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Lab 9: Potentiometric Titration of an Unknown Acid Mixture

Submitted by: Justin Williams

Submitted on: March 3rd, 2016

Objective:

The objective of this experiment was to prepare and standardize a 0.1M NaOH
through potentiometric titration using KHP and phenolphthalein indicator. The
standardized NaOH solution was then used to determine the molarity of the acids
HCl and H3PO4 in unknown solution #138 through titration.
Safety:
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH): If comes in contact with eyes rinse with plenty of water
for 15mins, seek medical attention. If comes in contact with skin rinse with plenty of
water for 15mins, cover the irritated skin with an emollient and seek medical
attention. If inhaled or ingested and symptoms are felt seek medical attention. This
is an odorless white solid with a molecular weight of 40g/mol and is easily soluble in
cold water. Avoid contact with skin or hands when handling. Use this chemical in
adequate ventilation. This should be disposed of in appropriate container.
Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP): If comes in contact with eyes or skin this
chemical flush area with water for 15mins, and seek medical attention. It may cause
irritation. If ingested or inhaled seek medical attention if symptoms occur. Use with
adequate ventilation. If chemical is spilt sweet or vacuum into suitable container,
try not to produce dust. Do not let this chemical enter the environment. This
chemical is a crystal-like white odorless solid. It is soluble in water and has a
molecular weight of 204.22g/mol. This chemical should be disposed of in
appropriate container.
Phenolphthalein indicator: Avoid contact with skin or eyes and inhalation or
ingestion when handling this product. If comes in contact with skin rinse infected
area with water for 15mins, cover with an emollient and seek medical attention. If
comes in contact with eyes rinse with water for 15mins, and seek medical attention.
If ingested or inhaled seek medical attention if symptoms occur. If this chemical is
spilt dilute the spill with water and mop it up, or absorb with an inert dry material
and place in disposal bin. Keep away from heat and sources of ignition. This is a
colourless liquid that is easily soluble in cold and hot water.
Calculations/Observations:
15.00g of sodium hydroxide was used to prepare the 0.1M NaOH solution.
Table 1: Results for standardization of prepared NaOH
Titration

Weight of KHP
used

Initial Burette
reading (mL)

Final Burette
reading (mL)

0.8096g

2.00mL

0.8109g

5.00mL

5.00mL
(Burette was
refilled to
0.00mL)
9.15mL
(Burette was
refilled to
1.00mL)

Total volume
dispensed
(mL)
53.00mL

53.15mL

0.8058g

10.00mL

47.55mL
(Burette was
refilled to
35.00mL)

52.55mL

Sample Calculation using Titration 1:


Molar mass: 204.22g/mol
0.8096g/ 204.22g/mol = 0.00396435moles
Moles KHP= Moles NaOH
Molarity NaOH= moles/L
=0.00396453moles / 0.0530L
=0.07479910M
Table 2: Determining Molarity of NaOH solution
Titration

Moles KHP

Moles NaOH

Molarity

0.00396435mole
s
0.00397072mole
s
0.00394574mole
s

0.00396435mole
s
0.00397072mole
s
0.00394574mole
s

0.07479910M

2
3

0.07470777M
0.07508553M

Graph 1: Volume of NaOH added vs the pH of unknown solution #138

Volume of NaOH vs pH of solution


12
10
8

pH of Solution

6
4
2
0

10

15

20

25

30

Volume of NaOH added (mL)

Equivalence point 1 Orange dot = 17.40mL


Equivalence point 2 Red dot = 25.85mL

35

40

Average
Molarity
0.0748641
3M

Equivalence point 1 calculation:


Moles NaOH = volume NaOH x Molarity NaOH
=0.01740L x 0.07486413M
=0.00130264moles HCl
Moles NaOH = Moles HCl
Molarity HCl = 0.00130264moles / 0.0250L
=0.052105M
=0.0521M
Equivalence point 2 Calculation:
25.85mL 17.40mL = 8.45mL
Moles NaOH= 0.00845L x 0.07486413M
=0.00063260moles
Moles NaOH = Moles H3PO4
Molarity H3PO4= 0.00063260moles / 0.0250L
=0.025304M
=0.0253M
Discussion:
The objective of this experiment was to prepare and standardize a 0.1M sodium
hydroxide solution and using that solution determine the concentration of HCl and
H3PO4 in unknown solution #138. It was determined that the concentration of
NaOH solution that was prepared and used in this experiment was 0.07486413M. It
was determined that the molarity of HCl in unknown # 138 is 0.0521M and the
molarity of H3PO4 in unknown # 138 was 0.0253M.
Sodium hydroxide is standardized using phenolphthalein and KHP because as the
sodium hydroxide is added it reacts with the KHP until no more KHP remains. Once
no more KHP remains the NaOH added causes the solution to become basic and
since phenolphthalein indicator causes the solution to turn pink when it is basic, this
will allow us to see the endpoint of the titration. (Acid-base, 2002)
Possible sources of error in this experiment would be over titrating the solution and
passing the endpoint, this would cause the results obtained for that titration to be
incorrect. Another possible source of error in this experiment would have been not
adding enough indicator causing it to be really difficult to see the endpoint, which
could cause the results obtained from the titration to be incorrect. Another possible
source of error in this experiment would be not cleaning glassware such as pipettes
or burettes properly as it could cause the solution to become contaminated or effect
the accuracy of the glassware and could cause the results obtained to be incorrect.

Conclusion:
The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration of HCl and
H3PO4 present in unknown solution #138 through titration with sodium hydroxide
which was prepared and standardized through potentiometric titration using KHP
and phenolphthalein indicator. In unknown #138 it was determined the molarity of
HCl was 0.0521M and the molarity of H3PO4 was 0.0253M.

References

Clark, J. (2002). Acid-base indicators. Retrieved March 03, 2016, from


http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/indicators.html