Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS - ROLLERS

PRESENTED BY
ADITI BAZAJ
B.ARCH. 5TH YEAR 9TH SEM.
APEEJAY SAP GR. NOIDA
CONSTRUCTION AND
MATERIALS

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK ROGER GREENO
CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT, MAINTENANCE AND HANDLING

SOIL COMPACTION
NEEDS OF SOIL COMPACTION
1.
2.
3.

IT INCREASES ITS DENSITY.


IT MAKES IT STRONGER AND MORE STABLE.
IT MAKES IT MORE ABLE TO SUPPORT LOADS.

SOIL COMPACTION IS AFFECTED BY


1.
2.
3.

MATERIAL GRADATION
MOISTURE CONTENT
COMPACTIVE EFFORT

MATERIAL GRADATION

IT HAS TO DO WITH THE PARTICLE SIZES AND THE PERCENTAGE OF THE


SIZES THAT ARE PRESENT WITHIN A GIVEN SOIL SAMPLE.

MOISTURE CONTENT

SOILS ARE DIFFICULT TO COMPACT WHEN THEY ARE TOO DRY OR TOO
WET.
THE OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT IS THAT AMOUNT OF MOISTURE
THAT HELPS THE SOIL PARTICLES SLIP EASILY INTO THEIR MOST
DENSE, COMPACTED POSITIONS FOR A GIVEN AMOUNT OF COMPACTIVE
EFFORT.

COMPACTIVE EFFORT

IT IS THE METHOD USED TO COMPACT THE SOIL.

SOIL IS COMPACTED BY MEANS OF ONE OR MORE METHODS


1.
STATIC WEIGHT OR PRESSURE
2.
KNEADING OR MANIPULATING ACTION
3.
IMPACT
4.
VIBRATION

COMPACTION EQUIPMENTS INCLUDE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SHEEPSFOOT ROLLER
GRID OR MESH
VIBRATORY DRUMS, TAMPERS, ETC.
STEEL DRUM
PNEUMATIC TIRED ROLLER
OTHER COMPACTORS

ROLLERS [ ROLLER COMPACTOR ]

THEY ARE HEAVY AND COMPACTION MACHINERY AND GENERALLY USED FOR THE
COMPACTION OF GRAVEL, CONCRETE AND ASPHALT.
THEY ARE USED IN LARGE SCALE CONSTRUCTIONS [ ROADS AND HIGHWAY
CONSTRUCTION ].
THE SIZE VARY ACCORDING TO THE USAGE, THAT IS FROM SIMPLE DRUM WITH A
HANDLE TO A SIZE OF MANY TONNES.
ROAD ROLLER WORKS BY USING THE WEIGHT OF THE VEHICLE TO COMPRESS THE
SURFACE BEING ROLLED.

APPLICATIONS
THE MAJOR UTILITY OF ROLLERS LIES IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS : COMPACTION OF ROADS, RUNWAYS IN AIRPORTS, CAR PARKING AREAS, PAVEMENTS,
ETC.
IT ALSO HAS UTILITY IN THE LANDFILL COMPACTION.

SHEEPSFOOT ROLLER / PADDED FOOT ROLLER /


TAMPING ROLLER / KNEADING ROLLER

IT CONSISTS OF A HOLLOW DRUM ON WHICH A NO. OF PROJECTING


STEEL STUDS ARE WELDED, THE DRUM MOUNTED ON A CARRYING
FRAME.
THE STUDS MAY VARY IN HEIGHT AND IN CROSS SECTION FROM HEAD TO
TOE.
IT MAY BE TOWED BY TRACTORS BUT ARE AVAILABLE AS SELF
PROPELLED UNITS. TWO OR MORE OF THEM MAY BE CONNECTED
TOGETHER.
IT IS DESIGNED TO KNEAD THE SOIL.
WHEN THE SOIL IS SUFFICIENTLY COMPACTED, THE FEET NO LONGER
PENETRATE IT AND THE ROLLER WALKS OUT ( ON THE TOP OF THE SOIL
).
IF THE ROLLER DOES NOT WALK OUT, THE SOIL IS PROBABLY NOT BEING
COMPACTED BECAUSE THE ROLLER IS EITHER TOO HEAVY OR
INAPPROPRIATE FOR THE SOIL CONDITIONS. CONVERSELY, IF THE
ROLLER DOES NOT INITIALLY PENETRATE THE SOIL, THEN THE ROLLER IS
EITHER TOO LIGHT OR OTHERWISE INAPPROPRIATE FOR THE SOIL
CONDITIONS.

IT IS BEST USED FOR CLAY OR OTHER COHESIVE SOILS, NOT FOR VERY
SANDY, GRANULAR, OR OTHERWISE NONCOHESIVE SOILS.
THEY ARE SIMPLE TO OPERATE.
BALLASTING BY WATER OR SAND MAY BE DONE FOR INCREASING THE
WEIGHT. THE INTENSITY OF PRESSURE MAY BE BUILT UP TO EXTENT OF
53 kg/sq. cm.

GRID ROLLER ( MESH )

IT OPERATES IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE SHEEPSFOOT


ROLLER. HOWEVER, THE KNEADING ELEMENT OF THE GRID ROLLER IS A
MASSIVE GRID OR MESH, NOT FEET .
WHEN EQUIPPED WITH EXTRA WEIGHT, SUCH AS SLABS OF CONCRETE,
THIS GRID CAN EXERT TREMENDOUS PRESSURE ON THE SOIL, CRUSHING
ROCKS AND PUSHING THE BROKEN PIECES BENEATH THE SURFACE.

