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Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila

(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)


5
6
1
Percil, Queenie
, Salazar,
Eazyl
Compuesto,
Chenny
, Cuesta,
Alwyn2, Ogot, Krishna May3 , Pamaran, Sarah May4,

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels


Using Bomb Calorimeter
the calorific value can be calculated. The calorific value
obtained in a bomb calorimeter test represents the gross heat
of combustion per unit mass of fuel sample. This is the heat
produced when the sample burns, plus the heat given up
when the newly formed water vapor condenses and cools to
the temperature of the bomb. Determining calorific values is
profoundly important; fuels are one of the biggest
commodities in the world, and their calorific value. The
Bomb Calorimeter study is carried out to gain a better
understanding of the working principles behind the bomb
calorimeter and also to find out the gross calorific values of
different types of liquid fuel.

Abstract In this experiment we used a bomb calorimeter


to accurately determine the calorific value from the weight of
the liquid fuel used and the radiation correction in which it is
calculated from the rates of change of temperature of the water
before igniting the fuel sample and after the attainment of the
maximum temperature. By carefully controlling the pressure
and contents of the bomb, and by using samples such as
Kerosene, Diesel, and biodiesel with known values to calibrate,
we were able to calculate the value of kerosene, diesel and
biodiesel reasonably close to the literature value of each
sample, for kerosene (8365.2008 cal/g), diesel (10874.76 cal/g)
and for biodiesel (8786.80688 cal/g).The calorific value (CV) of
a specific type of fuel helps us measure and describe the energy
that is produced by a given type of fuel. The bomb calorimeter
is a device that burns a fuel sample and transfers the heat into
a known mass of water. Most of the original error can be traced
back to uncertainty in the quality of the fits of the fore- and
after drift, as the original masses of sample and length of fuse
wire both contribute only minimally to the final error.
Nevertheless, we received a fairly accurate measurement with a
good precision.

Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating


molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical
energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must
take the shape of their container. It is the fumes of liquid
fuels that are flammable instead of the fluid.
II. DISCUSSION
Heat released in a chemical reaction can be determined
experimentally by using an bomb (adiabatic) calorimeter.
The reaction must proceed without any side reactions and
sufficiently fast that the heat exchange with the
surroundings would be negligible. The heat of combustion
can be most measured conveniently using an adiabatic bomb
calorimeter. In this, the combustion reaction occurs in a
closed container under constant volume. The bomb is
immersed in a weighted quantity or particular volume of
water and surrounded by an adiabatic shield that serves as a
heat insulator.

Index Termsbomb calorimeter, calorific value, radiation


Correction

Ogot, Krishna May L. Chemical Engineering Department,


Technological Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and
Architecture,
Manila,
Philippines,
09157101950,
(e-mail:
ogotlegarde@gmail.com).
Percil, Queenie Rose I. Chemical Engineering Department,
Technological Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and
Architecture,
Manila,
Philippines,
09168206602,
(e-mail:
inniedc14@gmail.com).
Compuesto,
Chenny.
Chemical
Engineering
Department,
Technological Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and
Architecture,
Manila,
Philippines,
09192758373,
(e-mail:
bischeakohahaha@gmail.com).
Eazyl D. Salazar, Chemical Engineering Department, Technological
Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and Architecture,
Manila, Philippines, 09267880602, (e-mail: eazylsalazar@gmail.com).
Alwyn Wren C. Cuesta, Chemical Engineering Department,
Technological Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and
Architecture, 09063988292., (e-mail: alwyn_wren@yahoo.com).
Sarah May M. Pamaran, Chemical Engineering Department,
Technological Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and
Architecture,
Manila,
Philippines,
09478483660,
(e-mail:
sarahmhay62@gmail.com)

Continuous stirring ensures that heat is distributed evenly in


the calorimeter. An adiabatic bomb calorimeter comprises of
the bomb and the water bath which are in direct thermal
contact. In this experiment, the heat of combustion of three
different liquid fuels will be determined using this
calorimeter. The heat of combustion is directly related to
important quantities such as the internal energy and enthalpy
of a chemical reaction.
III. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

I.

