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Network Engineer Interview Questions

http://study-ccna.com/ospf-configuration/

http://career.guru99.com/top-100-networking-interview-questions-answers/
8. What kind of salary do you need? A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will
probably lose if you answer first. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, Thats a
tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken
off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide
range. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top
8 resume samples. Free pdf download
9. Do you have any questions to ask us? Never ask Salary, perks, leave, place of posting, etc.
regarded questions. Try to ask more about the company to show how early you can make a
contribution to your organization like Sir, with your kind permission I would like to know more
about induction and developmental programs? OR Sir, I would like to have my feedback, so
that I can analyze and improve my strengths and rectify my shortcomings.

I thought some of you might find this list interesting. I work in a NOC that supports an
international network and these are the interview questions that our manager picks from when he
does interviews. Enjoy
General -Describe whether you are a network admin or server admin?
-Are you currently or have you worked as a member of a team? If yes, name some of the
challenges and how you handled them. Are you currently or have you worked as a member of a
team? If yes, name some of the challenges and how you handled them.
-Do you prefer routing or switching?
-What are your strengths and weaknesses?
-How do you troubleshoot network slowness issues?
Switching -On a Cisco switch, when would you use a "ip default-gateway" command, and when a default
route ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 x.x.x.x
-You create an SVI on 3560 switch, and its IP does not respond to ping. What could be the
problem?
-On 3560 switch -What command would you use to view the mac table?
-On 6500 switch(IOS) - What command would you use to view the mac table?
-On 6500 switch(CATOS) - What command would you use to view the mac table?
-On Foundry(FOS) - What command would you use to view the mac table?
-What is the Native Vlan?
-3750 Switch-stack: which switch's flash holds the image that will run in

RAM when the stack is powered-up?


-What commands would you use to set up a trunk between 2 cisco switches
-What commands would you use to set up a trunk between 1 cisco switch and 1 cisco router
-Difference between BPDUGUARD/BPDUFILTER
-Explain how STP works
-What is spanning tree protocol and how does it work?
-Difference between a trunk and an access layer switch port?
-Two PCs attached to 2 different switches. The switches are connected to each other but the PCs
can't ping each other. Possible reasons? Steps to troubleshoot?
-Link status is up, but line protocol is down - what's wrong?
-You have a switch that won't power on. How do you get it replaced?
-Describe how multiple VLANs can exist on a single switch link
-Name a trunking protocol you have used and how it works (
Routing -OsPF- configuration statement
-HSRP - what is "interface tracking" used for ?
-Which has a higher admin distance- EBGP(20) or EIGRP(90)
-Which has a better admin distance- EBGP or EIGRP
-BGP- When would you apply a Weight to a BGP neighbor?
-BGP- When would you prepend an AS path?
-BGP- If you prepend a prefix's AS Path, does the prefix look better or worse to the world?
-BGP- What command would you use to see your BGP neighbors?
-BGP- Who controls routing with an AS?
-EIGRP-Do Juniper routers run EIGRP?
-EIGRP- What is the difference between the EIGRP topology table, and the routing table
-EIGRP- In a network with dual redundant paths, how could you use an offset list
-What is the (TCP) 3-way handshake?
-How do you set up an OSPF network?
-You want to add an attached network into your OSPF configuration. What are the command(s)?
-What is redistribution in terms of routing protocols? What is mutual redistribution?
-What would be some problems with mutual redistribution?
-The LEC can't loop the CSU or NIU on a T1 circuit. Should you get the Cisco WIC replaced?
OSI Model
-In OSI terms, briefly describe what happens when you enter "www.google.com" in your
browser address bar, and hit enter
-Name the 7 layers
-What layer is TCP?
-What layer does a proxy server operate at?
-Describe the process by which one layer communicates with the next
Subnetting
-Usable hosts in a /23?
-How many bits for hosts are there in a /27?
-What's the dotted decimal equivalent of a /28?

DNS
-How do you look up a MX record?
-What is a CNAME?
-What is an A record?
Other
-How can you view routing information in a Unix server?
-How can you configure a static route in a Unix server?
-What is the command to list your current directory in Unix?
-Give an example of a regular expression used with the "|" character, in Cisco, or Unix
-Trick question--If you change the "bandwidth" on a router interface, and the interface
utilization drops,
what could be an explanation?
-Have you used Wireshark?
-If I give you a Ethernet cable and pair of scissors can you make me a DS-1 loop back plug ....?
-Stateful firewall vs. access-lists vs. proxy server - how are they different?
-How do you show the arp table on a linux box? On a windows box? On a Cisco router?
-Briefly explain the difference between static and dynamic NAT
-Briefly explain the use of a virtual IP address in HSRP or VRRP
Interviewing Sr. Network Engineers

I am interviewing some Sr. Network engineers for the next 2 weeks. I've composed a list of
questions and am posting them here for feedback purposes. Let me know what you think.
Questions to determine level of network/Internet experience and knowledge.
1. Describe some network projects you have done. What did you do? Why? How?
2. From a high level view explain how the Internet works. (should explain transit providers,
peering (public and private), tier1, tier2, root routers, DNS and root DNS servers)
3. What is the purpose of an Internet Routing Registry? Is it important? Name some of the top
Internet Routing Registries.
4. Are you familiar with ARIN, RIPE, APNIC, LACNIC and AfriNIC? What role do they play
in networks?
5. Where do you usually go to find AS, peering and IP info for particular networks?
6. Do you use looking glasses? Which ones?
7. How does a router work? How does a switch work? Can some switches be routers too?
8. What troubleshooting steps and procedures do you typically take when trying to isolate
network issues? Give some examples.
9. What information resources do you use when designing networks? When managing
networks? When troubleshooting problems?
10. How do you obtain your own IP space from ARIN? Is this important? Explain your answer.

11. What is the purpose of dynamic routing protocols? If dynamic routing protocols exist are
static routes required? Explain your answer.
12. Explain design process from high level. (i.e. what is involved in designing a network?)
13. Are you familiar with Change Management. When do you use it?
14. How do you like to securely remote into network devices?
15. Explain how MPLS works from high level view. Advantages, limitations.
16. Where would you go to find official Internet Protocol standards? Why is this important?
17. What dynamic routing protocols are best suited for large diameter networks? Which ones
have you worked with? What did you do? (should be BGP, OSPF, IS-IS)
18. What dynamic routing protocols are best suited for small diameter networks? Which ones
have you worked with? What did you do? (should be E/IGRP, RIP)
19. Why was the OSI model developed? Is it useful? Where did it originate from?
20. Why would you upgrade the operating system of a network device? How would you execute
the upgrade?
21. How do you keep up to date on trends and technologies?
22. Explain differences between IPv4 and IPv6. Explain structure of each and significance of
structure. Why important? Advantages and disadvantages.
23. Explain BGP from a high level view. (should mention eBGP, iBGP, ASs, peers, maybe even
filters)
24. Explain different OSPF area types and how they function in relationship to each other. (i.e.
how are routes advertised and route tables populated). Why would this be important in a network
design?
25. What type of circuits have you worked with? (answer should be Point-to-point and point-tomulti-point ATM, serial, frame-relay, Ethernet, wireless)
26. Explain the role of DNS servers, syslog servers, TFTP servers, terminal servers, monitoring
servers in the network. Why are they important?
27. How do different VLANs on a layer 2 switch communicate with each other? Is there a
method that can be used if no router exists?
28. In your opinion what does network security involve? (should mention physical access,
procedures, filters, monitoring, etc..)
29. Explain the differences between Layer2, 3 and 4 capable devices.
30. In your opinion, how important are network protocol timers and metrics? Explain
31. What are some typical procedures you follow prior to working on production network
equipment? (backup configs and constant pings should be among top 5.)
32. What is a broadcast storm? An ARP storm?
33. How does a workstation or server connect to the network? What procedures does it go
through?
Trivial technical questions: (not too important and ability to answer them will not impact my
decision)
34. Explain differences between Native and Hybrid mode on Cisco 6500s. What are
advantages, disadvantages of each? http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/...800c8441.shtml
35. Does a Cisco 6500 Sup1a support SFM or SFM2 modules? What do SFM modules do?

