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Tunneling

Section D

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunnels
A tunnel is an underground passage for the
transport of passengers, goods, water, oil
etc.
Railway Tunneling in India started in 19th
Century.
The first Indian Railway tunnel was Parsik
Tunnel
Today we have 348 railway tunnels in India,
excluding the tunnels constructed on the
Udhampur Quazikund Sector in J&K.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Necessity and Tunnel


Advantages
A tunnel eliminates the need for a long and circuitous route for
reaching the other side of a hill. Thus an economical method.
In hills with soft rocks, a tunnel is cheaper than cutting because of
support systems required for cutting works.
In urban setup, tunnels provide additional work-space without
disturbing the existing infrastructure. For instance, underground
railway system.
Tunnels are more economical than open cuts beyondcertain depths
Maintenance cost of a tunnel is considerably lower than that of a
bridge or deep cutting.
However, Initial Construction Cost of a tunnel is very high, as it requires
skilled workforce and heavy machinery
It is a time consuming exercise.
Risks involved like water-cavity formation or encountering unexpected rocksoil behavior are very high.

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Selection of Tunnel Route


Alignment restraints:
Underground space is a heterogeneous mass and in
addition, problems like water table, position of fractured
rocks etc. are to be tackled.
A thorough detailed inspection and evaluation of the
existing alignment restraints of underground space
should therefore be made & correlated with the
tunnelling technology to be adopted for the project

Environmental considerations:
The site of tunnel should be selected in such a way that
the least difficulty is experienced for various
environmental factors such as disposal of exhaust gas,
groundwater, muck, etc.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Shapes of Tunnels
Primarily there are four shapes
Circular
Egg Shaped
D Section
Horse Shoe Shape

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Circular Tunnel
The circular section is most suitable from structural
considerations.
However, it is difficult for excavation, particularly
where cross-sectional area is small.
For tunnels which are likely to resist heavy inward
or outward radial pressures, it is desirable to adopt
a circular section.
In case where the tunnel is subjected to high
internal pressure, but does not have good quality of
rock and/or adequate rock cover around it, circular
section is considered to be the most suitable.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

D Section Tunnel
This type of section would be found suitable in tunnels
located in massive igneous, hard, compacted,
metamorphic and good quality sedimentary rocks
The external pressures due to water or unsound strata
upon the lining is slight and also where the lining is not
required to be designed against internal pressure.
The principal advantages of this section over horse-shoe
section (discussed in next slides) are the added width of
the invert which gives more working floor space in the
heading during driving
The flatter invert which helps to eliminate the tendency
of wet concrete to slump and draw away from the tunnel
sides after it has been cast.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Horse-Shoe and Modified HorseShoe


These sections are a compromise between circular
and D sections.
These sections are strong in their resistance to
external pressures.
Quality of rock and adequate rock cover in terms of
the internal pressure to which the tunnel is
subjected govern the use of these sections.
Modified horse-shoe section offers the advantage of
flat base for constructional ease and change over to
circular section with minimum additional
expenditure in reaches of inadequate rock cover and
poor rock formations.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Egg Shaped and Egglipse


Sections
Where the rock is stratified, soft and very closely
laminated (as laminated sand stones, slates,
micaceous schists, etc)
Where the external pressures and tensile forces in
the crown are likely to be high so as to cause
serious rock falls, egg shaped and egglipse sections
should be considered.
These sections afford advantage in cases of sewage
tunnels and tunnels carrying sediments.
Egglipse has advantage over egg shaped section as
it has a smoother curvature and is hydraulically
more efficient.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunnel Alignment
A small error in setting the alignment would result in the two
ends never meeting at all.
At the start of excavation work, both ends of the tunnel as
well as the center line are marked with precision.
Following factors play an important role in tunnel alignment
Alignment should be straight as far as possible because a straight
route is mostly the shortest and economical route.
Minimum possible gradient should be provided for tunnel approaches
There must be provision of ventilation and lighting which must be
decided at the time of tunnel alignment
Side drains in the tunnels must have a minimum of 1 in 500
gradient. In longer tunnels, this gradient should be from the centre
towards the both ends.