Bomb Calorimeter Set for Testing Calorific Value of


Fuels, TBCF.
Fuse wire
Graduated Cylinder (2000mL)
Laptop (Lab VIEW)
Analytical Balance
Funnel
Liquid Fuel Samples:
Kerosene
Diesel
Biodiesel

INTRODUCTION

Calorimetry is a fundamental test of great significance to


anyone concerned with the production or utilization of solid
or liquid fuels. One of the most important tests in the
evaluation of materials which are burned, as fuels, is the
determination of the heat of combustion, or calorific value.
These measurements can be made in the Bomb Calorimeter
Set for Testing Calorific Value of Fuels (TBCF). The Bomb
Calorimeter is a classic device used to determine the heating
or calorific value of solid and liquid fuel samples at constant
volume. Basically, this device burns a fuel sample and
transfers the heat into a known mass of water. From the
weight of the fuel sample and temperature rise of the water,

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter


IV. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Fig. 4 Attachment of the ignition wire


P. W. Atkins and J. de Paula, Physical Chemistry (7th ed.)

Fig. 1 Bomb Calorimeter Set Up

V. PROCEDURE
1. Prepare the fuel sample by placing it in a crucible and
weighing it on a balance. Ensure that the sample of the fuel
will not overflow the crucible. Note down the weight of the
fuel sample and place the crucible containing the fuel gently
in the loop holder.
2. The bomb head has been pre-attached with 10.5 cm long
fuse mire between the two electrodes. Bend the use wire
down just above the liquid fuel sample. The wire must not
make contact with the fuel crucible. To attach the fuse to
quick-grip electrodes, insert the ends of the wire into the
eyelet at the end of each stem and push the cap downward to
pinch the wire into place. No further threading or twisting is
required.
Fig. 2 Actual Bomb Calorimeter Set Up

3. It is not necessary to submerge the wire in a powdered


sample. In fact, better combustions will usually be obtained
it the loop of the fuse is set slightly above the surface. When
using pelleted samples, bend the wire so that the loop bears
against the top of the pellet firmly enough to keep it from
sliding against the side of the capsule.
4. Care must be taken no to disturb the sample when moving
the bomb head from to the calorimeter bomb. Check the
sealing ring to be sure that it is in good condition and
moisten it with a hit of water so that it will slide freely into
the body of the calorimeter bomb, then slide the head into
the bomb and push it down as far as it will go. Set the screw
cap on the bomb and turn it down firmly by hand to a solid
stop. When properly closed, no threads on the bomb should
be exposed.
5. Oxygen for the bomb can be drawn from a standard
commercial oxygen cylinder. Connect the regulator to the
cylinder, keeping the 0-55 atm. in an upright position.

Fig. 2 Proper placement of the sample, crucible, and ignition


wire

The pressure connection to the bomb is made with a slip


connector on the oxygen hose which slides over the gas inlet
titling on the bomb head. Slide the connector onto the inlet
valve body and push it down as far as it will go.

P. W. Atkins and J. de Paula, Physical Chemistry (7th ed.)

Close the outlet valve on the bomb head; then open or


"crack" the oxygen tank valve not more than one-quarter
turn. Open the filling connection control valve slowly and
watch the gage as the bomb pressure rises to the desired
filling pressure (30 atm); then close the control valve. The

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)
bomb inlet check valve will close automatically when the
oxygen supply is shut off, leaving the bomb filled to the
highest pressure indicated on the 0-55 atm. Release the
residual pressure in the filling hose by pushing downward
on the lever attached to the relief valve. The gage should
now return to zero.

18. On completion of experiment, wash all inner surfaces of


the bomb and the combustion crucible with a jet of distilled
water and collect the washings. Keep the bomb set dry and
clean with some wiping tissue.

6. Fill the calorimeter vessel by first taring the empty vessel,


then add 3000 ml of water.

VI. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

7. Introduce the bomb calorimeter inside the calorimeter


vessel. Handle the bomb carefully during this operation so
that the sample will not be disturbed.