36. You are running BGP on a Cisco 6500 Sup1a-MSFC. What does Cisco recommend with this
config?
37. What does the BGP Scanner process do in Cisco IOS? How often does it run?
38. How many flash systems does a Foundry FastIron switch have?
39. What is the maximum combined throughput of a 10Mbps full duplex line?
40. How many metrics/attributes does BGP support?
41. What is the RFC number for HSRP?
42. Name the 7 steps OSPF goes through to become fully adjacent to a neighbor.
43. How does traceroute work?
44. Is Ping unicast, multicast or broadcast?
45. What is CAIDA? Is it useful?
46. Name 5 of the top 10 providers according to number of peering sessions.
47. What network equipment vendors support STP?
48. You have 5 carriers connecting to a single edge router and receiving the full BGP table from
each. Is this scenario possible? Would you run into any problems? What is recommended best
practice?
49. Name a protocol(s) used for failover that support virtual router interfaces.
50. What is the size of the current Internet routing table?
51. Explain how a single server with two NICs can connect to two separate upstream switches
so that in the event one upstream switch fails then the server will not go down.

1. senior systems administrator interview questions In this file, you can ref interview materials
for senior systems administrator such as types of interview questions, senior systems
administrator situational interview, senior systems administrator behavioral interview For top
job interview materials for senior systems administrator as following, please visit:
topinterviewquestions.info Free ebook: 75 interview questions and answers Top 12 secrets to
win every job interviews Top 8 interview thank you letter samples Top 7 cover letter samples
Top 8 resume samples Top 15 ways to search new jobs Top materials: ebook: 75 interview
questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf download
2. What challenges are you looking for in this senior systems administrator position? A typical
interview question to determine what you are looking for your in next job, and whether you
would be a good fit for the position being hired for, is "What challenges are you looking for in a
position?" The best way to answer questions about the challenges you are seeking is to discuss
how you would like to be able to effectively utilize your skills and experience if you were hired
for the job. You can also mention that you are motivated by challenges, have the ability to
effectively meet challenges, and have the flexibility and skills necessary to handle a challenging
job. You can continue by describing specific examples of challenges you have met and goals you
have achieved in the past. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7
cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf download
3. Describe a typical work week for senior systems administrator position? Interviewers expect
a candidate for employment to discuss what they do while they are working in detail. Before you
answer, consider the position you are applying for and how your current or past positions relate
to it. The more you can connect your past experience with the job opening, the more successful
you will be at answering the questions. It should be obvious that it's not a good idea talk about

non-work related activities that you do on company time, but, I've had applicants tell me how
they are often late because they have to drive a child to school or like to take a long lunch break
to work at the gym. Keep your answers focused on work and show the interviewer that you're
organized ("The first thing I do on Monday morning is check my voicemail and email, then I
prioritize my activities for the week.") and efficient. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview
questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf download
4. What is your biggest weakness? No one likes to answer this question because it requires a
very delicate balance. You simply cant lie and say you dont have one; you cant trick the
interviewer by offering up a personal weakness that is really a strength (Sometimes, I work too
much and dont maintain a work-life balance.); and you shouldnt be so honest that you throw
yourself under the bus (Im not a morning person so Im working on getting to the office on
time.) Think of a small flaw like I sometimes get sidetracked by small details, I am
occasionally not as patient as I should be with subordinates or co-workers who do not understand
my ideas, or I am still somewhat nervous and uncomfortable with my public-speaking skills
and would like to give more presentations and talk in front of others or in meetings. Add that
you are aware of the problem and you are doing your best to correct it by taking a course of
action. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top
8 resume samples. Free pdf download
5. Why should the we hire you as senior systems administrator position? This is the part where
you link your skills, experience, education and your personality to the job itself. This is why you
need to be utterly familiar with the job description as well as the company culture. Remember
though, its best to back them up with actual examples of say, how you are a good team player. It
is possible that you may not have as much skills, experience or qualifications as the other
candidates. What then, will set you apart from the rest? Energy and passion might. People are
attracted to someone who is charismatic, who show immense amount of energy when they talk,
and who love what it is that they do. As you explain your compatibility with the job and
company, be sure to portray yourself as that motivated, confident and energetic person, everready to commit to the cause of the company. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with
answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf download
6. What do you know about our company? Follow these three easy research tips before your
next job interview: 1) Visit the company website; look in the about us section and careers
sections 2) Visit the companys LinkedIn page (note, you must have a LinkedIn account its
free to sign up) to view information about the company 3) Google a keyword search phrase like
press releases followed by the company name; youll find the most recent news stories shared
by the company Remember, just because you have done your homework, it does not mean you
need to share ALL of it during the interview! Reciting every fact youve learned is almost as
much of a turn off as not knowing anything at all! At a minimum, you should include the
following in your answer: 1. What type of product or service the company sells 2. How long the
company has been in business 3. What the company culture is like OR what the company
mission statement is, and how the culture and/or mission relate to your values or personality Top
materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume
samples. Free pdf download
7. Why do you want to work with us? More likely than not, the interviewer wishes to see how
much you know about the company culture, and whether you can identify with the organizations
values and vision. Every organization has its strong points, and these are the ones that you should
highlight in your answer. For example, if the company emphasizes on integrity with customers,

then you mention that you would like to be in such a team because you yourself believe in
integrity. It doesnt have to be a lie. In the case that your values are not in line with the ones by
the company, ask yourself if you would be happy working there. If you have no issue with that,
go ahead. But if you are aware of the company culture and realize that there is some dilemma
you might be facing, you ought to think twice. The best policy is to be honest with yourself, and
be honest with the interviewer with what is it in the company culture that motivates you. Top
materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume
samples. Free pdf download
8. What kind of salary do you need? A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will
probably lose if you answer first. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, Thats a
tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken
off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide
range. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top
8 resume samples. Free pdf download
9. Do you have any questions to ask us? Never ask Salary, perks, leave, place of posting, etc.
regarded questions. Try to ask more about the company to show how early you can make a
contribution to your organization like Sir, with your kind permission I would like to know more
about induction and developmental programs? OR Sir, I would like to have my feedback, so
that I can analyze and improve my strengths and rectify my shortcomings. Top materials: ebook:
75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf
download
10. Top useful job materials for senior systems administrator interview: The below materials are
availabe at: topinterviewquestions.info Free ebook: 75 interview questions and answers Top
12 secrets to win every job interviews Top 36 situational interview questions 440 behavioral
interview questions 95 management interview questions and answers 30 phone interview
questions Top 8 interview thank you letter samples 290 competency based interview questions
45 internship interview questions Top 7 cover letter samples Top 8 resume samples Top 15
ways to search new jobs Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7 cover
letter samples, top 8 resume samples. Free pdf download
11. Other interview tips for senior systems administrator interview 1. Practice types of job
interview such as screening interview, phone interview, second interview, situational interview,
behavioral interview (competency based), technical interview, group interview 2. Send
interview thank you letter to employers after finishing the job interview: first interview, followup interview, final interview. 3. If you want more interview questions for entry-level, internship,
freshers, experienced candidates, you can ref free ebook: 75 interview questions and answers. 4.
Prepare list of questions in order to ask the employer during job interview. 5. Note: This file is
available for free download. Top materials: ebook: 75 interview questions with answers, top 7
cover letter samples, top 8 resume samples.

