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Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

Submitted to:

Dr. Lubos Hes


Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Mangat


Dec 21, 2009


Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

Heat is delineate as energy in thermodynamics and think over in a transitional stage between system
and the surrounding. Every substance has thermal energy, which is equal to the total of kinetic
energy (transitional, rotational or vibration of the particles), potential energy ( associated with
vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules or crystal, and energy exist in chemical
bonds and free energy of conduction electrons in metal and temperature is average kinetic energy
of a substance. It is pertinent to note that thermal energy is not the entire energy of the system,
rather it is a part of internal energy of a system. Apparently heat and thermal energy looks same by
keeping its qualitative nature but they are never identical in quantitative terms. Thermal energy can
be enhanced by applying other means, e.g. severe agitation can increase the thermal energy of a
system (Leland, 2009). More explicitly, we can express heat is an energy which is colligate with the
movement of atoms or molecules. Furthermore, these molecules and atoms should have the quality
and power to transmit through solid and fluid media by conduction, through fluid media by
convection, and through empty space by radiation. In addition, heat is a thermal energy and it is
transferred from one body to other or it can be used to perform a work. Thermal energy, which is
loosely defined as energy of a body increases with the increase in temperature. People also prefer to
call heat is as energy of a body (Mooney, 1955).

Heat can be jumbled with temperature in daily life. Notwithstanding, that these two words are
interchangeable. Fact is that there is a clear and distinct and diverse variation between these two.
Heat is the energy which an element possess and by instinct will take or give energy from
surroundings to achieve an equilibrium with the surroundings. It is denoted by Q and its measuring
unit in SI system is Joule. Whereas, temperature is represent level of heat which an element posses
and it is a relative term. The concept of temperature comes from a cold or hotter object.
Temperature is used to quantify the level of hotness or level of hotness of any material. What is
more, heat flows from a hotter body to a less hotter body, when both bodies are kept isolated from
any third body (Mooney, 1955). We can notice and estimate from the temperature about condition

of a surface; cool or hot. For temperature, symbol is T is used and units are Celsius, Fahrenheit and

Finally it can be said that the term “heat” is a name fixed for the particular form of
energy crossing the boundary. Nevertheless it is more commonly referred as heat transfer, when we
are taking about thermodynamics. It is used to describe the consistent ability of heat to alter the
energy level of a system (NA, 2007). Finally we conclude that heat is a form of energy and it
transfer due to the gradient in temperature between one element and its surroundings. Heat is
macroscopic property of an object and temperature is a quantitative description and measure of
hotness or coldness of a system and it is a measure of energy which an object posses.

Definition of Heat
James Clerk Maxwell is the first Scottish physicist, who defined heat in a comprehensive way in
his Theory of Heat. Maxwell defined four different aspects of heat:

1. Something which is transferable

2. It is measurable

3. It cannot be treated as a substance

4. It is one form of the energy.

In modern science there is a more clarity about heat and is defined more explicitly. After having a
literature survey, we can put our findings in the following way:

1. Heat is never considered as being stored in a body, rather it exist only in transit from one body
to other body.

2. It is treated as noun during the heat transfer flow

3. It is defined as any spontaneous flow of energy, from one body to other due to temperature

4. As energy is transient from high temperature to low temperature


5. It is an interaction between two closed system without exchange of work.

Kern (1950) describes that the science of thermodynamics deals with the quantitative transmission
and rearrangement of energy as heat in bodies of matter. This definition clarifies the whole process
in a precise way. In this definition , the word “rearrangement” explains many things. The main
difference in work and heat is that in case of work there is a no transfer of mass and work is done
not due to the temperature gradient (Siegel and Howell, 2002).

Heat Measurement and Units of Heat

Temperature of any body is the average of kinetic energy of the molecules present in a substance. It
is measured in Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin degree. It does not recount the total heat available in
the substance. However, from temperature we understand and observe the direction of heat flow
since it is incessantly heat flows from a higher to lower temperature. Nevertheless we use heat
units. These units are measured keeping in view the property of heat. As said heat flows from higher
temperature to lower temperature. Considering this characteristics, there are two common units are
uses; British Thermal Unit (BTU) and Calorie. BTU is defined the amount of heat required to raise
temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Whereas, calorie is amount of heat
required to raise temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius (Mooney, 1955).

BTU is a unit which is used since a long time but currently it is being replaced by SI unit of heat;
joule. One BTU is equal to 1.06 Kilo Joules. There are many areas, where still BTU is used,
particularly, in UK, it is still in use. It is also used to exposit the energy of fuels; BTU of furnace oil,
etc. Joule is defined as amount of energy, when a force of one newton is applied for displacement of
any object of one meter. Whereas, “One newton is the force required to cause a mass of one
kilogram to accelerate at a rate of one meter per second squared in the absence of other force-
producing effects”(

Latent and Sensible Heat

Latent and Sensible heat have a great deal of applications in the real life. Latent heat is referred as
the amount of heat absorbed or released during a process of sate changing without change in
temperature. It is easy to understand from the melting of ice. Ice changes its phase from a solid to
liquid and for this process a certain amount of heat is required. This amount of heat is called latent
of the substance. To describe, precisely, the term specific latent is used. It is denoted for the energy

required to convert one Kg or one pound of a substance from solid to liquid or vise-versa, without
changing in temperature. The latent heat for a different mass of the substance can be calculated
using the equation:

Q = mL

Q is the amount of energy released or absorbed during the change of phase of the substance (in kJ
or in BTU),
m is the mass of the substance (in kg or in lb.), and
L is the specific latent heat for a particular substance (kJ-kgm-1 or in BTU-lbm-1). Water has highest
latent heat of vaporization, it is 2260 (at 100oC) kJ/kg.

