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Yarn Formation/Spinning

The Fibre formation process includes change in shape, structure and properties of the
thermoplastic polymer. The polymer pellets or granules are fed into an extruder where, through
heating, their melting temperature is exceeded. The polymeric melt is then transported, under
pressure, to the spinneret..Yarn formation methods were originally developed for spinning of
natural fibres including cotton, linen, wool and silk.

In this page
1. YARN
2. Mixing and Blending
3. Yarn Formation
4. Grams per Square Metre (GSM)

YARN
The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. Yarns are made in different counts like 2s, 4s,
10s, 16s, 20s, 24s, 25s, 30s, 34s, 36s, 38s, 40s, 60s, 80s, 100s, etc. We can consider like
this. 0s counts are cotton fiber. 20s counts yarn is thicker than 24s yarn. Likewise 30s yarn is
thicker than 34s. So when the yarn counts are increasing, the thickness becomes lesser. We can
see, the higher the counts, the lesser the thickness.
Yarn prices based on the thickness. Price of 20s yarn is lesser than 24s. Price of 30s yarn is
lesser than 34s yarn. We must know, higher the counts, higher the prices. There are 2 qualities of
yarn. Combed and Carded.
Combed is superior quality. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.25 inches to 2.5
inches. According to the technical parameters, the fibers with more length are considered to be
better. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. Also the short fibers
are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. Hence in order
to get uniformity in fiber lengths, the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length
fibers. For this purpose, a special process is being done. This process is called Combing.
Because of the same longer length of fibers, the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness.
Hence after knitting or weaving, the fabric will have very even look.
Carded yarn is inferior in quality. As the above said combing process is not being done, the
carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser

than combed yarn. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this, the fabric made
with carded yarns will have more unevenness. Because of this extra process, the Combed yarn
price is higher than Carded yarn. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn.

Mixing and Blending


Mixing: It is generally meant as the intermingling of different classes of fibers of the same grade
e.g. USA Pima grade2, CIS
Blending: IT is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers or different grade of same
fibers e.g. polyester & cotton, Viscose & cotton.
Objectives of missing or blending

Economy

Processing performance

Functional properties

Yarn Formation

Yarn is continous strand which is made up of filaments or fibers. It is used to make fabric/textiles
of different kinds.
Yarn formation methods were originally developed for spinning of natural fibers including
cotton, linen, wool and silk. Since the overall physical characteristics of the fibers and processing
factors needed differed from fiber to fiber, separate processing systems were developed. As
synthetic fibers were introduced, synthetic spinning systems for texturized and untexturized cut
staple were developed as modifications of existing staple systems, whereas spinning systems for
texturized and untexturized filament were developed separately.

Grams per Square Metre (GSM)


GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. GSM is the very most important thing which
defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments.
Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM, fabric quality, colours, finishing,
prints, embroidery, style, etc. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when
confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers.
GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10,000 sq.cms. It can be
found out by any one of the below ways.

By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit.

By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4.

By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16.

By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100.

We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit, accurate GSM can not be achieved. The
bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM.
If we have fabrics, then we dont have any problem in finding GSM, as we can cut any
dimension to find GSM. But most of the times, we will have only the garments to find GSM.
And we will have to keep the garment for style, making and other references. So we will be
allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. Hence nowadays, round cutters are used. This
system is used worldwide. With the help of this round cutter, the fabric will be cut into a small
bit.
Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100.
This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. As this bit is very
small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100, the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get
the exact GSM. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact
GSM.
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Textile Yarn size/substance
How to find out the yarn sizes and popular textile yarn sizes, techniques to identify substance of
textile yarn

In this page

1. Specifying the size of Textile Yarns


2. The techniques to identify the substance of textile yarn:

Specifying the size of Textile Yarns

If one wants to be very precise and accurate we must send yarn samples to a laboratory to do an
analysis, but it involves time and costs money. Thus we want to tell the size of yarn quickly then
following method can be used and get the size in less than 5 minutes.

First keep some yarn in your possession of confirmed sizes, such as


7s,10s,16s,20s, 40s, 45s which are very popular size yarns of 100% cotton or
T/C

Now pull out 1- pcs of yarn from the fabric that you wish to know the size of.

You twist the yarn in 4 steps as follows and compare the thickness visually
and you can determine what size of yarn it is.

1. Pull out 10 pcs of warp threads and 10 pcs of weft threads.


2. Prepare 10 pcs of yarn that you already know of what size they are.
3. Hook up the yarn.
4. Now twist the yarn and see that the yarn of unknown size is bigger or smaller
than the 10 count yarn.

D. If you find the yarn from the fabric to be smaller than the confirmed size yarn, you use a
smaller confirmed size yarn to compare. When the thicknesses the same then you can determine
what size of yarn it is. The theory is it is very difficult to tell the size by looking at one piece of
yarn but one can do so by looking at 20 pieces together in comparison with another 20 pieces
that you know what size they are .
DISPLAY OF POPULAR TEXTILE YARN SIZES:

With respect to yarn sizes, following chart will show what yarn spinners usually make in 100%
cotton, TC and CVC:
Most popular sizes
(usually available from stock)
COTTON

Less Popular sizes


(sometimes available from stock)

TC/CVC

COTTON
6s

TC/CVC

Most popular sizes


(usually available from stock)
COTTON

Less Popular sizes


(sometimes available from stock)

TC/CVC

COTTON

TC/CVC

7s
8s
10s

8s

10s
12s
13s

14s

14s

16s

16s
17s

20s

20s

21s

21s

32s

24s

24s

30s

30s

32s
33s

40s
42s
45s
60s

60s

If you want to develop a new fabric, you should not resort to yarn sizes that are not popular
(unpopular sizes of yarn if obtainable are usually more expensive). If you need a special size
yarn and try to order it from spinner, he may need 100000 pounds or more as a minimum to set
up the production for you.