Are you looking for job as a network engineer/network administrator? Or are you thinking to
leave your current position for a new job as a network engineer/administrator with a new
company in a routed LAN/WAN environment?
If you answered yes to either of those questions, then this article is for you and any of described
technologies and questions may be asked of you during the interview!
?Click here to download additional interview questions in .doc and PDF
Network Engineer is a higher-level position, often with a junior or senior prefix. The major
responsibility of a network engineer is to determine how to implement technologies in a routed
LAN/WAN environment. They design and implement both the hardware and software
technologies needed for a computer network. They have high-level technical skills in local area
networks (LANs) or wide area networks (WANs).
Network Administrator is responsible for the smooth, efficient, and secure operation of computer
networks. In general, they configure and administer existing networks rather than designing
networks from the beginning. They play a very challenging role in a routed LAN/WAN
environment, including customization of the network as per the organizations needs, such as
adding software and hardware, performance monitoring, troubleshooting, logging errors, backing
up and restoring data, assigning permissions to users, and helping users with network issues.
Before facing any Interview for network engineer/administrator position, make sure that you
have enough knowledge on below technologies.
General network concepts:
Data communication and transmission techniques
Fundamentals of OSI and TCP/IP model
Routers basic operations (startup, NVRAM, flash/IOS backup and recovery)
IP addressing and summarization:
IP address classes
Classful and classless IP addresses
IP subnetting
Understating wild card masks
CIDR,FLSM,VLSM
IPv6 fundamentals
Routing:
RIP
Difference between RIPv1,RIPv2 and RIPng
Passive Interface
RIP Timers
RIP AD and Multicast Address
Split Horizon and Route Poisoning

EIGRP
Auto and Manual Summarization
Neighborship Conditions
Passive Interface
Split Horizon
Authentication
EIGRP Stub Routing and Stuck in Active
Equal and Unequal Load Balancing
EIGRP ADs and Multicast Address
OSPF
OSPF Area Types
OSPF Neighborship Conditions
Concepts of ABR and ASBR Router
DR/BDR Fundamentals and Election
OSPF Times and Authentications
OSPF Summarizations (Inter-Area, External, and Default Info Originate)
OSPF AD and Multicast Addresses
OSPF Network and LSA Types
BGP
BGP Fundamentals Why and When to Use BGP?
BGP States and Message Types
BGP Neighborship Conditions
iBGP and eBGP
BGP Summarization
Use of Update Source, eBGP-Multi-Hop, Next-Hop-Self Commands
BGP Path Attributes
BGP Synchronization and Split-Horizon Rule
BGP Address Families
BGP Communities
MPLS
MPLS Fundamentals IP CEF, LIB, LFIB
LDP and TDP
P, PE and CE Routers
PUSH,POP,SWAP Functions
PHP Penultimate Hop Popping
BGP VPN
MPLS over ATM /Frame Relay
QoS
QoS Models and Tools
Difference between L2 and L3 Queues
Characteristics of CoS, ToS, IPP, DSCP AF and EF

Class Maps and Policy Maps


Route Filtering
Access-List Fundamentals
Route-Maps
Prefix-Lists
Distribute-Lists
Filter-Lists
IP Services and Network Securities
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols (HSRP,VRRP,GLBP)
Network Address Translation (Static, Dynamic, PAT)
Network Time Protocols, Syslog Server, SNMP
Basics of VPNs (IPsec, Site to Site , DMVPN, Remote VPN)
IP Multicast Routing (IGMP,PIM SM/DM, MSDP)
Policy-Based Routing
IP SLA
My Best Questions for an Interview of Network Engineer/Network Administrator: All of the
questions below are very common and must be prepared for before facing any interview for the
data-WAN environment.
1. What is a router? Or define the basic requirements of a router?
Answer: A router is a layer 3 network device used to establish communication between different
networks. Basic roles performed by a router are:
Inter-network communication
Best path selection
Packet forwarding
Packet filtering
2. What is the use of routing? or Why we use routing?
Answer: By default, a router provides inter-network communication only for directly connected
networks. To establish communication between indirectly connected networks, we require
ROUTING. We can use static or dynamic (IGP or EGP) routing, according to topology
requirement.
3. Define the criteria for best path selection of a router?
Answer: A routers routing table contains only best route. To select a route as best, a router
considers the following parameters;
Longest prefix match
Minimum AD (administrative distance)
Lowest metric value

If all listed parameters are the same, then it would perform equal cost load balancing.
4. Define stuck in active.
Answer: If a successor route (best route) fails, then the router sends a query message to its
neighbor demanding a feasible successor (back-up route) and a query received by the router may
be forwarded to other neighbors that could lead to a loop, as well. The wait for the response of
query message is called stuck in active (SIA).
5. Can we use OSPF without backbone area?
Answer: Yes, but it will be limited to intra-area (same area) communication. By default, Interarea communication is not possible without backbone area.
6. What do you mean by OSPF transit area ?
Answer: A transit area is the area that has a virtual link connecting two or more ABRs attached to
this area.
7. What is the difference between an OPPF neighbor and an adjacent neighbor?
Answer: Neighbors are the routers that are in the same area and exchange hello packets, but not
LSA information. Adjacent routers are routers that have fully exchanged their LSA information
and are stable.
If OSPF state is in 2WAY/DROTHER, it means a neighbor relationship and, if the state is
FULL/DR or FULL/BDR, it means that the adjacency is formed.
8. BGP neighborship is not coming up. Please define the various steps to troubleshoot it.
Answer: To troubleshoot BGP, first we need to check neighbor state using show ip bgp
summary. If the state is Idle, it means that the peer address or AS is not defined properly; if the
state is Active, it means that TCP port 179 is not open, the peer is not reachable, network
congestion, or BGP misconfiguration.
Common neighbor stability problems of BGP
Misconfigured neighbors IP address and AS number
Reachability issues when interfaces other than directly connected interfaces are used while
peering (update-source issue).
Authentication must be properly implemented (if configured)
Router-ID must be unique
You can get more information from my BGP Tshoot article.
9. What is route reflector and why it is required?