Sensible heat is the heat absorbed or transmitted by a substance during a change of temperature
which is not accompanied by a change of state.

Flow of Heat or Heat Transfer

Just in case, when a substance posses different level of thermal energy from it surroundings, heat
transfer phenomenon takes place and it is referable to the difference in the level of thermal energy,
which is indicated by the disparity of temperature. It is also known as heat exchange or transfer of
thermal energy. This transfer always come along from higher to lower temperature and will
continue until both bodies attain the same temperature, it is reckon as thermal equilibrium. Heat
transfer between two bodies, if there is a difference of temperature, can never be stopped, however,
it can be slow downed. There are numerous factors which can affect heat transfer process. In fact
heat transfer is a transition of thermal energy from an element ,which is hotter to other element
which is less hotter. Here element means that a substance which can store energy in many ways. It
does not posses only thermal energy, whereas, it contains other forms of energy but transmitting
will be only of thermal. Rate of transmission depends upon the difference of temperature and size
(Fourier’s law).

Heat Transfer is the science which deals with the rate of exchange of heat between hot and cold
bodies, which are called source and receiver. Furthermore, heat flow is directly proportion to
potential (temperature gradient and inversely proportional to the resistance (Kern, 1950).

Heat flow ! Potential/resistance

Incropera et al,. (2007) set forth that heat transfer is a thermal energy in transit due to a spatial
temperature difference. Literature is full of theories, ideas, models and mathematical equation
which narrate the heat transfer process. This is basically due to the fact that in real life heat transfer
process has great applications. There are three common ways of heat transfer; conduction,
convection and radiation. Mayan (2002) quotes that some people cerebrate phase change or boiling
as fourth method of heat transfer.

Heat Transfer Through Conduction

In conduction transfer of heat takes place between neighboring molecules due to temperature
gradient and it is always form a higher temperature to a lower temperature till there is an
equilibrium. Heat Transfer can take place in any form of substance, it may be in solid, liquid, gas or
plasma form. However, there will be slightly difference in process. For instance in case of solid,
heat transfer takes place due to vibrations of molecules and free electron, which transfer energy.
However, in case of gases and liquids, it is due to collision and diffusion of the molecules, while
they are in a random motion. For conduction there is a prerequisite of direct contact. Transfer of
energy can be classified broadly in two categories; first, transfer due to elastic as in case of fluids
and second through free electron diffusion. In nutshell, heat transfer takes place either through
vibration against each other or movement of electron from one to other substance. It implies that in
case of solids, where contact is significance, heat transfer will be rapid as compare to liquid or gases
where distance is more.

Figure: Heat Transfer Through Conduction

Malalasekera (2009) summarizes that heat transfer through conduction is a process which takes
place in stationary medium and energy is transferred from a more energetic material to a low
energetic material. In solids it is due to collision (vibrations) and motion of free electrons and in
liquids and gases it is due to molecular collision and molecular diffusion.
Elements which can transfer energy are called conductors. The property of an elements to pass the
heat is called its thermal conductivity or conductivity constant or conduction coefficient. It varies
across the available matters. Metals are surmount conductor than non-metals. It is primarily due to
presence of metallic bonds instead of covalent bonds, which allow free movement of electrons. This
free movement of electrons is finally responsible to transfer heat. Density of the material has
another factor playing a crucial role. There is a decrease in thermal conductivity with the decrease
in density. It is uncomplicated to infer that gap between (low density) will provide less chances to
transfer heat since there will less chances of contact of electrons present in the matter to approach
each other and come to contact. We can say more precisely that in conduction, energy transfer
across a system boundary is due to a temperature difference by the mechanism of inter-molecular
interactions. However, basic requirement of conduction is availability of matter. Nevertheless there
is no bulk movement of matter for heat transfer.

Transient Conduction vs. Steady-State Conduction

Steady state conduction is the form of conduction which happens when the temperature difference
is constant, so that an equilibration time, the spatial distribution of temperatures in an object does

not change (for example, a bar may be cold at one end and hot at the other, but the gradient of
temperatures along the bar do not change with time). In short, temperature at a section remains
constant and it deviates linearly along direction of heat transfer.

There also exist situations wherein the temperature drop or raise occurs more drastically, such as
when a hot copper ball is dropped into oil at a low temperature, and the interest is in analyzing the
spatial change of temperature in the object over time. This mode of heat conduction can be referred
to as unsteady mode of conduction or transient conduction.

Law of Heat Conduction (Fourier's law)

Investigation on heat transfer by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830) resulted in many
useful and much known equations. One of his well recognized equation is called Fourier’s Law.
This law governs the heat transfer through conduction from one substance to other, where there is a
divergent of temperature. Fourier’s law implies that rate of heat transfer through a body is
proportional to the negative gradient in the temperature and the area at right angle. There are two
further possibility to take take this law; first in its integral form, where we take total heat transfer
and second differential form, where we see energy flow at local level.