Figure 1

8. Check the bomb for leaks before firing. If any gas leakage
was observed, no matter how slight, do not fire the bomb.
Instead remove it from the water bath; release the pressure
and eliminate the leak before proceeding with combustion
test.
9. Fill the jacket with water.
10. Put the cover on the jacket. Turn the stirrer by hand to be
sure that it runs freely and start the motor. Install the
Beckman thermometer; this thermometer should he
immersed in eater and not close to the bomb.
11. Let the stirrer run for at least 5 minutes to reach
equilibrium before starting a measured run.
12. The scanning of the temperature data is pre-set to be
done once a minute. At the start of the fifth minute, fire the
charge by pressing the firing button on the control unit,
keeping the circuit closed for about 5 seconds.
13. The vessel temperature will start to rise within 20-30
seconds after firing. This rise will be rapid during the first
few minutes; then it will become slower as the temperature
approaches a stable maximum as shown by the typical rise
curve. Accurate time and temperature observations must be
recorded to identify certain points needed to calculate the
calorific value of the sample.
14. Usually the temperature will reach a maximum then it
will drop very slowly. But this is not always true since a low
starting temperature may result in a slow continuous rise
without reaching a maximum. As stated, the difference
between successive readings must be noted and the readings
continued until the rate of the temperature change becomes
constant over a period of 5 minutes.
15. After the last temperature reading, stop the stirrer. Let
the bomb stand in the calorimeter vessel for at least 3
minutes. Then remove the jacket cover and extract the bomb
calorimeter. Wipe the bomb with a clean cloth.

VII. DATA AND RESULTS


Constant values: Pressure = 30 atm
Fuse wire length = 10.5 cm
Weight of water being heated =
3011.333152 g
Room temperature = 27~29 OC

16. Open the valve knob on the bomb head slightly to


release all residual gas pressure before attempting to remove
the screw cap. This release should proceed slowly over a
period of not less than one minute to avoid entrainment
losses. After all pressure has been released, unscrew the cap;
lift the head out of the cylinder. Do not twist the head during
removal. Pull it straight out to avoid sticking. Examine the
interior of the bomb for soot or other evidence of incomplete
combustion. If such evidence is found, the test will have to
be discarded.

Compound
Trial
Weight
of
Sample (g)
Max. Temp. (C)
Time at Max.
(min)
Equilibrium

17. Remove all unburned pieces of fuse wire from the bomb
electrodes.

Diesel
1

2
2.20

33.4609375

35.2578125

10.275

8.478

32.9531250

34.6250000

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter


Temp. (C)
Time
at
Equilibrium
(min)
Ave. Radiation
Correction
Ave. Temp. rise
(C)
Corrected Temp.
Rise (C)

40.000

40.000

0.121632795
5.0315

15,517.79964

Calorific
(cal/g)

7,053.545291

Value

Compound
Trial
Weight
of
Sample (g)
Max. Temp.
(C)
Time at Max.
(min)
Equilibrium
Temp. (C)
Time
at
Equilibrium
(min)
Ave.
Radiation
Correction
Ave. Temp.
rise (C)

21,683.42176
7670.117354

5.1531328

Heat Absorbed
by Water (cal)

Compound
Trial
Weight
of
Sample (g)
Max. Temp.
(C)
Time at Max.
(min)
Equilibrium
Temp. (C)
Time
at
Equilibrium
(min)
Ave.
Radiation
Correction
Ave. Temp.
rise (C)
Corrected
Temp. Rise
(C)
Heat
Absorbed by
Water (cal)
Calorific
Value (cal/g)

7.2006054

Corrected
Temp. Rise
(C)
Heat
Absorbed by
Water (cal)
Calorific
Value (cal/g)

34.6484375
8.783
33.8984375
40.000

Kerosene
2
2.597

Calculated CVs of liquid fuel samples

36.867187
5
30.140

35.507812
5
7.800

36.710937
5
42.500

34.546875
0
40.000

9201.159175

35.4453125
40.000

Diesel

10,874.76

35.1384

Kerosene

7,053.54529
1
9201.159175

8365.2008

10.0000

Biodiesel

7670.117354

8786.8068
8

12.7081

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

23,895.41038

11.080

Percentage
Error (%)

Slope Calculation:
TM = 33.4609375 OC
tM = 10.275 min
TE = 32.9531250 OC
tE = 40.000 min

7.93516

36.1171875

True
Value
(cal/g)

Calculations for Diesel


TRIAL 1:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 3-minute mark

7.7473958

Biodiesel
2
2.827

Calorific
Value (cal/g)

VIII. CALCULATIONS

0.1877717

Sample

Slope=

T M T E
t E t M

Slope=

33.460937532.9531250
4010.275

33.914062
5
13.563

36.390625
0
7.950

33.578125
0
40.000

35.953125
0
25.000

Slope = 0.0170837
Radiation Correction Calculation:
n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
first minute mark, divided by four
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the
beginning, divided by four

0.1597254
7.04088

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)
Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 28
O
C