Answer: Route reflector is a solution for BGP split horizon. The rule says prefix learned from
an iBGP neighbor will not be advertised to another iBGP neighbor.
To overcome this situation, we have multiple options:
1.Make your network a full mesh
2.Route confederation
3.Confederation
Route reflector is something like a central point acting as a route reflector server: Rather than
peering with every iBGP router in a full mesh, it makes IBGP neighbors as route reflector clients
to overcome the split horizon issue.
10. What is the difference between standard and extended ACL?
Answer: Standard ACLs are source-based, whereas extended ACLs are source- and destinationbased. Standard ACLs can only filter layer 3 network traffic, while extended ACLs can be used
to filter layer 3 and layer 4, as well.
11. What is the use of distribute-list?
Answer: To filter a routing database, we use distribute-list, which can be applied over most
routing protocols. This means that, If you dont want any specific network in your routing table,
then you can use distribute-list.
12. MPLS works on which layer?
Answer: MPLS operates between layer 2 and layer 3, so it is sometimes called layer 2.5.
13. What is penultimate hop popping (PHP) and what is its use?
Answer: PHP is the technique for removing the (POP) MPLS label before the egress router. The
MPLS label on a switched packet is popped by either the egress router or the penultimate router,
depending on your configuration. If you decide to use penultimate hop popping, you essentially
terminate the LSP one hop earlier. The MPLS labels are popped by the routers that connect to the
egress router, rather than all of them being popped by the same egress router.
14. What is the difference between layer 2 and layer 3 QoS?
Answer: L2-QoS is at the MAC layer and can be applied by using CoS (class of service) filed in
the VLAN header. This will be used to prioritize traffic. Later, a QOS scheduler can use the COS
filed to qualify the traffic into different QOS queues.
L3 QOS is required for IP level classification; it can be achieved through ToS (type of service)
priority valuesIPP (3-bit), DSCP (6-bit), which can be set in the TOS field of the IP header.
This TOS will later be used by scheduling process to achieve QOS.

L2 queues are hardware-based, while L3 queues are software-based. Thats why we can modify
L3 queues to meet our requirements.
The questions above are very tricky and important from the standpoint of clearing any interview
for a network engineer/administrator position. It is not possible for anyone to explain all kinds of
questions, but you can get more frequently asked interview questions for network
engineer/network administrator positions from the download link posted here. If you find any
difficulty in answering any questions, then you can write me @ Comment section.
Tips for Preparing for an Interview
Study: Before an interview, take a quick recap of relevant technologies.
Updated Resume: Read your resume through; dont copy and paste your resume. You must be
aware of your strengths and weaknesses.
Professional Certifications: One of the best ways to prove the technical skills mentioned in your
resume is through certifications. This gives a new employer an easy way to understand your
knowledge level.
Updated LinkedIn Profile: Update your LinkedIn profile regularly; make sure that your work
experience, qualifications, and project details match with your resume.
This article is the output of lots of my research and extensive work experience. With this article I
have tried to help/guide candidates about interview preparation for getting a network
engineer/network administrator position in a routed LAN/WAN environment.
Dont forget to post your queries and feedback in the comment section. You can join our
Facebook group, http://www.facebook.com/intenseschool, to get updates on new posts and
technologies.

Top Interview Questions that BGP/MPLS Candidates Need to Know


Posted in IT Training on February 12, 2016
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Are you looking for job as a BGP/MPLS network professional? Or are you thinking about
leaving your current position for a new job in a BGP/MPLS Network Domain with a new
company?
If you answered yes to either of those questions, then this article is a must-read for you and any
of described technologies and questions may be asked of you during the interview!
?CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD ADDITIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS IN PDF
FORMAT
An Introduction to BGP/MPLS Network Professionals Roles and Responsibilities:
Nowadays, almost every service provider around the world is using BGP and MPLS
deployments throughout their cloud for providing and managing millions of clients network

infrastructure with better service availability and performance. >MPLS is particularly well suited
in carrier networks and commercial wide area networks. BGP/MPLS deployments ensure
flawless connectivity and routine activities in a multi-protocol network infrastructure and
maintain the excellent communication service approach without any barrier as both are open
standard technologies.
A BGP/MPLS network professional must have moderate to excellent understanding of enterprise
or carriers network infrastructure. Their job roles often involve 247 support for network
services with both planned and unplanned work shifts. A BGP/MPLS network professional is
responsible for performing the following functions:
Configuration and maintenance of exterior gateway routing (BGP)/MPLS Cloud
Evaluation and recommendations of BGP path selection for ingress/egress traffic
Configuration and maintenance of MPLS L2VPN/L3VPN, MPLS traffic engineering
Stability and availability of access and core network services in carrier networks
Network scalability, incident response, and review of network issues
Researching and learning new technologies adopted by the clients
Technical interaction with higher management, vendors, and clients
Installation of network hardware and software
Required Key Skills for a BGP/MPLS professional:
Good knowledge of following BGP functionalities:
BGP fundamentals and inter-AS communication techniques
BGP neighbor (iBGP and eBGP) peering and security
BGP path Selection (path attributes)
BGP synchronization rule
BGP split-horizon:
1.Route reflector (role of cluster-id and originator-id)
2.Confederation
BGP communities (standard and extended)

BGP AS-path filtering with regular expressions


MP-BGP (multiprotocol BGP) with appropriate address families
Good knowledge of following MPLS functionalities:
VRF introduction and Implementation (with RD and RT functionalities)
VRF-based routing and redistribution
Functional approach of P, PE and CE routers
Understanding of PHP, LDP, TDP, LIB, LFIB, LSR, Push, Pop, Swap functions
MPLS L3VPN Implementation, sham link
Any Transport over MPLS (AToM), VPLS
MPLS TE and QoS techniques
Ethernet VPN (EVPN) and provider backbone bridging EVPN (PBB-EVPN)
Multicast label distribution protocol (mLDP)
Unified MPLS (seamless MPLS)
Apart from above BGP/MPLS skill set, candidate must have strong analytical and subjective
knowledge of following key skills:
In depth understanding of carrier network architecture
Sound knowledge of network layered approach
Good understanding of multi-vendor network devices, such as Cisco, HP, Juniper, Nortel, etc.
Good understanding of networking IOS (IOS, IOS-XE, IOS-XR, NX-OS)
Knowledge about network management/ analysis/ monitoring tools
General understanding of rollback, and failovers handling
Ability to handle multiple assignments with deadlines
Able to communicate network issues effectively and in a comprehensible manner with clients
and team members
My Best Questions for an Interview about BGP/MPLS Network Architecture
All of the questions below are very common and must be well prepared for before facing any
interview in BGP/MPLS network environment so you can be honest and confident while
answering.
Most of interviews in BGP/MPLS network environment start with following set of common
questions:
Tell me something about yourself.
Questions related to current/previous job roles.
What is your understanding about enterprises or carriers (service providers) network?
Do you have any experience in a carrier network?
What are your major strengths and weaknesses?

Share some of your achievements as a network professional?