In simple words, Fourier law of conduction describes that heat transfer from one system to other
system will be proportional to:
1. Area normal to the direction of heat flow
2. The gradient of temperature

Equation of Fourier’s law is self explanatory and not much complicated. This equation allows to
determination of the conduction of heat flux. For this purpose we should have knowledge of
temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and area of contact. Its most general (vector) form for
multidimensional conduction is:

Implications of Fourier’s Equation:

1. Heat transfer is in the direction of decreasing temperature (basis for minus sign)
2. Fourier’s Law serves to define the thermal conductivity of the medium
3. Direction of heat transfer is perpendicular to lines of constant temperature (isotherms)
4. Heat flux vector may be resolved into orthogonal components.

Considering area equation can be written in this form:

Q = -k A *dT/dx
Here Q is the rate of heat flow (W or J/s),

is the area (m2),

k is the thermal conductivity [W/(m °C) or W/(m. K)].

Fourier’s law is one of the fundamental equations which describes the heat transfer through
conduction. Above discussion depicts that this law involves:

1. Heat flux

2. Thermal conductivity

3. Temperature gradient

4. Area of contact

Law demonstrates that there is direct connection between the heat flow and the instinct property of
material; thermal conductivity. If we heat water in a copper plate, temperature of copper will
increase more rapidly as compared to temperature of water. It is due the thermal conductivity. In
case of water it is only 0.63 whereas, thermal conductivity of copper is 401 W/m K. Other than
thermal conductivity gradient also plays an important role. Equation tells us that heat flow will be
higher when the gradient will be higher. It will be slowed down with the decrease in gradient.
Notwithstanding that it will continue till there is no difference and that the equilibrium is achieved
in a system. It is important to mention that heat transfer can take place through different ways
(conduction, convection and radiation) at same time.

This law is used to predict temperature of any system or element it is exposed to a certain source of
the heat. This equation can tell us the melting point or boiling point of any system and how much
energy will be required to have a certain temperature. This equation helps a lot in engineering
works, where people are dealing with heat transfer issues.

Insulations: A Process to Reduce the Heat Flow

In Table 01, there is a list of different elements who owns different thermal conductivity. Variation
is due to the chemical composition and sometime due to physical structure of the materials.
Thermal insulation of a foam made of polyester will give different results as compare to a solid
layer of same quantity of polyester. In case of foam, it is filled with air, which also have a
significant low thermal conductivity and thus increases the thermal insulation. When there is a
need to slow down or stop heat flow from one system to other, a material, which is having low
thermal conductivity is put in between so that there should be desired flow of heat. Very commonly
used material in industry is fiber glass. In textile clothing, selection of clothing is linked with the
ultimate desire to control heat flow. In winter we need clothing, which should provide high
insulation with a material which is having very low thermal conductivity, so that heat of our body
should not go outside, where temperature is low than our body temperature. Nevertheless, in
summer, we need to reduce the impact of hot climate by having different clothing, which are
different in chemical nature and even they have different physical structure.

Differential Form of Fourier’s Law

Heat flux, which refers sometimes, as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity, is a flow of
energy per unit area per unit of time. Its measuring unit is [W!m-2]. In addition it has direction and
magnitude, which makes it vectorial quantity. To measure heat flux at a certain point, when area
becomes infinitesimally small, one can take the limiting case in such case. By having differential of
Fourier’s law, we find the following equation:

Where (including the SI units)

is the local heat flux, [W!m"2]


is the material's conductivity, [W!m"1!K"1],

is the temperature gradient, [K!m"1].

It is important to note that in most of the cases thermal conductivity k is taken as constant but fact
is that there is change, of course minor change in the thermal conductivity with the change in
temperature. For simplicity it is taken constant in most of the cases (Lienhard IV and Lienhard V,

Assumption of Fourier’s Law

Fourier’s law is based on two fundamental assumptions; one is temperature and other is heat flow.
Both are quantitative figures but assorted in qualitative perspective. Temperature demonstrates the
random movement of the elements of variant nature, whereas, heat flow is an additive event. It
leads to the conclusion that Fourier’s law justify a relationship between two contrary regions having
divergent temperature. It can be said more specifically that it governs the interaction between two
dynamic elements (Kawaguchi et al., 2005).

Contextual relationship between two different phases will be resulted in changed phases. This is
because heat is acting as intervening force. There is also an intrinsic affinity between two different
elements. Since whole process is based on the disparity between the temperature and it will be
resulted as fast as possible (Matsuno and Swenson, 1999, as cited by Kawaguchi et al., 2005).

One can find that energy quantum1 as a coherent enclosure of a standing material is robust and is
not complete. If it is not the situation, then there is no chance of transfer of heat. This implies that
there is an underlying dynamics of variation in the participating contexts. This is only possible if
there is a different of temperature between two different phases present in a different context which
put together (Kawaguchi et al., 2005).

When a contact between quantum and environment establishes, transformation of quantum as

fastest possible rate takes place. This transformation does not stop till there is an equilibrium with

1 A discrete quantity
of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency
of the radiation it represents.

the environment. Regarding the framework of Fourier’s law there is a likelihood that that energy
quantum may play a role of a heat engine, responsible for the transformation, which covers
incoming and outgoing heat (Kawaguchi et al., 2005).