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Size and Shape of Tunnel


Size and Shape of a tunnel depends upon
Nature of Ground
Type of Railway Line to be constructed (single line or double)
Rock Quality

If ground is made up of hard rock, tunnel can be given any shape


then
Tunnels in rocky terrains have semi-circular arch and vertical side
walls.
For soft grounds, pressure from the top and sides has to be
resisted
Theoretically, a circular section provides the largest crosssectional area for the smallest diameter, provides greater
resistance to external pressure.
For a railway track, the circular section at the bottom has to be
leveled to lay the track.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Typical Railway Tunnel

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Size of Tunnel
Gauge
(mm)

Single Line

Double Line

Breadth
(mm)

Height (mm) Breadth


(mm)

Height (mm)

MG (1000)

4270-4880

6100-6700

8530-9140

6100-6700

BG (1676)

4880-5490

6700-7320

8530-9140

6700-7320

Size of a railway tunnel depends upon


Gauge of Railway Track
Number of Lines

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Methods of Tunneling
Broadly, tunneling methods can be
divided into two groups
Hard Rock Tunneling
Soft Rock Tunneling

Selection of a method depends upon


Size of the bore
Equipment available
Condition of the ground
Extent to which timbering is required
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Full Face Method


The whole tunnel face is blasted at the same time.
It allows tunnelling in one operation and is efficient.
Large mechanical equipment is required for large
tunnels.
This method is not suitable for unstable rock where
large opening will induce significant stress on the rock
mass.
Usually suited for tunnels where dimensions dont
exceed 3m. (dia)
Vertical columns are erected at the face of the tunnel
and a large number of drills are mounted or fixed on
these columns at a suitable height.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Heading and Benching


In large tunnels and when the quality of the rock is not
satisfactory, heading and benching method is often used.
This method involves the driving the top portion of the
tunnel in advance of the bottom portion.
The lining of roof arch can then be constructed first by
using the bottom bench as temporary supports.
Another advantage of this method is that when cutting
the bottom bench, the blasting becomes more effective
by using vertical blast holes behind the tunnel face and
less explosives can be used.
The heading portion lies about 3.7m to 4.6m ahead of
the benching portion

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Drift Method
In very large tunnel or weak rock, the attacking of the
tunnel face can be further subdivided into several stages.
Similar to heading and benching, tunnelling is carried out
in smaller section first and then widened subsequently.
Drift method can be further classified into centre drift,
side drift, top drift and bottom drift.
A drift is a small tunnel measuring 3mX3m, is driven into
the rock in phases, and then widened in subsequent
process.
A number of drill holes are provided all around the drift
and are blasted with the help of explosives so that size of
drift can be expanded to that of the tunnel cross section
Location of drift depends upon local conditions.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Pilot Tunnel Method


This method involved digging of two tunnels,
namely a pilot tunnel and a main tunnel.
Pilot Tunnel cross section usually measures
about 2.4mX2.4m.
PT is driven parallel to the main tunnel and
is connected to the centre line with cross
cuts at many points
Cross cuts serve many functions like
removal of muck, simultaneously excavation
at multiple positions etc.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Hard Rock Tunneling


Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Full Face Method

Entire section in one go


effective method
Mucking tracks, tracks
used for collecting muck,
can be laid on the tunnel
floor and expanded as work
progresses
Drill Carriage makes this
method suitable for large
tunnels too

Requires Heavy
Mechanical Equipment
No very suitable for
unstable rocks
Successful only for
smaller tunnel sections

Heading and Benching

Work of drilling holes


for explosives and
removal of muck can
be carried
simultaneously
Requires lesser
blasting material than
Full Face Method

Slow Progress

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Hard Rock Tunneling


Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Drift Method

If poor quality rock or


excess water is
encountered, it can be
detected in advance to
take corrective measures
A drift assists in
ventilation of tunnels
Quantity of explosives
required is less
A side drift allows the use
of timber to support the
roof

Time consuming process,


as main tunnel excavation
has to wait until the drift
has been completed
Cost of drilling and Muck
Removal is very high.