Radiation Correction Calculation:


n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
0 (beginning)
28.0546875 - 28 = 0.0546875
first minute mark, divided by four
2
28.0781250 28 = 0.078125
v = change in change in temperature before the
3 (ignition)
28.0859375 28 = 0.0859375
ignition and the change in temperature at the
10.275 (max)
33.4609375 28 = 5.4609375
beginning, divided by four
11.275 (minute after max)
33.4453125 28 = 5.4453125
15.275 (fourth minute mark
33.3984375 28 = 5.3984375
Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 28
after the minute after max)
O
C
Also note that it was ignited at 6-second mark so there is no
data for the before-ignition-change-in-temperature
n = 10.275 3.000 = 7.275 min
Thus, the ignitions change in temperature will be used for
the computation of v
5.44531255.3984375
'
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
v=
=0.01171875
4
0 (beginning)
28.5625000 28 = 0.562500

0.0781250.0546875
=0.005859375
4
' v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv +
2

v=

Radiation Correction

7.2750.01171875 +

28
28
28
28

=
=
=
=

0.570312
5.257812
5.242187
5.171875

0.005859375+0.01171875
2
n = 8.478 0.100 = 8.378 min

Radiation Correction = 0.08818359

5.24218755.1718750
=0.017578125
4
0.57031250.5625000
v=
=0.001953125
4
' v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv +
2
v'=

Rise in Temperature during Test = change in temperature at


maximum change in temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 5.4609375 - 0.0859375 =
5.375 OC
TRIAL 2:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 0.1-minute mark (6 seconds after running)

Radiation Correction

8.3780.017578125+

Slope Calculation:
TM = 35.2578125 OC
tM = 8.478 min
TE = 34.6250000 OC
tE = 40.000 min

0.00195315+0.0175781
2

Radiation Correction = 0.1550820


Rise in Temperature during Test = change in
temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 5.2578125 0.5703125 = 4.688 OC

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

Slope=

28.5703125
35.2578125
35.2421875
35.1718750

0.100 (ignition)
8.478 (max)
9.478 (minute after max)
13.478 (fourth minute mark
after the minute after max)

Calorific Value Calculations for Diesel:


Average Radiation Correction of Diesel

T M T E
t E t M

0 . 08818359+0 . 1550820
2

= 0.121632795

35.257812534.6250000
Slope=
408.478

Average Rise in Temperature

Slope = 0.0200752

5 . 375+4 .688
2

= 5.0315 OC

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter


beginning, divided by four
Average Weight of Diesel Fuel

2 . 14+2 . 25
2

Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 27


O
C.
Also note that the beginning is 1 and not 0 because we
= 2.20 g
forgot to turn on the agitator before running the test.
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
Corrected Rise in Temperature
1 (beginning)
27.4609375 27 = 0.460937
RadiationCorrection + RiseTemperature
2
27.4609375 27 = 0.460937
0 .121632795+5 . 0315
3
(ignition)
27.4765625
27 = 0.476562
= 5.1531328 OC
8.783 (max)
34.6484375 27 = 7.648437
9.783 (minute after max)
34.6484375 27 = 7.648437
Heat Absorbed by Water
13.783 (fourth minute mark
34.5625000 27 = 7.562500
Weight of Water being HeatedCorrection RiseTemperature
after the minute after max)

3011 .3331525 .1531328

= 15,517.79964 cal
n = 8.783 3.000 = 5.783 min

Calorific Value of Diesel

Heat Absorbed by Water


AverageWeight of Fuel
15 , 517 . 79964

2 . 20

7.64843757.5625000
=0.01171875
4
0.46093750.4609375
v=
=0.0000000
4

'

v=

= 7,053.545291 cal/g

RadiationCorrection=nv ' +
Calculations for Kerosene
TRIAL 1:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 3-minute mark

Radiation Correction

5.7830.01171875 +

Slope Calculation:
TM = 34.6484375 OC
tM = 8.783 min
TE = 33.8984375 OC
tE = 40.000 min

0+ 0.01171875
2

Radiation Correction = 0.0736289


Rise in Temperature during Test = change in
temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 7.6484375 0.4765625 = 7.171875 OC

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

TRIAL 2:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 42.5-minute mark
Ignition: 0.1-minute mark (6 seconds after running)
Slope Calculation:
TM = 36.8671875 OC
tM = 30.140 min
TE = 36.7109375 OC
tE = 42.500 min

T T E
Slope= M
t E t M
Slope=

v + v '
2

34.648437533.8984375
408.783

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

Slope = 0.0240254
Radiation Correction Calculation:
n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
first minute mark, divided by four
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the