Thermal Conductivity (Conduction Coefficient)

Thermal conductivity is one of the underlying characteristics of materials. Selection of material for
heat transfer depends upon the thermal conductivity. It is denoted by k. It is calculated by
measuring amount of heat Q, which is transmitted through material, having thickness of L in one
direction (from higher temperature to low temperature), of A surface area in time t due to the
temperature difference #T (Lienhard IV and Lienhard V, 2008).

Table 01 Thermal Conductivity of Some Common Materials


Flow of Heat Through Convection

In convection heat transfer is takes place between a solid and flowing fluid having a temperature
gradient. It is also a sort of conveyor where heat is transported from one area to other. There are two
sorts of phenomenon which takes place at a time. Diffusion near the surface, where fluid velocity is
low and bulk motion of molecules away from the surface (Malalasekera, 2009). Frank and David
(1990) mark that convection is one of the major modes of heat transfer and mass transfer. In fluid,
convective heat and mass transfer take place through both diffusion2 and advection3

2 The random Brownian motion of individual particles in the fluid

3 In this process matter or heat is transported by the larger-scale motion of currents in the fluid

There are two categories of convection:

1-Forced or assisted convection (fluid flow is induced e.g. fan, pump , etc.)
2-Natural or free convection ( it is caused by buoyancy forces mainly due to the density difference
as result of temperature difference, fluid after coming will hot will rise and will be replaced by a
cool fluid e.g. Boiling, condensation , etc.)
In some cases natural and forced may occur simultaneously and this is called mixed convection.

Newton's Law of Cooling

Convection is also known as Newton’s Law of Cooling. A related principle, Newton's law of
cooling, states that the rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures
between the body and its surroundings. The law is

Q = Thermal energy in joules

h = Heat transfer coefficient
A = Surface area of the heat being transferred
T = Temperature of the object's surface and interior (since these are the same in this approximation)
Tenv = Temperature of the environment
#T(t) = T(t) " Tenv is the time-dependent thermal gradient between environment and object

Table 02 Heat Transfer Medium and Calculation


Heat Transfer Coefficients - Units

• 1 W/m2K = 0.85984 kcal/h m2 oC = 0.1761 Btu/ ft2 h oF

• 1 Btu/ft2 h oF = 5.678 W/m2 K = 4.882 kcal/h m2 oC
• 1 kcal/h m2 oC = 1.163 W/m2K = 0.205 Btu/ ft2 h oF

In general the convective heat transfer coefficient for some common fluids is within the ranges:

Air: 10 - 100 (W/m2K)

Water: 500 - 10,000 (W/m2K)

Convective and Convector Heat Transfer Coefficient

There is a convective heat transfer coefficient used in Newton’s equation for cooling. To determine
this coefficient, we use a idea called the convective heat transfer coefficient. Malalasekera (2009)
have summarised this idea with many examples.

Fig …..Heat transfer from a solid surface to a flowing fluid.

If q is the heat flux (W/m2 K) from wall to the fluid:

q = h(Tw ! T")

is the convective heat transfer coefficient - units W/m2 K. Here is the temperature of the wall

and is the temperature of the fluid.

The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient depends on:

1. type of the flow – laminar, turbulent
2. geometry of the situation
3. physical properties of the fluid
4. the temperature difference
5. position along the surface of the body
6. whether convection mechanism is forced or free convection

Natural Convection
In natural convection heat transfer is due to the density difference, which is the result of
temperature gradient. There is no external force is used to transfer heat. Fluid surroundings takes
heat and reduces its density and movies away due to gravitational force difference and other fluid
comes in contact which is dense due to low temperature and the phenomenon goes on. The
buoyancy 4, a result of difference in fluid density, is the driving force in convection heat transfer

4 Ability to float in water


For the acceleration there is a need of a force. It may be gravitational force or any equivalent force,
which could a result of acceleration, centrifugal or coriolis5 force. Thereby, natural convectional
does not appear in a free fall context (Kays; Crawford and Weigand, 2004). There are lot of
application of free convection. For example, air cooling without air fan. It may be on small scale,
computer chips or at very high scale.

Jaluria ( 1980) has reviewed the role of mathematics in natural convection and concludes that
natural convection relies on the Grashof number (Gr), which is a ratio of buoyancy force and
viscous force. The Grashof number (Gr) is a dimensionless number and used in natural convection
for fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The number approximates the ratio between buoyancy and
viscous force. These two force are action on the fluid and are responsible in free convection heat
transfer. This number was developed by Franz Grashof. In nutshell we can say that tendency of
natural convection depends pun Grashof number which has the folioing mathematical form:

For vertical flat plates

For pipes

Where the L and D subscripts indicates the length scale basis for the Grashof Number.

g = acceleration due to Earth's gravity

5 Deflection of movement when viewing from a rotation


# = volumetric thermal expansion coefficient (equal to approximately 1/T, for ideal fluids, where T
is absolute temperature)
Ts = surface temperature
T" = bulk temperature
L = length
D = diameter
$ = kinematic viscosity