What is your salary expectation for this position?
While answering questions about your current and previous jobs, dont forget to mention your
responsibilities with recent activities and achievements. Apart from the above HR/Personal
questions, lets discuss some important technical questions as well.
Q. What do you mean by MPLS? What are the benefits of using MPLS?
A. This is one of the most common questions asked during the MPLS interviews, so this question
must be prepared for before facing the interview. Here you should start answering by introducing
MPLS.
Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) offer a mechanism to process packets on the basis of
labels. It is a data forwarding service that provides high-end network communications from one
network node to the next on the basis of labels rather than routing table lookups. Routing table
lookup for each packet makes communication sluggish but MPLS uses LFIB/forwarding table to
process label from one node to another.
The main benefits of using MPLS are:
QoS integration: supports multiple levels of QoS, to manage latency, jitter and packet loss for
various types of traffic (voice, video, email, bulk file transfers, etc.)
Fast convergence: label-based switching, no need to look up routing tables
Scalability to IP VPNs
Low network congestion using MPLS TE
Reliable and secure
For further understanding, use the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/ios-nx-os-software/multiprotocol-label-switchingmpls/index.html
Q. Describe PUSH, SWAP, POP functions in MPLS and also explain penultimate hop popping
(PHP).

A. Label switching is a discrete mechanism from IP forwarding; here LSR regulates what label
function needs to be performed, such as Push, Pop, or Swap, to process a packet throughout the
MPLS backbone using label switching.
Push: Add a label
Pop: Remove a label
Swap: Exchange/ replace a label
To know more about these functions, click the following link:
http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=680824
Penultimate hop popping is a technique to remove the label one hop before its destination so that
untagged packet will be received by the destination PE router and only IP lookup will be
performed by destination PE router to forward it to the directly connected CE interface.
Q. What is Any Transport over MPLS (AToM)? Do we require VRF or BGP-VPN to form AToM
connectivity?
A. Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) enables service providers to deliver Layer 2 connectivity
over a MPLS backbone to connect different clients sites with existing data link layer (Layer 2)
networks. BGP-VPN or VRF is not required to configure AToM; to form AToM connectivity we
do use xconnect (cross connect) peering with unique VC-ID to distinguish multiple clients.
For more information on AToM, visit the following web page:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_0s/feature/guide/fsatom28.html
Q. Describe the roles of RD and RT in MPLS L3VPN? Is it possible to assign a same RD to
multiple customers?
A. Route distinguisher (RD) is used to distinguish identical routes in different VRFs, whereas
route target (RT) is used to share routes between them. Route target also specifies which prefixes
get imported or exported on the PE router.
No, we cant assign same RD to multiple customers on a PE router because the main purpose of
defining RD is limited to provide uniqueness in different VRFs.
To know the structural detail of RD, refer to the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Route_distinguisher
Q. How can you differentiate VPNv4 and IPv4 address-family?

A. Address-family VPNv4 is used to transport VRF traffic, which is quite heavier (96 bits) than
normal IPv4 packets, and address-family IPv4 is used to transport traditional 32-bit IPv4 packets.
When we deploy L3VPN, we need VPNv4 peering between the PEs to take the VRF routes
(labeled with RD, RT) to the corresponding destination PE router.
Q. What are LIB and LFIB? If we disable CEF (on a Cisco device) will MPLS work?
A. The difference between two is almost like RIB and FIB, as RIB uses FIB to forward traffic.
Label Information Base (LIB) is a table where prefix to label bindings are built and stored in the
control plane and can be seen with show mpls ldp bindings. Label Forwarding Information
Base (LFIB) is another MPLS table used to forward label packets throughout the MPLS network
and build in the data plane. To check LFIB, run show mpls forwarding-table. The lookups are
in fact done in the LFIB, not the LIB.
If CEF is disabled, MPLS will not work, as it uses LFIB to forward labeled packets and LFIB
built from the FIB table.
Q. Name BGP path attributes to control incoming and outgoing traffic.
A. BGP has multiple path attributes to influencing traffic flow. In the most common practice we
do manipulate incoming traffic using AS-Path prepending and MED (multi-exit discriminator).
And, to influence outgoing traffic, weight and local preference are the best choices.
Q. My BGP is showing 0.0.0.0 as router-id; what could be the possible reason?
A. This happens when we configure BGP on a router that has non-IP interfaces, meaning that if a
routers interfaces are not configured with any IP address, then BGP cannot get the router-id. In
that case, BGP assumes 0.0.0.0 as router-id.
Q. If my BGP neighbor is stuck in idle or active state, what should I do?
A. If BGP peer is in idle state, then it could be due to physical connectivity failure or the
neighbor is not defined properly with respective AS. In connect state, BGP tries to establish a
TCP session over port number 179; if it fails to establish the connection, then it goes to active
state, where it tries again to establish a TCP connection. By using debug ip bgp and debug ip
tcp transactions commands, we can learn the exact cause of TCP connection failure. Lack of the
update-source or ebgp-multihop command can also be a reason of neighbor active state; to
know more, visit the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/13752-24.html
Q. Explain BGP recursive lookup and site of origin (SoO).
A. BGP recursive lookup involves the router looking up the BGP route and BGP next hop to
reach a destination in the remote AS. Then the router will look up the route into IGP to reach the
BGP next hop. This mechanism is known as BGP recursive lookup.

BGP site of origin (SoO) is a loop prevention technique in the MPLS backbone environment.
BGP SoO is associated with a CE-neighbor; thats why whenever the PE router advertise a prefix
to a CE neighbor, it check the SoO of the prefix with the SoO of the BGP neighbor to avoid
loops.
Q. What do you understand by BGP split-horizon rule?
A. This rule states, Network prefixes learned from an iBGP peer will not be shared with another
iBGP peer to prevent routing loops. BGP uses the AS_PATH attribute to avoid routing loops,
which means a route will not be accepted if the AS_PATH contains the same AS number of the
router where it is receiving. Route-reflector and confederation techniques are used to share iBGP
learned networks with another iBGP neighbor.
Q. Describe BGP communities. Name well-known communities.
A. BGP communities are commonly used to control route policies in the BGP environment and
used as flags in order to mark it over the set of network prefixes. BGP communities information
can be shared with a neighbor by using the command neighbor x.x.x.x send-community
standard | extended | both and can be applied using route-maps to a defined neighbor. Some
well-known BGP communities are:
Local-AS: Share the prefixes with iBGP-confederation peers only.
No-Advertise: Do not share the prefixes with anyone.
No-Export: Do not share the prefixes with another Global AS, share within the Public-AS only.
Internet: Share the prefixes with all.
The questions above are very collective and important from the standpoint of clearing an
interview in BGP/MPLS network environment. In this article, I have tried to explain many of the
frequently asked questions, and you can get more frequently asked interview questions for
BGP/MPLSs Jobs from the download link posted here. If you find any difficulty in answering
any question, please write me @ Comment section.
Before facing any Interview, a candidate should take care of the following points:
A quick recap of relevant technologies
Read your resume throughout; and detail your strengths/weaknesses, achievements and prior job
roles and responsibilities

Professional certifications allow the interviewer to understand your knowledge level, so point to
your certifications (if you have any)
An updated LinkedIn profile helps you a lot in getting job recommendation and referrals for
your desired job roles
This article is the output of my extensive research and work experience, and my team, corporate
clients, and colleagues helped me a lot in developing this article. With this article, I am trying to
help/guide candidates in interview preparation for getting an engineering or administrative
position in BGP/MPLS network environment.
I hope this article will be appreciated so that I will be able to offer more in this segment. You can
write me @comment section below for providing any query/feedback; I will try my best to
resolve your queries at the earliest. And dont forget to spread the link of this article on your
Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn accounts so the maximum of people can get this exclusive piece
of information. Keep reading @ Instanseschool.com and consider joining our Facebook group,
http://www.facebook.com/intenseschool, to get updates on new posts and technologies.

