne 9 Rag | Sign suensone festa son) | Fig Ours fonenons Shooter Cee Sbsiece Save a Sumer Panag | Stace ening {oca seing | fiteen ewe IBLE teseescoes Cracks ne parent se | {eat Soateg | | rsing cate wememing | _” Sarac 120 BRRERRERERETEEEETEEEsE PPPerrrreee Phen ASPHALT TECHNOLOGY ASPHALT ~is brown to black cementitous materials solid or semisolid in ‘consistency in which the predominant constituent are bitumen which are found in nature oras residue in petroleum retining Two main components of Asphalt 1 _Asphaltene which gives color and hardness 2 TMakene which is composed of Resin ~ provides stickiness (adhesiveness) influences viscosity of asphalt & impart softness and grade of asphalt: All asphalt used in road construction is called Asphalt Cement, which is highly viscous and sticky material Paving asphalts are classified into Asphalt Cement « Penetration yraue asphal/tot Asphalt 60/70 - for hot cegion s/o ~ 2. Liquid Asphalt a) Cutback Asphalt asphalt cement + solvent Rapid curing - AC+ Gasoline * Medium curing - AC+ Kerosene Slow curing - AC + Oi ified Asphalt - AC + _wate + Anionic ~ negative char + Cationie ~ positive charge b) Eimu * emulstier Kinds of Asphalt 1 Natural Asphalt 4) lake asphalt b.) rock asphalt “Manufactured or petroleum asphalt 4) Asphalt cement b,) Oxidized asphalt Uses of Asphalt: 1 Binder 5. Prime coat 2. Water proofing materials 6. “Tack coat 3, Joint and crack filler 7. Undersealing PCCP 4 Roofing B Pipe coating Vhysical Properties of Asphalt: Consisteney - ranges fom very thin lig “dto sf semi-solid state v8 2 ‘Temp, Susceptibility Physical Test of Aspha 1 all asphalts are thermoplastic that is they become harder as their temperature decreases and softer as their temperature deccases and sofler as ther temperatute increases, Adhesion ____- is the ability of asphalt to stick to the aygregae inthe paving mixtire Cohesion _- is the asphalt’ abi rly in place i the finished pavement ate particles Durability __ = itis the resistance of asphalt to change in properties due to weathering or aging which involves chemical and physical reaction called oxidation Hardening - Asphalt tends to harden ithe paving mixture during ‘construsiion which occurs when heated to high temperature Consistency Test 1.) Viscosity Test_ - measures the resistance to low of asphalt ) Penstration Test measures the distance that a standard will penetrate sample at a given tomperature in a specified time 2. Temperature Susceptibility Test Softening Point Test_ = indicates the temperature at which the harder {ype asphalt each an arbitrary deyree of softening. 3 Lense on Heating = it determines the rate of loss of volatile oil ‘of asphalt when heated and change in pPenctration caused by exvessive heating 4 __Duetitity Test + measures the ability ofthe asphalt to stretch without breaking 3 Elash Point + indicates the safe heating temperature of asphalt 6. Soceifie grav + indicates the uniformity of product 7 ‘Spot Test > detemmines if asphalt is overheated during production 8 Solubility Test__- determines the bitumen content in asphalt that is soluble in petroleum solvent 8 atillstion Test determines the asphalt content of liquid asphalt 10. "Sieve Test + determine the presence of larger globules of asphalt inthe emulsion u cement mixing _ determine the resistance of emulsion to breakdown €on the job It indicates the rate at which the ‘emulsion will break when mixed with augregates Storage Stability - ects the tendency of the asphalt po emulsion to settle during storage 130 BITUMINOUS MIX COMPOSITION L. Agutegate - 92-95% ‘a Coarse - retain on sieve No, 8. b Fine = Passing No.8 Retain On sieve No, 200. ‘© Minera Filler ~ Passing sieve No, 200 _ 1. Produces density, impermeability and stability 2. Sxtends the life ofthe bitumen + retarding weathering = resisting action of water Important Properties of Aggregates 1 Strength 2 Panicle shape 3. Surlace texture 4 Absorption and Specific gravity 6 7 Gradation Cleanliness Atfinity for asphalt ASPHALT - 50-80%. ‘a grade of Asphalt Quanity inthe mix MIX PROPERTIES | _Stabiisy ability to resist deformation