Jaluria ( 1980) further explains that the transition to turbulent flow occurs in the range
108 < GrL < 109 for natural convection from vertical flat plates. It means that at higher Grashof
numbers, the boundary layer is turbulent; at lower Grashof numbers, the boundary layer is laminar.
Rayleigh number is a product of Prandtl and Grashof number and it is a dimensionless number
which indicates the convection problem in heat transfer.
This is also an analogous from of the Grashof number used in cases of natural convection mass
transfer problems.



g = acceleration due to Earth's gravity

Ca,s = concentration of species a at surface
Ca,a = concentration of species a in ambient medium
L = characteristic length
$ = kinematic viscosity
% = fluid density

Ca = concentration of species a
T = constant temperature
p = constant pressure

It is axiomatic in a fluid that there will be two forces working opposite; upward buoyancy of the
heated fluid and the internal friction, which creates resistance in the movement of the fluid, means
viscosity. Apparently thick solution will provide maximum resistance and in case when there is an
infinity viscosity, heat transfer will take place due to conduction not through convection. Grashof
number indicates the ratio of upward force and force slowing down the movement of fluid.
The relative magnitudes of the Grashof and Reynolds number determine which form of convection

dominates, if forced convection may be neglected, whereas if natural

convection may be neglected. If the ratio is approximately one both forced and natural convection
need to be taken into account (Myron, 2002).

Furthermore, geometry of the hot surface plays a significant role in the convection. There are
possibilities of various correlations for calculation of heat transfer coefficient. For this purpose,
Rayleigh number (Ra) is commonly used.

(Pr is Prandtl number). Myron (2002) concludes that following a general

correlation applies for a variety of geometries:

A general correlation that applies for a variety of geometries is


The value of f4(Pr) is calculated using the following formula

Nusselt Number
Nusselt number is a ratio between convective to conductive heat transfer ratio across the normal to
the boundary. It was named after Wilhelm Nusselt and is a dimensionless number. For Nusselt
number measurement conductive component is measured nude the same conditions as the heat
convection but with an understanding of hypothetically motionless fluid. If Nusselt number is
closed to unity indicates a sluggish flow or laminar flow. Whereas, a large number shows that more
active convection with turbulent flow and it is between 100-1000 range. Along with that convection
and conduction are parallel to each other and to surface normal of the boundary surface, and are all
perpendicular to the mean fluid flow in the simple case (Incropera and Dewitt, 1997).


L = characteristic length
kf = thermal conductivity of the fluid
h = convective heat transfer coefficient

The Biot Number (Bi)

Biot number is given after the name of a French physicist, Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862). This
number is used in the calculation of heat transfer in non-steady or transient state. It is an index of
ratio of heat transfer resistance inside and at the surface of a body. This ratio indicates the
signification of variance in temperature in space, while the body heats or cools over time from a
thermal gradient applied to its surface.

Biot number, if less than one, it means that there is less problem and process is simple or there in
big variation. Wherever, value more than one depicts that there is a huge variation in temperature
with in the object (Incropera and Dewitt, 1997).

The Biot number is defined as:


h = film coefficient or heat transfer coefficient or convective heat transfer coefficient

LC = characteristic length, which is commonly defined as the volume of the body divided by the

surface area of the body, such that

kb = Thermal conductivity of the body

If Biot number is less than 0.1, it indicates that object is thermally thin and it can be presumed that
there will be a constant heat throughout the object. Greater than 0.1, means that we can put a label
on the substance that it is thermally thick and there is a feasibility that heat will not be constant
throughout the system.

We find an analogous version of the Biot number (usually called the "mass transfer Biot number",
or Bim) is also used in mass diffusion processes:


hm - film mass transfer coefficient

LC - characteristic length
DAB - mass diffusivity.

Fourier number
Fourier number is a dimensionless number and it given name after the name of Joseph Fourier. This
number specifies the properties of heat conduction. It is a ratio of heat conduction rate to the rate of
thermal energy storage. It is used in Biot umber to elaborate the transient conduction problems. It is
defined as:


& is the thermal diffusivity [m2/s]

t is the characteristic time [s]
R is the length through which conduction occurs [m]
For transient mass transfer by diffusion, there is an analogous mass Fourier Number (also denoted
Fo) defined as:


"D" is the Diffusivity

"t" is the characteristic timescale
"L" is the length scale of interest
(Incropera and Dewitt, 1997)

Schmidt Number (Sc)

Sc is a dimensionless number and it is defined as the ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) and
mass diffusivity. Its main application is to elaborate the properties of a fluid flow, where there is a
chance that simultaneous momentum and mass diffusion convection will take place. It was named
after the German engineer Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm Schmidt (1892-1975). We can also define Sc
number as ratio of shear component for diffusivity to the diffusivity for mass transfer D. It relates

the relative thickness of the hydrodynamic layer layer and mass-transfer boundaries (Incropera and
Dewitt, 1997).
It is defined as:


$ is the kinematic viscosity

D is the mass diffusivity.
µ is the dynamic viscosity
% is the density
The heat transfer analog of the Schmidt number is the Prandtl number.

Sherwood Number
The Sherwood number, Sh (also called the mass transfer Nusselt number) is a dimensionless
number used in mass-transfer operation. It represents the ratio of convective to diffusive mass
transport, and is named in honor of Thomas Kilgore Sherwood.