Slope=

T M T E
t E t M

Slope=

36.867187536.7109375
42.530.141

Slope = 0.0126426

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

Radiation Correction Calculation:


n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
first minute mark, divided by four
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the
beginning, divided by four

Slope=

T M T E
t E t M

Slope=

35.507812534.5468750
407.8

Slope = 0.0298428

Radiation Correction Calculation:


Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 29
n = time difference between maximum temperature and
O
C
ignition
Also note that it was ignited at 6-second mark so there is no
v = change in change in temperature at the
data for the before-ignition-change-in-temperature
first minute mark after the attainment of
Thus, the ignitions change in temperature will be used for
maximum temperature and the change in
the computation of v
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
first minute mark, divided by four
0 (beginning)
29.1015625 29 = 0.1015625
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the
0.100 (ignition)
29.1015625 29 = 0.1015625
beginning, divided by four
30.140 (max)
36.8671875 29 = 7.8671875
Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 27
31.140 (minute after max)
36.8593750 29 = 7.859375
O
C
35.140 (fourth minute mark
36.8203125 29 = 7.8203125
Also
note that it was ignited at 6-second mark so there is no
after the minute after max)
data for the before-ignition-change-in-temperature
Thus, the ignitions change in temperature will be used for
the computation of v
n = 30.140 0.100 = 30.04 min
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
0
(beginning)
27.2031250
27 = 0.203125
7.8593757.8203125
'

v=

=0.0097656
4
0.10156250.1015625
v=
=0.0000000
4
' v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv +
2

Radiation Correction

30.040.0097656+

0.100 (ignition)
7.14 (max)
8.14 (minute after max)
12 (fourth minute mark after
the minute after max)

0+ 0.0097656
2

27.2031250
35.5078125
35.5000000
35.3984375

27
27
27
27

n = 7.140 0.100 = 7.040 min

Radiation Correction = 0.2982414

8.50000008.3984375
=0.0253906
4
0.20312500.2031250
v=
=0.0000000
4
' v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv +
2
v'=

Rise in Temperature during Test = change in


temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 7.8671875 0.1015625 = 7.765625 OC

Radiation Correction

TRIAL 3:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 0.1-minute mark (6 seconds after running)

7.0400.0253906+

0+0.0253906
2

Radiation Correction = 0.1914451

Slope Calculation:
TM = 35.5078125 OC
tM = 7.800 min
TE = 34.5468750 OC
tE = 40.000 min

Rise in Temperature during Test = change in


temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 8.5078125 0.2031250 = 8.3046875 OC

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature

Calorific Value Calculations for


Kerosene

=
=
=
=

0.203125
8.507812
8.500000
8.398437

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter


v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
first minute mark, divided by four
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the
beginning, divided by four

Average Radiation Correction of Kerosene

0 . 0736289+0 . 2982414+0 . 1914451


3

= 0.1877718
Average Rise in Temperature

7 . 171875+7 . 765625+ 8 .3046875


3

= 7.7473958 OC

Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 28


O
C.
Also note that the beginning is 1 and not 0 because we
forgot to turn on the agitator before running the test.
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
1 (beginning)
28.3750000 28 = 0.375000
2
28.3906250 28 = 0.390625
3 (ignition)
28.3984375 28 = 0.398437
11.080 (max)
36.1171875 28 = 8.117187
12.080 (minute after max)
36.1171875 28 = 8.117187
16.080 (fourth minute mark
36.0234375 28 = 8.023437
after the minute after max)

Average Weight of Diesel Fuel

2 . 64+2 . 50+2. 65
3

= 2.597 g
Corrected Rise in Temperature

RadiationCorrection + RiseTemperature
0 .1877718+7 . 7473958

= 7.93516 OC
Heat Absorbed by Water

Weight of Water being HeatedCorrection RiseTemperature


n = 11.080 3.000 = 8.080 min
3011 .3331527 . 93516

= 23,895.41038 cal

8.11718758.0234375
=0.0234375
4
0.39062500.3750000
v=
=0.0039063
4
v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv ' +
2
v'=

Calorific Value of Diesel

Heat Absorbed by Water


AverageWeight of Fuel
23 , 895 . 41038

2 . 597

Radiation Correction

= 9201.159175 cal/g

8.0800.0234375+
Calculations for Biodiesel
TRIAL 1:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 3-minute mark

Radiation Correction = 0.1991406


Rise in Temperature during Test = change in
temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 8.1171875
0.3984375 = 7.71875 OC