Top Interview Questions for Network Operations Manager / Network Engineer Candidates
Posted in Business Skills on December 21, 2015
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What's this? Network Management
Network Security
Networking Fundamentals

Are you looking for job as a network operations engineer? Or are you thinking of leaving your
current position for a new job as a manager: network operations with a new company?
If you answered Yes to either of those questions, then this article is a must read for you and
any of described technologies and questions may be asked of you during the interview!
?CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD ADDITIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS in PDF FORM
An Introduction to Network Operations Manager/Engineer Roles and Responsibilities:
Nowadays, every business is running on the shoulder of a computer network or third-party cloud
deployments and managing todays complex hybrid IT infrastructure is a tough job; both private
and public cloud infrastructure creates complexity for IT services to run and operate. The
network operations engineer ensures flawless installation activities and routine troubleshooting
of network infrastructure to maintain the maximum possible service availability and
performance.
A network operations engineer/manager must have moderate to excellent understanding of
networks and systems. Network operations engineers often escalate issues in a hierarchic
manner; in case an issue is not resolved by a given deadline, the next level will be used for
problem remediation. Their job roles often involve 247 support for network services with both
planned and unplanned work shifts.

Network operation centers sometimes have multiple levels of engineers, which shows the
experience and skillset of a NOC engineer. For example, a newly hired NOC engineer might be
considered a level 1, whereas an engineer who has several years of experience may be
considered level 2 or Level 3. A network operations manager/engineer is responsible for
performing the following functions:
Ensuring stable and reliable network services of access and core networks
Effective analysis of network visibility and availability
Network performance monitoring and reporting
Incident response and review of networks issues
Installation and maintenance of network monitoring, analysis and reporting tools
Evaluating recommendations to resolve network issues
Researching and learning new technologies adopted by the clients
Technical interaction with higher management, vendors, and clients
Installation of network hardware and software
Required Key Skills for a Network Operations Manager/Engineer:
Strong analytical and subjective skills, along with the following knowledge set:
Understanding of network architect designing and managing LAN, WAN, and VoIP networks
Sound knowledge of network-layered approach
Good understanding of multi-vendor network devices such as Cisco, HP, Juniper, Nortel, etc.
General understanding of hardware network devices installation
General understanding of networking IOS (IOS, IOS-XE, IOS-XR, NX-OS)
Knowledge about network management/ analysis/ monitoring tools
General understanding of rollback and failovers handling
Ability to handle multiple assignments with deadlines
Able to communicate network issues effectively and in a comprehensible manner with clients
and team members

My Best Questions for an Interview of Network Operations Manager/ Engineer


All of the questions below are very common and must be well prepared for before facing any
interview for the management/engineering position in network operations and be honest and
confident while answering.
Most interviews for NOC positions start with common questions such as:
Tell me something about yourself
Questions related to current/previous job roles
How can you handle a team of engineers?
What are your major strengths and weaknesses?
How do you find your qualification and experience as a NOC manager?
Share some of your achievements as a network professional?
What is your salary expectation for this position?
While answering about current/previous job role, dont forget to mention
your responsibilities with recent activities and achievements. Apart from above HR/ Personal
questions, lets discuss some important technical questions as well.
Q. Describe some of network tools you are familiar with.
A. This is one of the most common questions asked during the management/engineering position
in network operations, so this question must be prepared for before facing the interview. Here
you can share the list of tools you have worked with and you can even provide the name of your
known network tools. You should consider our recently published articles on network tools:
http://resources.intenseschool.com/top-10-network-management-tools/
http://resources.intenseschool.com/top-10-network-analysis-tools/
http://resources.intenseschool.com/top-10-network-security-tools/
http://resources.intenseschool.com/top-10-network-scanning-tools/
http://resources.intenseschool.com/top-7-network-troubleshooting-tools/
Q. How to troubleshoot a high CPU utilization problem in a router?

A. This symptom is the sign of abnormal functionality in a router. First we should know the
exact reason for increased CPU utilization, and we can use show processes cpu , show
interface stat commands to check the process utilizations. It could be due to high traffic flow
(congestion), complex ACL or VPN deployments, ARP/TCP issues etc. To know more, visit the
following links:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/routers/10000-series-routers/15095-highcpu.html
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/routers/7500-series-routers/41180-highcpuprocesses.html
Q. If a routers WAN link goes down, what you will do in that situation?
A. First we need to verify the exact reason for failover; it could be due to physical or protocol
issues. If it is a protocol down problem, then valid reasons could be link authentication failure,
encapsulation mismatch, clock rate not configured, improper access control, MTU or Duplex
mismatch, etc. For more information visit the following web page:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/internetworking/troubleshooting/guide/tr1915.html
Q. Is it normal to get CRC errors on MPLS WAN links?
A. It could be normal if it is less than 1% of total traffic on that interface with no packet drop
And it is recommended to resolve link issues in case cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors are
more than 1% of the total interface traffic. The most common reason for receiving CRC errors is
the duplex setting, as most of providers set their interface to auto mode.\
Q. if a routers WAN link goes down, we are not getting any alert or notification. What could be
the issue?
A. Proper syslog or SNMP configuration is required to get the alerts of a link failure. For
advanced alert or notification management, network management tools can be configured to
track such kind of alerts.
Q. What will happen if one of the ports goes down of an 8 port EtherChannel?
A. The overall bandwidth of an EtherChannel interface depends on its active member links. An
EtherChannel with 8 active 100 Mbps links should indicate a bandwidth of 800 Mbps and, if one
of its physical ports fails, the available bandwidth of port-channel interface will be evaluated as
700Mbps without flapping the port-channel.
Q. How to perform password recovery in a switch?

A. Every switch series has its own set of recovery methods. Here you can describe the procedure
of password recovery for the switches on which you have shown your work experience. You can
also refer following links to get an idea of password recovery on well-known Cisco switches.
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/switches/catalyst-2960-series-switches/productspassword-recoveries-list.html
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/switches/catalyst-3750-series-switches/productspassword-recoveries-list.html
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/switches/catalyst-4500-series-switches/productspassword-recoveries-list.html
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/switches/catalyst-6000-series-switches/14981pswdrec-6000IOS.html
Q. How to access a layer 2 switch from a remote location?
A. To access a layer 2 switch remotely, a management SVI (switch virtual interface) is required
with proper Telnet/SSH access and IP address of SVI must be reachable.
Q. What is the significance of the variable IP-OSPF-Transmit-Delay?
A. If OSPF is configured on low bandwidth links, IP-OSPF-Transmit-Delay is used to increase
the time of the age field of a LSA update. By default it is set to 1 second and, to make it
effective, it must be added before transmission over a link.
Q. What does %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-1 [5330] Process 1, Nbr 10.3.3.14 on Vlan44 from
FULL to EXSTART, BADSEQNUM OSPF log message mean?
A. This log message pops up when an OSPF DBD exchange process uses a bad sequence number
(due to packet loss or packet exploitation) for the synchronization of the database with its
neighbors.
Q. If my BGP neighbor is stuck in idle, or active state, what should I do?\
A. If BGP peer is in idle state then it could be due to physical connectivity failure or neighbor is
not defined with properly with respective AS. In connect state, BGP tries to establish TCP
session over port number 179 if it fails to establish TCP connection then it goes to Active state
where it retries to establish TCP connection. By using debug ip bgp and debug ip tcp transactions
commands, we can find out the exact cause of TCP connection failure. Lack of update-source
or ebgp-multihop command can also be a reason for neighbor active state; to learn more visit
the following link:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/13752-24.html