Pilot Tunnel Method

Helps in removal of
muck from main
tunnel quickly
Helps in providing
proper ventilation and
lighting of the main
tunnel

Not very cost


effective
Slow progress in the
initial phases

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunneling in Soft Rock


Tunneling in soft rock requires precautionary tactics and minimal
(negligible) use of explosives.
Excavation work is done using hand tools, such as pickaxes and
shovels.
In recent times, compressed air at high pressure and velocity is also
employed to excavate the soft rock mass.
During excavation in soft rock, support at the sidewalls is the primary
requisite.
Support could be in the form of timber or steel plates.
Soft Rock Tunneling is performed as
Excavation or Mining
Removal of excavated material
Scaffolding or shuttering
Lining of Tunnel Surface

Nature of ground plays the most important role in deciding the method
used for tunneling in soft rocks.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunneling in Soft Rocks


Nature of Ground

Typical Quality of Ground

Running Ground

Requires instant support


throughout the excavation. Dry
sang, gravel, water bearing sand
grounds

Soft ground

Requires instant support for the


roof but the walls can do without
support for a few minutes. Damp
sand, soft earth etc.

Firm ground

Sidewalls and face of the tunnel


can do without support for one or
two hours, but the roof can last
only a few minutes without
support. Firm clay, dry earth,
gravel etc.

Self Supporting Ground

Excavation can be carried without


any support or minimal support.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar
Sand stone, hard clay etc.

Tunneling in Soft Rock


Forepoling Method
An old method of tunneling through soft rocks
A frame is prepared and inserted near the face of the
tunnel
Frame is covered with suitable planks as support system
Poles are then inserted at the top of the frame upto a
suitable depth.
The tunnel excavation is then carried out beneath these
poles.
Excavation is carried out on the sides, and the excavated
portion is suitably supported by timber throughout the
length of the tunnel.
It is slow and tedious process, requires skilled manpower.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Needle Beam Method


Adopted in terrains where the soil permits the roof of the
tunnel section to stand without support for few minutes.
A small drift is prepared for inserting a needle beam
consisting of two rail steel joints or I sections.
The roof is supported on laggings carried on the wooden
beam.
The needle beam is placed horizontally with its vertically
end supported on the drift.
And the rear end supported on a vertical post resisting the
lining of the tunnel.
Jacks are fixed on the needle beam and tunnel section is
excavated.
Economical method of tunneling
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunneling through Water Bearing


Strata
Tunneling through subaqueous or water-bearing strata is a
difficult job
Shield tunneling is preferred in such cases
Shield is a movable frame that is used to support the face of
the tunnel. The tunnel is excavated and lined under this shield
protection.
A shield consists of a cutting edge, a skin plate in the form of
a shell structure, and a hood of jacks and stiffening steel
plates.
Shield Method usually results in circular section because
Rotation of shield is easy in circular section
Grants protection to primary lining
Circular section provides maximum cross-sectional area
Semi-fluid pressure is best resisted by a circular section
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Methods of Shield Tunneling in


Different Soils
Soil Type

Method of Tunneling

Silt

One or Two port doors are


opened. Material is excavated
and deposited at the bottom of
the tunnel

Clay

One or two ports are opened,


material flows continuously into
the tunnel. Excavation is carried
out and soil is removed
immediately after excavation

Sand

Tunneling if of open type. Sand


settles on the floor of the shield
and has to be continuously
removed. Material shouldnt block
propelling of jacks and other
equipment.

Running Sand

Bulk head shield is used in this


case.