It is defined as follows:


L is a characteristic length (m)

D is mass diffusivity (m2.s-1)
K is the mass transfer coefficient (m.s-1)
It can also be further defined as a function of the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers; for example, for a
sphere it can be expressed as:

This form is particularly valuable to chemical engineers in situations where the Reynolds number
and Schmidt number are readily available. Since Re and Sc are both dimensionless numbers, the
Sherwood number is also dimensionless. These correlations are the mass-transfer version of an
analogous technique in heat transfer of writing the Nusselt number with the Reynolds number and
Prandtl number. For a correlation for a given geometry (e.g. spheres, plates, cylinders, etc.), a heat
transfer correlation (often more readily available from literature and experimental work, and easier
to determine) for Nusselt number Nu in terms of the Reynolds number (Re) and the Prandtl number
(Pr) can be used as a mass transfer correlation by replacing the Prandtl number with the analogous
dimensionless number for mass transfer, the Schmidt number, and replacing the Nusselt number
with the analogous dimensionless number for mass transfer, the Sherwood number.

Heat Transfer Through Radiation (Thermal Radiation)

Thermal Radiation is a result of the movements of atoms and molecules in a substance. Movement
of charged components (electron and protons) emits electromagnetic radiation, which carries energy
away from the surface of the substance. Radiation keeps on since there is constantly bombardment
on surface of radiation from the surrounding. Radiation depends upon the temperature of the
substance. All bodies at all temperature radiate electromagnetic waves. It is mainly due to the
presence of molecular and atomic agitation, which is present at all temperature. There is a long
range of wave length, it may be in meters and microns. However, thermal radiation is consist of
electro magnetic waves ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 µm, whereas, visible light is between 0.3 to 0.7 µm
(Siegel and Howell, 2002).

Radiant energy is transported by electro magnetic waves or by photon at the speed of light.
Quantum theory explains the radiation process and details of absorbing and emitting of radiation.
Plank’s law explains that maximum amount of energy can be emitted at a given temperature and
given wavelength, in this case emitter is called blackbody (Sparrow and Cess, (1970). Radiation is
described as a process in which one body emits energy and this energy travels through any medium
or through space and finally absorbed by another body. More precisely, we can say that thermal
radiation is a phenomenon, in which surface of a substance radiates its thermal energy as
electromagnetic waves. Very simple example is radiation from a household radiator or electric
radiator. It is generated due to the movement of charged particles within atoms is converted to
electromagnetic radiation. Radiation is the third method used in heat transfer. It is also called
thermal radiation.

When we rise temperature of a rod, its yellow-orange part is quite visible. It is the part which emit
thermal, mainly due to high temp. Human eye cam see a very limited radiation. Major radiation is
in the infra red range, which is not possible to see with naked eye, however van be viewed with
through infrared Thermography, thermal imaging, thermographic imaging, or thermal video. Al
these are different types of infrared imaging science.

Thermal radiation is quite common in nature. It is most commonly used for room heating, since
ancient times. Roman were also using this technology and they made hypocaust, which were used
to heat rooms even common bathrooms. There are many types of room heaters, like, wall,
underground, overhead panels , etc. These heaters do not contain high temperature. Their normal
temperature is between 25-30 C, whereas, the area is too much and it keeps room hot due to thermal
radiation. Nevertheless, there is also convection process is there due to the movement of air.
There are four main properties that characterize thermal radiation:

1. Radiation occurs at a wide range at any temperature. It is governed by the Planck’s law of
radiation (for idealized materials).

2. There is a gradual change in frequency and color with the change in temperature. In case of a
hot rod, it is red and by further heating it will move to middle of the range and then it looks
white and we call it a white hot

3. There is a fast growth in frequency as compare to temperature. Its ratio is T4, where T is the
absolute temperature of the body.

4. In thermodynamics thermal radiation in is isotropic and unpolarized.

Following are the main properties that characterize thermal radiation:

1. Thermal radiation, at every point of temperature scale has wide range of frequency. Ratio of
frequency can be calculated by Planck’s law of radiation.

2. There is a change in color with the change in temperature. It starts from red to white.
3. The amount of radiation increases rapidly as temperature increases. (it grows as T4, where T
is the absolute temperature of the body)
4. Thermal radiation in a cavity in thermodynamic equilibrium is isotropic and unpolarized.
5. Black body is used as a reference to describe heat transfer phenomenon.

Black Body
Black body is an idealized object, which absorbs all electromagnetic radiation and does not reflect
any one and the object appears black in color when it is cold. However, black body emits radiation
and it is dependent on temperature. These thermal radiation from a black body is called black-body

At room temperature, black bodies emit mostly infrared wavelengths, but as the temperature
increases past a few hundred degrees Celsius, black bodies start to emit visible wavelengths,
appearing red, orange, yellow, white, and blue with increasing temperature. By the time an object is
white, it is emitting substantial ultraviolet radiation.

The term "black body" was introduced by Gustav Kirchhoff in 1860. If the object is a black body in
thermodynamic equilibrium, the radiation is termed black-body radiation. The emitted wave
frequency of the black body thermal radiation is described by a probability distribution depending
only on temperature, and for a genuine black body in thermodynamic equilibrium is given by
Planck’s law of radiation. Wien's law gives the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and
the Stefan–Boltzmann law gives the radiant intensity. There are no strictly exact black bodies in
nature, but graphite is a good approximation, and a closed box with graphite walls at a steady state
gives a good approximation to ideal black body radiation.