from imposed loa Fotis cane sahil ice rare = gradu gun pe of eh particle shape thom 2 Durability “~~ ability tothe detrimental effects of air, water, temperature and traffic ctr afc cab ‘pha conten homey srairun 3, _Blestbiey “= ability to bend slighty without eruekling and to conform to gradual seitlements und movements ofthe base and subgrade ars aecung esti ough cpl comment + gration fp raked 4. Fatigue Resistance ability to withstand repeated flexiny caused by the passage of whee! loads, actors actin age resiaance asphalt content= gradaon 5. Skid Resistance ability to offer resistance to slipping or skidding when mix Fotos ofecimg id reste tenure of egrets + proper apa coment 6, __Workability —"- case with which paving mixture maybe placed and compacted Factors afecig workability * gradinon + proper of grees 131 ‘TEST ON BITUMINOUS MIXES 1. _Estenetion Tes + to determine the amount of asphalt present im the mix 2 [Grading Test + determine ifthe grading of the mix cuntorms with the job mix formula/specifications 3. Immersion-Compression - to determine the effect of water on the cohesion ofthe mix Core Samples 1 Thickness 2 Density DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS PAVING MIXTURE (Job Mix Formula) PROCEDURE Select the grade of Asphalt & Aggregates to be used. Never mix crushed and sounded ‘zgregate in your design. Select the agprepate gradation Determine the blending proportion of agereyates o produce the design grading Detetmine the Specific Gravity of combined ageregates and of the asphalt ement ‘Make trial mixes with varying asphalt content Determine the Specific Gravity ofthe compactéd specimens Determine stability ofthe mixes Calculate the % Ait Voids, VMA and % voids filed with esphalt Select the optimum Asphalt Content from the dats obtained, 2 4 6 1 8 QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES to be followed in order to expect satisttctory performance of asphalt pavement. 1. Selection of materials 2 Design of Mixture \ Aggregate Production Contr 4 Asphalt Mix Production Control 5. Sampling and Testing of Mixes © Construction Control 7 Foundation Contral 8 Drainage Control TEMIERATURE EMPLOYED IN THE DESIGN Aggregates +177 = 198 Asphalt Cement 121 - 138 Mixing Temp, 163°¢ Molding Temp. = = 134°C For - 10°C Steps in Pavement Construction |. Preparation of existing surface 4. Hauling 7-Compaction of Mixture 2. Prime Tack coat Application 5. Inspection of the Mix 3. Preparation of the Asphalt Mix” 6. Placing ofthe Mix 132 ‘Major Causes of Failure in Asphalt Construction 1 Inadequate thickness of base andior subbase course 2 Inadequate design of asphalt mixture 3. Poor quality of materials 4 Poor Consiruction Constrol 'a. Hot mix is cold during compaction bb Iadequate compaction of structurl layers ¢. Inadequate drainage THREE PHASES OF ROLLING 1. Break -Dowa Rolling - Compact the sphalt tothe desired density ‘Temperature of the mix isthe east dependable guide for breakdown rollin, Mix should be 200-225 °F. Steel wheeled role 2. Intermediate ~ densifies nd seals the surface Pacumatic 3. Final | removes roller marks and other blemishes let from previous rolling. Most effective when pavement fs warm bout not hot (160°F 72°C) Rolling should begin a the sides and proceed longitudinally yoward the fuad centing, eae) ip eertaping one-half the roller width, yradually progressing to the crown of {he fut Rolling should continue until marks aze eliminated, a minimum density of 9S muss 96 0° the ranmed Jat maximum density made in the proportions of the job-mix Formula has been omitted Prime Cout-—Cutback Asphalt = 10-20 mt Tack Coat-Emvulsitied Asphalt = 2 = 0.7 Lam Seal Coat ~ Asphalt Cement 2 09 Noe Cutback Asphalt LS = 3.0Ldm Cover Agents = = S > 14 kg/m SUREACE COURSES ITEM 301 = Bit, Prime cont 302 - Bit. Taet 303 Bit. Seal coat 304 Bit, Surface trentmen 305 — Bit, Penetration — Macadau treutment 306 Bit Roadmix surface course 307 Bit. Plant-mis surfuce course — 6 308 Bit. Plantcmix surface enwrse —cold- mix 309 — Bit, Plantemix (stockpile maintenance minturs) 310 Bit. Concrete surface course, Hot