Slope Calculation:
TM = 36.1171875 OC
tM = 11.080 min
TE = 35.4453125 OC
tE = 40.000 min

TRIAL 2:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 40-minute mark
Ignition: 3-minute mark

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

Slope=
Slope=

0.0039063+0.0234375
2

Slope Calculation:
TM = 33.9140625 OC
tM = 13.563 min
TE = 33.5781250 OC
tE = 40.000 min

T M T E
t E t M

Where:
TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

36.117187535.4453125
4011.080

Slope = 0.0232322

Slope=

Radiation Correction Calculation:


n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition

T M T E
t E t M

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)

Slope=

33.914062533.5781250
4013.563

TM = maximum temperature
tM = time at maximum temperature
TE = equilibrium temperature
tE = time at equilibrium temperature

Slope = 0.0127071
Radiation Correction Calculation:
n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
first minute mark after the attainment of
maximum temperature and the change in
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
first minute mark, divided by four
v = change in change in temperature before the
ignition and the change in temperature at the
beginning, divided by four

Slope=

T M T E
t E t M

Slope=

36.390625035.9531250
257.95

Slope = 0.0256598

Radiation Correction Calculation:


n = time difference between maximum temperature and
ignition
v = change in change in temperature at the
Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 28
O
first minute mark after the attainment of
C.
maximum temperature and the change in
Also note that the beginning is 1 and not 0 because we
temperature at the fourth minute mark after the
forgot to turn on the agitator before running the test.
first minute mark, divided by four
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
v = change in change in temperature before the
1 (beginning)
28.6250000 28 = 0.6250000
ignition and the change in temperature at the
2
28.7187500 28 = 0.7187500
beginning, divided by four
3 (ignition)
28.7265625 28 = 0.7265625
13.563 (max)
33.9140625 28 = 5.9140625
Note that the room temperature during the experiment is 28
14.563 (minute after max)
33.9062500 28 = 5.9062500
O
C
18.563 (fourth minute mark
33.8593750 28 = 5.8593750
Also note that it was ignited at 6-second mark so there is no
after the minute after max)
data for the before-ignition-change-in-temperature

Thus, the ignitions change in temperature will be used for


the computation of v
time mark reading (min)
change in temperature
0 (beginning)
28.8359375 28 = 0.835937

n = 13.563 3.000 = 10.563 min

5.90625005.8593750
=0.01171875
4
0.71875000.6250000
v=
=0.0234375
4
' v + v '
RadiationCorrection=nv +
2
v'=

0.100 (ignition)
7.95 (max)
8.95 (minute after max)
12.95 (fourth minute mark
after the minute after max)

28.8281250
36.3906250
36.3750000
36.2968750

28
28
28
28

=
=
=
=

Radiation Correction

0.0234375+0.01171875 n = 7.95 0.100 = 7.850 min


2
Radiation Correction = 0.1179258
8.37500008.2968750
v'=
=0.0195313
4
Rise in Temperature during Test = change in
0.82812500.8359375
temperature at maximum change in
v=
=0.0019531
4
temperature at ignition
v + v '
Rise in Temperature during Test = 5.9140625
RadiationCorrection=nv ' +
0.07265625 = 5.8414063 OC
2
10.5630.01171875 +

TRIAL 3:
Assumption: The end of post period is at 25-minute mark
Ignition: 0.1-minute mark (6 seconds after running)

Radiation Correction

Slope Calculation:
TM = 36.3906250 OC
tM = 7.950 min
TE = 35.9531250 OC
tE = 25.000 min

Radiation Correction = 0.16210981

7.8500.0195313+

0.0019531+0.0195313
2

Rise in Temperature during Test = change in


temperature at maximum change in
temperature at ignition
Rise in Temperature during Test = 8.3906250 0.8281250 = 7.5625 OC

Where:

0.828125
8.390625
8.375000
8.296875

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter

experimental theoretical
l X 100
theoretical

Calorific Value Calculations for Biodiesel:

%error=l

Average Radiation Correction of Biodiesel

True Calorific value of KEROSENE:8786.80688 cal/g

0 . 1991406+0 . 1179258+0 . 16210981

= 0.1597254

%error=l

7670.1173548786.80688
l X 100 =
8786.80688

12.7081 %

Average Rise in Temperature

7 . 71875+5 . 8414063+7 .5625


3

= 7.04088 OC
Average Weight of Diesel Fuel

2 . 85+2 .81+2 . 82
3

IX. CONCLUSION
In this experiment, we used Lab VIEW in conjunction with
a bomb calorimeter to determine the calorific value of
different types of Fuel. The experiments carried out were
quite successful, and yielded valid results. The final results
of the experiment are given as follows:

= 2.827 g
Corrected Rise in Temperature

RadiationCorrection + RiseTemperature
0 .1597254 +7 . 04088

= 7.2006054 OC
Heat Absorbed by Water

Sample

Calorific
Value (cal/g)

True
Value
(cal/g)

Percentage
Error (%)

Diesel

10,874.76

35.1384

Kerosene

7,053.54529
1
9201.159175

8365.2008

10.0000

Biodiesel

7670.117354

8786.8068
8

12.7081

Weight of Water being HeatedCorrection RiseTemperature


3011 .3331527 .2006054

= 21,683.42176 cal
:
Calorific Value of Diesel

Heat Absorbed by Water


AverageWeight of Fuel
21 , 683 . 42176

2 . 827

= 7670.117354 cal/g

Our calculated values of the calorific value of our known


samples, though not perfect, are from bad, with respectable
for diesel trial 1 (29.57%), trial 2 (45.467%), for kerosene
trial 1 (1.57%), trial 2 (15.677%), and trial 3 (14.98%) , for
Biodiesel Trial 1 (5.15%), trial 2 (27.59%) and trial 3
(6.48%) error from literature values. Our result is
understandable and adequate. Understanding how bomb
calorimeter is different from standard constant-pressure
calorimetry methods is a key to realizing why bomb
calorimeter is the method of choice for accurate
measurement of energies and elemental analysis.

% Error of DIESEL (TRIAL 1)


%error=l

experimental theoretical
l X 100
theoretical

True Calorific value of Diesel:10874.76 cal/g


%error=l

7053.54529110874.76
l X 100 =
10874.76

35.1384 %
% Error of KEROSENE (TRIAL 1)
%error=l

experimental theoretical
l X 100
theoretical

X. HAZARDS AND COUNTERMEASURES


Skin burns refrain from touching the calorimeter
immediately right after the trial was done. Wait for a few
minutes for its system to cool down.
Serious facial injury secure that the calorimeter is tightly
sealed before pressurizing it to avoid injuries that the loose
lid might cause.
Electrocution check for any submerged or broken
electrical wires before powering up or setting up the
apparatus.
Explosion refrain from using any materials that can induce
combustion of the liquid fuel samples while performing the
experiment.

True Calorific value of KEROSENE:8365.2008 cal/g


%error=l

9201.1591758365.2008
l X 100 =
8365.2008

10.0000 %
% Error of BIODIESEL (TRIAL 1)

XI.

WASTE DISPOSAL

Properly segregate or provide a secured bin for the rags,


cloths, and tissues used to wipe the crucible and the liquid
fuel spills.

10

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)

XII. APPENDIX

Oxygen gas tank for pressure filling

Bomb Calorimeter Set Up

Post-laboratory group picture

DataStudio displaying the measured temperature inside the


calorimeter

Post-laboratory group picture

From left to right: diesel, kerosene, and biodiesel

11

Determination of Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels Using Bomb Calorimeter


XIII. AUTHORS

Krishna May Ogot


Currently resides in Taguig City. She took up
Chemical
Engineering
Technology
in
Technological University of the PhilippinesTaguig for three years and had a Supervised
Industrial Training in S.C. Johnson and Son for a span of six months. At
present she is now continuing her studies in Technological Institute of the
Philippines- Manila with a program of B.S. Chemical Engineering. Not
much of an achievement can be said to her because she is still learning on
how to become a full pledge Chemical Engineer. Aside from being a
licensed chemical engineer she wants to continue her studies to masteral
degree and if possible until doctorate but she knows overcoming this goals
can be hard but fulfilling. However with the support from her family and
with God she can make these things possible.