Gray Bodies and Emissivity Coefficients

For objects other than ideal blackbodies ('gray bodies') the Stefan-Boltzmann Law can be
expressed as

q = ' ( T4 A (2)


' = emissivity of the object (one for a black body)

For the gray body the incident radiation (also called irradiation) is partly reflected, absorbed or

The emissivity coefficient lies in the range 0 < ' < 1 depending on the type of material and the
temperature of the surface. The emissivity of some common materials

• oxidized Iron at 390 oF (199 oC) > ' = 0.64

• polished Copper at 100 oF (38 oC) > ' = 0.03

Laws Governing Black Body Radiations

Planck's law states that


I($,T) d$ is the amount of energy per unit surface area per unit time per unit solid angle emitted in
the frequency range between $ and $ + d$ by a black body at temperature T;
h is the Planck constant;
c is the speed of light in a vacuum;
k is the Boltzmann constant;
$ is frequency of electromagnetic radiation; and
T is the temperature in kelvins.

Wien's displacement law

Wien's displacement law shows how the spectrum of black body radiation at any temperature is
related to the spectrum at any other temperature. If we know the shape of the spectrum at one
temperature, we can calculate the shape at any other temperature.

A consequence of Wien's displacement law is that the wavelength at which the intensity of the
radiation produced by a black body is at a maximum, &max, it is a function only of the temperature:


The constant, b, known as Wien's displacement constant, is equal to 2.8977685(51)'10"3 m K.

Stefan–Boltzmann law

This law states that amount of thermal radiation emitted per second per unit area of the surface of a
black body is directly proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. That is

where j*is the total energy radiated per unit area per unit time, T is the temperature in kelvins, and (
= 5.67'10"8 W m"2 K"4 is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant

This diagram provides a relationship between wavelength and temperature and it is obvious that
total radiated amount vary with temperature. Although this plot shows relatively high temperatures,
the same relationships hold true for any temperature down to absolute zero. Visible light is between
380 to 750 nm. Source: K. Huang (2003)

Color Temperature (C)

Fain red glow 480

Dark red 580

Bright red 730


Color Temperature (C)

Bright orange 930

Pale yellowish 1100

Yellowish white 1300

White (yellow if seen Temperature >1400

from a distance)

Source: K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics (2003), p278

The Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics science is a classical example of axiomatic form. There is an explanation of
certain changes keeping some assumption in view and considering them always true. Fro this
purpose a deductive process has been used. Core characteristics of the axiom is that it does not need
to b proven rather there should be a sufficient evidence to make it acceptable in general (Leland,

There are certain principles which should be able to explain the changes occurring during heat
transferring process. To explain the fundament changes, two laws (first and second law of
thermodynamics) are quite sufficient but we find two more laws available in literature (Zeroth law).

The Intuitive Perception of the First Law

“Energy can be neither created nor destroyed but only transformed”.
The general energy equation:
Energy In = Energy Out


U2 - U1 = Q - W


U1: internal energy of the system at the beginning

U2: internal energy of the system at the end

Q: net heat flow into the system

W: net work done by the system

Following are the elements of a thermodynamics cycle:

1-Working Substance - medium by which energy is carried through the cycle.

2- Heat Source - supplies thermal energy to the working substance.

3- Heat Receiver - absorbs heat from the working substance.


First law of thermodynamics is also called law of conservation of energy and mass. There is a
perception present in nature about the conservation of energy and mass. Even Greek philosophers
believe that matter cannot be destroyed. However, in middle ages there was some confusion raised
from the burning of material, which leads to the convection that material can be destroyed.
Nevertheless, Lavoisier proved the conservation of mass during chemical reactions. As compare to
mass conservation, energy conservation is difficult to prove. However, our intuition tells us that
according to natural justice energy should never be created and not be destroyed. Not withstanding
that transformation is possible and is required to perform various jobs in the real world (Leland,

The internal energy of a system of particles, U, is the total of the of the kinetic energy and potential
energy. According to first law, any change in the system will be sum of the energy induct into the
system and work done by the system.
#U = Q + W

#U: difference in internal energy
Q: energy provided to the system
W: work done by the system

We can conclude after observing the whole system at micro level that Q and W to be positive if
energy flows into the system and for a cyclic process:
(Ui = Uf) " Q = - W.

If, in addition, Q = 0 then W = 0

Leland (2009) summarizes the whole journey from initial idea of mass and energy conservation and
to the final observation about the conservation of mass and energy. Leland gives credit to Count
Rumford, who is the first person who observed the conservation of energy during canon
manufacturing process. However, Joule and Kelvin between 1843 and 1848 are the scientists who
came up with accurate and indisputable observation about the conservation of mass and energy
based on experiments. Conservation of energy and mass is a universal law. Considering the
magnitude of energy changes in thermodynamics, these are considered separately.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

We find traces of second law of thermodynamics in the paper, “Reflection on the Motive power of
fire, of Sadi Carnot” by a French physicist published in 1824. Sadi presented the idea that motive
power work is due to the flow of caloric (heat) from a hot body to cold body. The second law of
thermodynamics, which was formulated by Clausius and Thomson following Carnot's earlier
observation. This law is based on the flow of heat from a hot body to a body having low
temperature. This law is also known as the Law of Increased Entropy. It is an inherent and intrinsic
property of the world, that whenever, there is an imbalance in the energy distribution, it will start
working and will minimize the thermodynamic force, which is in fact gradient of potential. To
describe further, Clausius coined the term entropy. Entropy, which is defined as a thermodynamic

quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical
work. It is also called as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system. (Symbol: S). In a
natural world, entropy will always increase.