Laid 311 - PCCP Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 13 Weeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee Mininwuin Testing Requirements: ITEM 310 - Bit, Concrete surface course, Hot Laid 2) Aggregates ‘Tests: for every 75 m3/200 «of fraction 1-G &P, Grading and Plasticity Tests ) Bituminous Materials Quuntity: 5.010 8.0 mass% of total dry aggregate Test: 1-Q, Quality est for gach 40 ¢ oF 200 drums ©) Mix ‘Tests; For every 75 m3/130 tor faction therof; 1-Grading, Extraction, Stsbility, Lab, Compaction 4) Hydrated Lime ‘Tests: For every 100 or fraction thereof: 1-Quality ) Mineral Filler For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof: 1-Grading, Plasticity £) Compacted Pavement Tests: For each full day's operation DAT (Density and Thickness Tests) — at least one (1) but ‘not more than three (3) samples shall be taken, Caleulation in Bitumen Content ‘eby mass of Aggregates Ori, Wt 850 grams % Bitumen Content = W1-W? x 100 Alter ext. 812.6 grums W2 % As Content ‘WI ~ muss ofthe test portion (sample) ‘W2~ mass of sample after extraction 16 ‘Thickness or Height Determination of Compacted Bituminous Paving Mixture ‘Apparatus: Vernier Caliper Procedure: 4. Using the caliper, measure the thickness of the specimen or layer to the nearest 0. 106m. 2, Make four measurements at approximately quarter points on the Periphery ofthe core. 3. Record the average of these measurements asthe thickness of the specimen, Thickness, (average) = 1 +i2+194t4 = om. 4 AASHTO T 166 ‘Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens. ‘Scope: This may be used in calculating the unit weight of the midure and the degree of compaction of the pavernent. Apparatus: 11, Balance, equipped with a suitable suspension apparatus (wie basket) ‘and holder to permit weighing the specimen while suspended from the center ofthe scale pan of the balance. 2. Water bath, for immersing the specimen while suspended under the balance. Procedure: 1. Weigh the specimen in ar. Designate this weight as “A”. 2. Immerse the specimen in water bath at 25°C for 3 to 5 minutes and then weigh in water. Designate this weight as “C~ 3 Surlace dry the specimen by bloting wih a damp towelicioth and then Weigh in ar. Designate this weight a5 °B" CALCULATION: a Bulk Specie Gravity, Gmb = ~~ B-c ‘mass of the dry specimen in ait, in grams ‘mass of the saturated surtace-dry specimen in air n grams mags of the specimen in water, in grams 135 RE PEE Pee RPP RRR eRe Ree ML QUANITITATIVE EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN (EXTRACTION TEST) Significance This test covers the quantitative determination of bitumen in hot-mixed ‘paving mintures and pavement samples for speciieation acceptance, service ‘evaluation, contol and research Apparatus Extraction apparatus 1 2. Oven, capable of maintaining the temperature at 110 + 6°. 3. Pan, flat, pf appropriate size to warmiheat the test specimen 4° Bolance shail be provided as appropriate for the sample mass, 5. Gradusted cyinderrbeaker 6, iter rings - ofthe rim ofthe bow Procedure: 1. Place the sample in a pan and warmneat to 110 +5°C unit can be handled or mixed 2, Weigh an 850.0 grams representative mixed sample. 3. Place the sample in the bow! and cover with the solvent (gasoline). Weigh the fiter ring and fit it around the edge of the bow, Clamp the Cover on the bow tightly and place containerfoeaker under the grain to collect the solvent, 4. Stat the ceninfuge revolving stowly and gradually increase the speed {0 a maximum of 3,600 RPM untl the solvent coases to flow trom the drain, Alow the machine to stop, add 200 mi, (or more as appropriate for mass of sample) solvent and repeat the procadure atleast tivee times, 5. After completion ofthe process, transfor the aggregates from the bow! fa the pan and dry to constant mass together withthe liter ring in an coven at 110 45°C 6. cool te aggregates and the fiter ing and weigh Caleulation Bitumen content % = W,_(W. W) 1n0 (yma fy ero Ww Where wi ‘mass of sample, in grams we ‘mass of extracted aygragates, in grams WS = inerease in mass of itr tng, in grams a6