Sarah May Manzano Pamaran


22 years old. I graduated from Technological University of the PhilippinesTaguig Campus as a Chemical Technician. One of my biggest dreams is to
become an Engineer, thats why Ive decided to continue my Bachelors
Degree here in TIP-Manila Campus. Im a hard working person, though
sometimes I wanted to give up in this program, because we all know that
Engineering Program specifically CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is not easy
as the other people thought. I remember when I was studying in TUPTaguig one of the hardest Program there is Chemical Engineering
Technology, our professor always tells us that if we cant handle being a
Chem. Tech student, we have no rights to pursue BS Chemical Engineering.
So, as I study here in TIP and took some major courses, it taught me how to
handle problems and manage my time in terms of school, family, and
friends because in Engineering Program you have no choice but to study
and study and study and study. As of now one of the hardest course that I
have encounter in TIP was Chemical Calculation1 and also Chemical
Calculation2. I dont know but the CheCal course is not just a course that
youll have to calculate this using this formula,
you need to analyze and understand carefully each
problem because this course is very complicated.
But then Im so thankful that we have Engr.
Crizaldy Tugade to teach us, he always let us
understands the topic clearly.

technology, computers, plant designs and conversions of raw materials into


advanced materials. He is highly imaginative and an introvert, and his
conviction and dedication are what set him apart from anybody else.
As of now, he is struggling against a series of unfortunate events towards
his dreams such as two of his major courses- Integration Course 1 and
Chemical Engineering Calculations 2. Despite of almost collapsing from
numerous numbers of projects and having only a few hours of sleep, he
never gave up on Chemical Engineering because of his extreme love with
it. He dreams of using his skills in Chemical Engineering to create all of his
fictitious and astounding imagination in the future such asbuilding the Iron
Man Armor, creating the Dragon Blade of Hiccup, and the invention of a
medicine that regenerates telomeres to achieve immortality.

Eazyl D. Salazar
finished her elementary and secondary studies at
Holy Word Academy. She was awarded as the
class salutatorian and consistently part of the top
three (3rd honorable mention) students during her
elementary and high school years respectively.
Aside from her academic awards, she was active in
participating on extra-curricular activities resulting on becoming one of
the representatives of the said school for its music team, and the short story
writer for Junior Student Convention and National Student Convention of
School of Tomorrow Philippines. She had won several awards such as
consistent 6th place for her two short stories (in Filipino), and 2 nd and 3rd
place for the Trio and Duet Female respectively. She started her tertiary
education at Adamson University under the program Chemical
Engineering from year 2010 to 2012. She then continued the said program
at Technological Institute of the Philippines after being in her previous
school for two years.
Chenny Ibaez Compuesto
I am Chenny Ibanez Compuesto, a Chemical
Engineering student. I was born on May 13, 1996
in Antipolo City. I didnt imagine that I would
take Chemical Engineering. I knew back then that
ENGINEERING isnt an easy way to be
successful. After all, my high-school crush, who
at first wanted to take this program but resorted
to BS Math in UP Diliman, warned me that it will be full of Math, and he is
right. But, because of a sudden turn of events, my dream to be a simple
chemical analyst was redirected into this new path: to be a chemical
engineer. (At least there are a few differences between a chemist and Ch.E.,
since both has board exams.) Now, I enjoy my studying here, although I
experience difficulty and pressure in keeping up with school work, extracurricular activities and varying attitudes of upperclassmen,
underclassmen and batch mates. I am currently involved as a committee
member in one of the organizations in my department, and I still compete in
the quiz bees here in TIP and even for the first time in the National Quiz
bee. I still have my aim to finish my undergraduate studies here, and soon
enough, be a topnotcher, if not, a Ch.E. board passer, but for now, Ill enjoy
every single moment that I have to make here, so that when time comes, Ill
never have any regrets.

Queenie Rose Percil


A simple Chemical Engineering student who is the eldest among my
siblings. I love to sing and do a lot of physical activities such as hiking.
Being the eldest among my siblings, I am entitled with a big responsibility.
Aside from that, I am also a good and caring friend that you can rely on
everytime. You will get wrong with with me the first time you met me
because I look so snobbish but reality says that I am really approachable.
One of my biggest dreams is to see my parents during my graduation. Aside
from being a Chemical Engineer, I also wanted to be a Doctor of Internal
Medicine. I really wanted my parents to be so proud of me. I'll prove to
them that I am completely different a lot bigger than those people they are
comparing to me.

Alwyn Wren Cuesta


Alwyn Wren Cuesta was born on 11 November 1997
in Quezon City, Philippines. He is a junior student
at the Technological Institute of the Philippines
Manila and currently taking up a bachelors degree
in Chemical Engineering. He is an avid reader, an
otaku, a gamer, an inventor and a violinist. As a
chemical engineering student he has trained and still training to perform
highly in different fields such as mathematics, biochemistry, particle

12

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila


(Chemical Engineering Calculations II, 2nd Semester, 2015-2016)

13