STEEL DRUM COMPACTOR / SMOOTH WHEEL


ROLLER / PLAIN ROLLER

IT CONSIST OF A SINGLE OR MULTIPLE STEEL DRUM ARRANGED IN TWIN


OR TANDEM THAT ARE HOLLOW FROM INSIDE.
THE DESIGNATED WEIGHT IS BETWEEN 6 TO 12 TONS, MEANS THE
MINIMUM WEIGHT BEING 6 TONS BUT CAN BE INCREASED UPTO 12 TONS
BY FILLING THE HOLLOW DRUM WITH BALLAST ( WATER OR SAND ).
THE WEIGHT PER UNIT WIDTH OF ROLLER GIVES THE INTENSITY OF
COMPACTION LIKE 55 kg/cm.
WHEN ROLLLING IS DONE, THE SURFACE OF GROUND FORMS INTO A
CRUST AND MAY THUS PREVENT EFFECTIVE COMPACTION OF LOWER
LEVELS. THUS SHALLOW LAYER COMPACTION OF 10 cm TO 15 cm MAY BE
EFFECTIVE.
THEY ARE MOST EFFECTIVE ON GRANULAR MATERIALS SUCH AS CLAYS
( COHESIVE SOIL ), SAND, GRAVEL, AND CRUSHED STONE.
USUALLY THEY ARE USED AFTER DEEPER COMPACTORS HAVE BEEN
OPERATING.
THEY ARE MUCH USED ON STREETS, HIGHWAYS, RUNWAYS, PARKING
LOTS, AND SIMILAR COMPACTING JOBS.

PNEUMATIC TIRED ROLLER

IT UTILIZES INFLATABLE TIRES ( AIR PRESSURE FILLED ) TO KNEAD AND


COMPACT THE SOIL.
THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF THE TIRES VARY, AND TIRE PRESSURES ARE
VARIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH DIFFERENT CONDITIONS.
LARGE WHEELS ( OVER 5 FEET IN OUTSIDE DIAMETER ) ROLL MORE
EASILY THAN SMALLER TIRES AND REQUIRE LESS DRAWBAR PULL THAN
DO SMALLER TIRES.
HIGHER TIER PRESSURE CAUSES THE TIRES TO SINK DEEPER AND
COMPACT DEEPER. HOWEVER, BEGINNING PASSES ARE SOMETIMES
MADE AT LESSER TIRE PRESSURES TO PRECOMPACT THE SOIL
SOMEWHAT, THEREBY AVOIDING RUTTING OF THE SOIL.
TIER PRESSURES USUALLY RANGE BETWEEN 90 AND 150 POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH.

THEY MAY BE TOWED OR SELF PROPELLED.


THEY RANGE FROM ABOUT 15 TO 200 TONS GROSS WEIGHT, WITH A
MAXIMUM WHEEL LOAD OF ABOUT 50 TONS.
THE TIRES ARE ARRANGED FOR THOROUGH COVERAGE OF A GIVEN
AREA. BECAUSE OF THE ADJUSTMENTS POSSIBLE ( e.g.,WEIGHT, TIRE
DIA.,TIRE PRESSURE ), THIS TYPE OF MACHINE CAN COMPACT A VARIETY
OF SOIL TYPES TO DEPTHS GREATER THAN 18 INCHES IN FEWER PASSES
THAN A COMPARABLE SHEEPSFOOT ROLLER.
THE ROLLERS CAN BE ADOPTED FOR COMPACTING OF ALL TYPES OF
SOIL AN DFOR COMPARATIVELY DEEPER DEPTHS. THESE ARE QUITE
USEFUL IN AREAS LIKE DAMS, ETC.

MAJOR MANUFACTURERS IN INDIA

AVELING - BARFORD
CATERPILLAR
GALION
HAMM
HYPAC
INGERSOLL RAND
LEBRERO
MIKASA
MULTIQUIP / RAMMAX
GREAVES
DYNAPAC

CONFIGURATION OF A ROLLER

IT CAN BE A SIMPLE DRUM WITH A HANDLE THAT CAN BE OPERATED BY


ONE MAN.
ON SOME MACHINES TH EDRUM MAY BE FILLED WITH WATER.
THE WEIGHT OF A ROAD ROLLER VARIES 20 TO 50 TONS.
A ROAD ROLLER RUNS WITH A MAX. SPEED OF 10 KM/HOUR.
THE TURNING RADIUS FOR A ROAD ROLLER WOULD BE 80 WHICH IS WHY
IT SUFFOCATES IN SMALLER SPACES.

COST

THE COST OF ROLLER VARIES FROM 35 TO 50 LAKHS.


AVAILABLE ON RENT FOR RS. 2.5 LAKHS PER MONTH.
RUNS FOR 15 LITRES OF DIESEL PER HOUR.

TYPES OF ROLLERS

A Caterpillar CS-533E VIBRATORY ROLLER

A ROAD ROLLER POWERED BY A


TRACTOR MOUNTED ON IT FROM
RURAL INDIA

PNEUMATIC ROLLER FOR INITIAL


COMPACTION

ROAD ROLLER, MUSEUM,


TENTERFIELD, NSW

POWERED WALK BEHIND (ELECTRIC OR DIESEL / RIDE ON WITH ARTICULATING - SWIVEL (SMALL
GAS POWERED )
MACHINE)

RIDE - ON WITH ARTICULATING SWIVEL


(LARGE MACHINE)

VIBRATING DYNAPAC