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Compressed Air Tunneling


Most modern method of tunneling in soft rocks
Compressed Air, with a pressure of about
1kg/cm2 is forced into the enclosed space
within the tunnel so that the sides and top of
the tunnel do not collapse.
Equipment consists of a bulk-head, and an
airtight diaphragm airlock.
The pressure varies from strata to strata
depending upon the moisture content of the
work area.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Different Methods of
Tunneling
Cut and Cover Tunneling
New Austrian Tunneling
Tunnel Boring Methods

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Cut n Cover Method


Simple method of construction for shallow tunnels where a trench
is excavated and covered with an overhead support system.
The excavation sides are vertical and temporary supports are
provided.
The main problems associated with cut and cover method are the
stability of the soft ground, impact on the existing underground
services & utilities and traffic disruption in urban areas.
Temporary steel decks may be used to maintain the traffic while
the construction works proceeds underneath.
This method is also only suitable for high level tunnels.
Primarily divided into two sub-methods
Bottom Up Method
Top Down Method

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Cut n Cover Method


Bottom Up Approach
A trench is excavated with ground support
Tunnel is then constructed in-situ
Trench is then backfilled and carefully surface is
reinstated

Top Down Approach


Side support walls and capping beams are constructed
from ground level by slurry walling or bored piling
Surface is then reinstated except for access openings.
Finally excavation takes place under permanent tunnel
roof and base slab is constructed.

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunnel Ventilation
Tunnel ventilation is important because
To provide fresh air to the workers during construction
To remove dust created by drilling, blasting, and other
tunneling operations
To remove dynamic fumes and other objectionable gases
produced by the use of dynamic and explosives

Methods normally adopted for the ventilation of a


tunnel are
Natural method of ventilation
Achieved by drilling a drift through the tunnel from portal to
portal.
Not sufficient and artificial ventilation is still required.

Mechanical Ventilation by Blow-In Method


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Mechanical Ventilation
Blow In Method
Fresh air is forced through a pipe or fabric duct by
means of a fan and supplied near the drilling face
This method has the advantage of regular supply
of fresh air is available
Disadvantage is that there is only exit for dust or
flumes to travel out of the tunnel, which
increases its travel distance unnecessary.

Other method employed is blow-out method


in which foul air and fumes are pulled out
through a pipe and expelled by a fan.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Lighting of Tunnels
Tunnel operations involve working with undulating
terrain, waterlogged conditions, and dealing with
blasting equipment
It becomes very important to maintain proper lighting to
ensure safety of personnel involved
Electric lights, acetylene gas lights, lanterns etc. are
mostly used inside tunnels as lighting equipment.
Electric lights are considered best as they do not leave
any smoke and provide bright light of required intensity
Operation points, equipment stations, bottom of shafts,
storage points, and underground repair shops must
always be lighted properly.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Drainage of Tunnels
Drainage of tunnels is important during the
construction period as well as afterwards
Water accumulates inside the tunnel because of
groundwater seepage or water used during drilling
operations.
Water seeping through all these sources is collected
in sump wells and pumped out.
For a longer tunnel section, many sump points are
provided.
After the construction is complete, drainage ditches
are provided along the length with a slope that leads
all the water into the sump wells.
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tunnel Shafts
Shafts are vertical walls or passages constructed
along the alignment of a tunnel at one or more
points between two entrances
A shaft is provided for the following reasons
Working Shafts
provided for speedy construction of tunnels by tackling the
same section at a number of points
Vertical shafts of minimum size 3.7m X 3.7m with 4.3m
diameter

Ventilation Shafts
To ensure better ventilation
Shafts are usually inclined and have a girder size of about
1.2m diamter
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Lining of Tunnels
Tunnels are liable to disintegrate and thus lining
is important to strengthen their sides and roofs.
Primarily lining serves the following objectives
Enabling sides and roofs to withstand excessive
pressure
Providing correct shape and cross-section to the
tunnel
Checking the leakage of water from tunnel sides and
the top
Binding loose rock and providing stability to the
tunnel
Reducing the maintenance cost of the tunnel
Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar

Tarun Goel, JNGEC Sundernagar