Q. How to resolve a BGP neighbor issue while receiving hold time expired notification
message?
A. This log message is common when a BGP peer flaps. If reachability breaks or fluctuates to a
defined BGP neighbor, then it goes down, but after the hold time expires. To resolve this
problem, you will need to fix BGP peering; possible issues could be due to MTU, unicast drop,
SP circuit down, or misconfiguration under BGP process.
The questions above are very collective and important from the standpoint of clearing an
interview for a NOC engineer/manager position. It is not possible for anyone to explain all kinds
of questions, but you can get more frequently asked interview questions for network operations
jobs from the download link posted here. If you find any difficulty in answering any question,
then you can write me @ comment section.
Before facing any Interview, a candidate should take care of following points;
A quick recap of relevant technologies
Read your resume throughout and detail your strength/weaknesses, achievements, and prior job
roles and responsibilities
Professional certifications allow the interviewer to understand your knowledge level, so point
out your certifications (if you have any)
Updated LinkedIn profile helps you a lot to get job recommendation and referrals for your
desired job roles
This article is the output of my extensive research and work experience, and my team, corporate
clients, and colleagues helped me a lot to develop this article. With this article, I am trying to
help/guide candidates about interview preparation for getting an engineering or management
position in the field of network operations.
I hope this article will be appreciated so that I will be able to offer more in this segment. You can
write me @comment section below for providing any query/feedback; I will try my best to
resolve your queries at the earliest. And dont forget to spread the link of this article on your
Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn accounts so the maximum of people can get this exclusive piece
of information. Keep reading @ Intenseschool.com and consider joining our Facebook group,
http://www.facebook.com/intenseschool, to get updates on new posts and technologies.

Introduction
Routing Protocol Selection Guide - IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP

Overview
The purpose of routing protocols is to learn of available routes that exist on the enterprise
network, build routing tables and make routing decisions. Some of the most common routing
protocols include IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and BGP. There are two primary routing protocol
types although many different routing protocols defined with those two types. Link state and
distance vector protocols comprise the primary types. Distance vector protocols advertise their
routing table to all directly connected neighbors at regular frequent intervals using a lot of
bandwidth and are slow to converge. When a route becomes unavailable, all router tables must
be updated with that new information. The problem is with each router having to advertise that
new information to its neighbors, it takes a long time for all routers to have a current accurate
view of the network. Distance vector protocols use fixed length subnet masks which aren't
scalable. Link state protocols advertise routing updates only when they occur which uses
bandwidth more effectively. Routers don't advertise the routing table which makes convergence
faster. The routing protocol will flood the network with link state advertisements to all neighbor
routers per area in an attempt to converge the network with new route information. The
incremental change is all that is advertised to all routers as a multicast LSA update. They use
variable length subnet masks, which are scalable and use addressing more efficiently.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)


Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a distance vector routing protocol developed by Cisco
systems for routing multiple protocols across small and medium sized Cisco networks. It is
proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. This contrasts with IP RIP and IPX RIP,
which are designed for multi-vendor networks. IGRP will route IP, IPX, Decnet and AppleTalk
which makes it very versatile for clients running many different protocols. It is somewhat more
scalable than RIP since it supports a hop count of 100, only advertises every 90 seconds and uses
a composite of five different metrics to select a best path destination. Note that since IGRP
advertises less frequently, it uses less bandwidth than RIP but converges much slower since it is
90 seconds before IGRP routers are aware of network topology changes. IGRP does recognize
assignment of different autonomous systems and automatically summarizes at network class
boundaries. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost
paths.

Characteristics

Distance Vector

Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

Routing Table Advertisements Every 90 Seconds

Metric: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

Hop Count: 100

Fixed Length Subnet Masks

Summarization on Network Class Address

Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths ( IOS 11.0 )

Update Timer: 90 seconds

Invalid Timer: 270 seconds

Holddown Timer: 280 seconds

Metric Calculation = destination path minimum BW * delay (usec)

Split Horizon

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)


Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol developed by Cisco
systems for routing many protocols across an enterprise Cisco network. It has characteristics of
both distance vector routing protocols and link state routing protocols. It is proprietary which
requires that you use Cisco routers. EIGRP will route the same protocols that IGRP routes (IP,
IPX, Decnet and Appletalk) and use the same composite metrics as IGRP to select a best path
destination. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost
paths. Summarization is automatic at a network class address however it can be configured to
summarize at subnet boundaries as well. Redistribution between IGRP and EIGRP is automatic
as well. There is support for a hop count of 255 and variable length subnet masks.

Convergence
Convergence with EIGRP is faster since it uses an algorithm called dual update algorithm or
DUAL, which is run when a router detects that a particular route is unavailable. The router
queries its neighbors looking for a feasible successor. That is defined as a neighbor with a least
cost route to a particular destination that doesn't cause any routing loops. EIGRP will update its
routing table with the new route and the associated metric. Route changes are advertised only to
affected routers when changes occur. That utilizes bandwidth more efficiently than distance
vector routing protocols.

Autonomous Systems

EIGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems which are processes running
under the same administrative routing domain. Assigning different autonomous system numbers
isn't for defining a backbone such as with OSPF. With IGRP and EIGRP it is used to change
route redistribution, filtering and summarization points.

Characteristics

Advanced Distance Vector

Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

Metrics: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

Hop Count: 255

Variable Length Subnet Masks

Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths (IOS 11.0)

Hello Timer: 1 second on Ethernet / 60 seconds on Non-Broadcast

Holddown Timer: 3 seconds on Ethernet / 180 seconds on Non-Broadcast

Metric Calculation = destination path minimum BW * delay (msec) * 25

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Support

Split Horizon

LSA Multicast Address: 224.0.0.10

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)


Open Shortest Path First is a true link state protocol developed as an open standard for routing IP
across large multi-vendor networks. A link state protocol will send link state advertisements to all
connected neighbors of the same area to communicate route information. Each OSPF enabled
router, when started, will send hello packets to all directly connected OSPF routers. The hello
packets contain information such as router timers, router ID and subnet mask. If the routers agree
on the information they become OSPF neighbors. Once routers become neighbors they establish
adjacencies by exchanging link state databases. Routers on point-to-point and point-to-multipoint
links (as specified with the OSPF interface type setting) automatically establish adjacencies.

Routers with OSPF interfaces configured as broadcast (Ethernet) and NBMA (Frame Relay) will
use a designated router that establishes those adjacencies.