First law states that energy cannot be generated and cannot be destroyed, whereas, this law
describes that the quality of matter/energy deteriorates gradually over time. It is further explained
that during work, useable energy is used and a portion of useable energy is converted into unusable
energy. There is an increase in the unusable energy, which is denoted as entropy. The second law of
thermodynamics represents an idea which is quite common and experienced by every one. This law
explains the direction, which is unique and works under the action of thermodynamics force. It was
not told to people that in case when no pump is used, gravitational force is responsible of water
flow from a higher point to a lower point. People discovered the earth's gravitational force by
different experiments moreover observed that the rate of transfer increases with an increase in the
difference in elevation. Since its reverse never happened, same is our experience about the flow of
heat from hot item to cold item. We found analogous examples in case of heat transfer. We observe
that rate of heat transfer increases when difference of temperature between two items is high and
keep on decreasing until there is no difference of temperature. This observation leads scientist to
develop a theory that temperature difference is the main reason of heat transfer. To derive this
theory no theoretical knowledge was required. Heat transfer phenomenon was observed and more
factors were added, like, area of contact, direction and formally a idea was completed, which is
called second law of thermodynamics (Leland, 2009).

Entropy is a very important idea in thermodynamics and contains versatile ideas. It is defined and
explained in different ways. It is the name of an extensive property of a system. It changes by
multiplying by temperature and gives thermal energy of a system. In a more simple way, change in
entropy is defined quantity of thermal energy which is transported from a system and divided by
temperature, which is a driving force. Also note that temperature is an intensive property, whereas,
entropy is an extensive property. Heat is also defined as the amount of thermal energy crossing
boundary of a system. This change will also lead to the change in the entropy (Leland, 2009). We
can conclude that entropy is measure of randomness or chaos within a closed system.
Table: 03 Common Thermodynamic Driving forces and Their Associated Displacements

Source: Leland (2009)

Third Law of Thermodynamics

It is a statistical law of nature related to entropy and deals with absolute zero temperature.
Commonly its expressed as, “As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the
entropy of the system approaches a minimum value”. It is not necessary to have minimum value
zero, although it is almost zero in a perfect and pure crystal form (Kittel and Kroemer, 1980).

Kittel and Kroemer (1980) have put forward that this law was developed by the chemist Walther
Nernst, during the years 1906-1912, and is thus sometimes referred to as Nernst's theorem or
Nernst's postulate. The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a system at absolute
zero is a well-defined constant. This is because a system at zero temperature exists in its ground
state, so that its entropy is determined only by the degeneracy of the ground state; or, it states that
"it is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealised, to reduce any system to the absolute
zero of temperature in a finite number of operations."

In most simple words, according to third law of thermodynamics, that entropy of most pure
substances approaches zero as the absolute temperature approaches to zero. This provides a point,
which could be absolute entropy. This law further explains that at 0 K no solid solutions should
exist. Phases in equilibrium at 0 K should either be pure elements or atomically ordered phases
(Abriata, and Laughlin, 2004)

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

It is a generalization about the thermal equilibrium. It can be stated as:

"If A and C are each in thermal equilibrium with B, A is also in thermal equilibrium with C."

Thermal equilibrium is a state when there is no change in temperature over time. If A, B and C are
distinct bodies and they are in equilibrium, then we can perceive Euclidean relation and reflexive
relation. Such relation which are both Reflexive and Euclidean are called equivalence relations and
can be expressed in the following equation (Reif, 1965):

if T(A) = T(B)
and T(B) = T(C)
then T(A) = T(C).

Mass Transfer
Mass transfer is process in which mass transfer from a high concentration to low concentration, or
from a high pressure to low pressure. It involves molecular and convective transport of atoms and
molecules within a physical system. It may be fluid flow or separation of different materials.
Evaporation of water, diffusion of impurities in a water solution, distillation , etc. Main force which
is responsible for the mass transfer is the concentration. It is the random motion of molecules,
which hold pressure and move into an area in surrounding where pressure of random molecules is

Analogy Among Molecular Transport, Mass and Heat Transfer

There is a similarity among molecular transport, heat transfer and mass transfer. Three basic
equation dealing with these are:

1. Newton equation for momentum

2. Fourier’s law
3. Fick’s law for mass transfer

Many people have done much effort to quantify the analogy among these. One of popular effort is
Reynolds analogy. Reynolds assumes that turbulent diffusivities are all same. Chilton and Colburn
J-factor analogy is one of the most commonly quoted in literature. This analogy is based on laminar
and turbulent data. This is an experimental data and van be used to satisfy the results. Ambrosian et
al. (2007) reviewed the work of different writes and finally conclude that for a better correlation of
experimental data related to friction factors or heat transfer analogy between mass, molecular
diffusion and heat transfer plays a significant role. They further explains that Reynolds’ proposal is
a starting point to discuss the analogy between mass and heat transfer. However, there are many
people, who worked on this topic and gave their significant contribution in the body of knowledge
related to this analogy.


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