Areas
OSPF uses a hierarchy with assigned areas that connect to a core backbone of routers. Each area
is defined by one or more routers that have established adjacencies. OSPF has defined backbone
area 0, stub areas, not-so-stubby areas and totally stubby areas. Area 0 is built with a group of
routers connected at a designated office or by WAN links across several offices. It is preferable
to have all area 0 routers connected with a full mesh using an Ethernet segment at a core office.
This provides for high performance and prevents partitioning of the area should a router
connection fail. Area 0 is a transit area for all traffic from attached areas. Any inter-area traffic
must route through area 0 first. Stub areas use a default route injected from the ABR to forward
traffic destined for any external routes (LSA 5,7) to the area border router. Inter-area (LSA 3,4)
and intra-area (LSA 1,2) routing is as usual. Totally Stubby areas are a Cisco specification that
uses a default route injected from the ABR for all Inter-area and external routes. The Totally
Stubby area doesn't advertise or receive external or Inter-area LSA's. The Not-So-Stubby area
ABR is a transit area that will import external routes with type 7 LSA and flood them to other
areas as type 5 LSA. External routes aren't received at that area type. Inter-area and intra-area
routing is as usual. OSPF defines internal routers, backbone routers, area border routers (ABR)
and autonomous system boundary routers (ASBR). Internal routers are specific to one area. Area
border routers have interfaces that are assigned to more than one area such as area 0 and area 10.
An autonomous system boundary router has interfaces assigned to OSPF and a different routing
protocol such as EIGRP or BGP. A virtual link is utilized when an area doesn't have a direct
connection to area 0. A virtual link is established between an area border router for an area that
isn't connected to area 0, and an area border router for an area that is connected to area 0. Area
design involves considering geographical location of offices and traffic flows across the
enterprise. It is important to be able to summarize addresses for many offices per area and
minimize broadcast traffic.

Convergence
Fast convergence is accomplished with the SPF (Dijkstra) algorithm which determines a shortest
path from source to destination. The routing table is built from running SPF which determines all
routes from neighbor routers. Since each OSPF router has a copy of the topology database and
routing table for its particular area, any route changes are detected faster than with distance
vector protocols and alternate routes are determined.

Designated Router
Broadcast networks such as Ethernet and Non-Broadcast Multi Access networks such as Frame
Relay have a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR) that are elected.
Designated routers establish adjacencies with all routers on that network segment. This is to
reduce broadcasts from all routers sending regular hello packets to its neighbors. The DR sends
multicast packets to all routers that it has established adjacencies with. If the DR fails, it is the
BDR that sends multicasts to specific routers. Each router is assigned a router ID, which is the

highest assigned IP address on a working interface. OSPF uses the router ID (RID) for all routing
processes.

Characteristics

Link State

Routes IP

Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

Metric: Composite Cost of each router to Destination (100,000,000/interface speed)

Hop Count: None (Limited by Network)

Variable Length Subnet Masks

Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

Load Balancing Across 4 Equal Cost Paths

Router Types: Internal, Backbone, ABR, ASBR

Area Types: Backbone, Stubby, Not-So-Stubby, Totally Stubby

LSA Types: Intra-Area (1,2) Inter-Area (3,4), External (5,7)

Fast Hello Timer Interval: 250 msec. for Ethernet, 30 seconds for Non-Broadcast

Dead Timer Interval: 1 second for Ethernet, 120 seconds for Non-Broadcast

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Support

LSA Multicast Address: 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6 (DR/BDR) Don't Filter!

Interface Types: Point to Point, Broadcast, Non-Broadcast, Point to Multipoint, Loopback

Integrated IS-IS
Integrated Intermediate System - Intermediate System routing protocol is a link state protocol
similar to OSPF that is used with large enterprise and ISP customers. An intermediate system is a
router and IS-IS is the routing protocol that routes packets between intermediate systems. IS-IS
utilizes a link state database and runs the SPF Dijkstra algorithm to select shortest paths routes.
Neighbor routers on point to point and point to multipoint links establish adjacencies by sending
hello packets and exchanging link state databases. IS-IS routers on broadcast and NBMA

networks select a designated router that establishes adjacencies with all neighbor routers on that
network. The designated router and each neighbor router will establish an adjacency with all
neighbor routers by multicasting link state advertisements to the network itself. That is different
from OSPF, which establishes adjacencies between the DR and each neighbor router only. IS-IS
uses a hierarchical area structure with level 1 and level 2 router types. Level 1 routers are similar
to OSPF intra-area routers, which have no direct connections outside of its area. Level 2 routers
comprise the backbone area which connects different areas similar to OSPF area 0. With IS-IS a
router can be an L1/L2 router which is like an OSPF area border router (ABR) which has
connections with its area and the backbone area. The difference with IS-IS is that the links
between routers comprise the area borders and not the router. Each IS-IS router must have an
assigned address that is unique for that routing domain. An address format is used which is
comprised of an area ID and a system ID. The area ID is the assigned area number and the
system ID is a MAC address from one of the router interfaces. There is support for variable
length subnet masks, which is standard with all link state protocols. Note that IS-IS assigns the
routing process to an interface instead of a network.

Characteristics

Link State

Routes IP, CLNS

Routing Advertisements: Partial When Routing Changes Occur

Metric: Variable Cost (default cost 10 assigned to each interface)

Hop Count: None (limited by network)

Variable Length Subnet Masks

Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

Hello Timer Interval: 10 seconds

Dead Timer Interval: 30 seconds

Area Types: Hierarchical Topology similar to OSPF

Router Types: Level 1 and Level 2

LSP Types: Internal L1 and L2, External L2

Designated Router Election, No BDR

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Support

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


Border Gateway Protocol is an exterior gateway protocol, which is different from the interior
gateway protocols discussed so far. The distinction is important since the term autonomous
system is used somewhat differently with protocols such as EIGRP than it is with BGP. Exterior
gateway protocols such as BGP route between autonomous systems, which are assigned a
particular AS number. AS numbers can be assigned to an office with one or several BGP routers.
The BGP routing table is comprised of destination IP addresses, an associated AS-Path to reach
that destination and a next hop router address. The AS-Path is a collection of AS numbers that
represent each office involved with routing packets. Contrast that with EIGRP, which uses
autonomous systems as well. The difference is their autonomous systems refer to a logical
grouping of routers within the same administrative system. An EIGRP network can configure
many autonomous systems. They are all managed by the company for defining route
summarization, redistribution and filtering. BGP is utilized a lot by Internet Service Providers
(ISP) and large enterprise companies that have dual homed internet connections with single or
dual routers homed to the same or different Internet Service Providers. BGP will route packets
across an ISP network, which is a separate routing domain that is managed by them. The ISP has
its own assigned AS number, which is assigned by InterNIC. New customers can either request
an AS assignment for their office from the ISP or InterNIC. A unique AS number assignment is
required for customers when they connect using BGP. There are 10 defined attributes that have a
particular order or sequence, which BGP utilizes as metrics to determine the best path to a
destination. Companies with only one circuit connection to an ISP will implement a default route
at their router, which forwards any packets that are destined for an external network. BGP routers
will redistribute routing information (peering) with all IGP routers on the network (EIGRP, RIP,
OSPF etc) which involve exchange of full routing tables. Once that is finished, incremental
updates are sent with topology changes. The BGP default keepalive timer is 60 seconds while the
holddown timer is 180 seconds. Each BGP router can be configured to filter routing broadcasts
with route maps instead of sending/receiving the entire internet routing table.

Characteristics

Path Vector

Routes IP

Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

Metrics: Weight, Local Preference, Local Originated, As Path, Origin Type, MED

Hop Count: 255

Variable Length Subnet Masks

Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

Keepalive Timer: 60 seconds

Holddown Timer: 180 seconds

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Support

Designated Router: Route Reflector

BGP Routing Table Components

Destination IP Address / Subnet Mask

AS-Path

Next Hop IP Address