The techniques to identify the substance of textile yarn:

To determine what substance is of the yarn that you are looking at sometimes is difficult. It
requires good knowledge and experience to make a good judgment. If you want to be very
accurate you have to send it to a lab for a scientific analysis. However, there are some techniques
to get the answer quickly. These are the methods which you can use to analyze the yarn ourselves
without the help of any equipment.
Yarn type

Description

Cotton

When you untwist the yarn and pull out the staples from it, you will
see that all the staples are less than 2. When you burn it, it burns to
grayish white ash like residue of burning paper.

Silk

When you untwist, unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it you
will see the fibers are too much longer than 2. They are very fine
and soft. When you burn it, it burns to dark grey hard ash (like a
bubble). You can crush it by hand into dust.

Ramie

When you untwist, unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it you
will see that the fibers are much longer than 2.They are thick and
stiff, not too pliable. When you burn it, it burns to grayish white as
similar to cotton.

Wool

When you untwist, unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it you
will see the fibers are longer than 2 and they are not very straight
and not very fine and pliable. You would suspect either it is wool or
synthetic. When you burn it, it gives you a very strong smell like
burning human hair. During the process of burning it does not melt.

Synthetic

Unless you go for a sophisticated analysis by a laboratory, you


cannot tell what kind of synthetic fiber it is other than separating
rayon from other synthetic materials.

Polyester,
Nylon,acrylic

All These are from petroleum, therefore when we untwist, unravel the
yarn and pull out the fiber from it you will see that the fiber length is
very long and even in thickness. When you burn it, it melts first.
When it catches fire the smoke is black.

Rayon

Rayon is made of pulp which comes from mashed wood and that is
why it burns like paper or cotton. Polyester, nylon, acrylic etc are side
products of petroleum and they burn like plastic or petroleum. It if is
rayon, then when you untwist, unravel the yarn and pull you will see
that the fiber length is very long, very soft and even in thickness.
When you burn it, it burns like paper or cotton to grayish white ash.

Yarn type

Description
In the process of burning you do not see anything melting.

The above is the guideline to find out approximately what substance it is. It needs good
experience and skill to do it. If you practice often you can tell what it is without much difficulty.
If you need to know the percentage of the blended yarn, you have to use a laboratory to do an
analysis. If you only wish to know what they are, you can use the above methods.
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Textile Yarn Types


Details of types of yarn such as spun yarn and filament yarn also different types of cotton such as
Sea island cotton, Pima cotton, U.S. cotton, Asian cotton etc.

In this page
1. Textile Yarn Types
2. Cotton Spun Yarn and Cotton Staple(Fiber)
3. Characteristics of textile spun yarn

Textile Yarn Types

Types of yarns include spun yarn and filament yarn. Yarns are made by utilizing either staple or
filament fibers or strands or by combining both. Filament tow is a term applied to a long rope
like bundle of raw fibers which has not been cut or processed into staple form. The tow is
composed of numerous strands of continuous fibers which are extruded from the spinneret in
preparation of forming a tow to be processed for cutting. Filament yarns are also classified as
monofilament and multi-filament yarns.

Cotton Spun Yarn and Cotton Staple(Fiber)

Spun yarn is a kind of yarn made by gathering together a bundle of staple by spinning the
spindles at a very high speed to twist the staples together to form a piece of yarn. The usual
length of the staple of any kind, such as wool, ramie, or any type of synthetic fiber for spinning
should be less than 7. Cotton staple is usually between 3/8 and 2- long. Cotton staple of
less than long is usually not used for quilt, padding or spinning into yarn because spun yarn
of such short staple will have very weak tensile strength which is not suitable for these fabrics.
The quality of cotton is determined by the length of staple. Long staple means high quality and
vice versa.
By quality cotton is basically divided into the following four major groups.
1. Sea Island Cotton: This is the best quality cotton in the world. It has the longest and finest
staple reaching 2- which is the maximum length by nature. It is named so because this type of
cotton is particularly found in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida and many islands off the
coast of these states.
2. Pima Cotton : It is the name given to the cotton of the second longest staple reaching 1- 3/4.
It is grown in Peru and Egypt (also called as Peruvian and Egyptian Cotton). However, it is also
grown in the south western U.S.
3. U.S Cotton : generally refers to cotton in United States other than Sea Island cotton .The staple
length varies but may reach 1- .
4. Asian Cotton : This cotton is grown in Asia, Japan, China, Pakistan and India. The staple
length is usually not longer than 1- 1/8

Other than the length of cotton staple which is of great importance, the thickness of it is
important too because only cotton of long and fine staple to make high quality fine fabrics. The
wool thickness varies depending on the kind of wool and origin of it. Synthetic fiber is made by
machine and we can adjust the thickness usually between 0.01 mm and 0.04 mm based on our
needs. The staple length of each kind of the above mentioned cotton, can be substantially shorter
than indicated.
Before spinning yarn, cotton of different staple length are sorted into groups such as:
1. Cotton of all long staple length (called as fully combed cotton) are sorted for
making fully combed yarn.
2. Cotton of medium length staple (called as semi combed cotton) for making
semi combed yarn.
3. Cotton of all short staple (called as carded cotton) for making carded yarn.

Fabrics of fully combed yarn would have a smooth silky surface where as fabrics made of carded
yarn would have nubs or dead cotton on the surface, which are usually less color absorbent. As a
result it is coarse and not very soft. Therefore, we usually use combed yarn to make light weight
fabrics such as shirtings etc. but use carded yarn which is cheaper to make heavy fabrics such as
heavy denim canvas. Theoretically, a piece of yarn can be made of any size, usually from 4 count
to 120 count or even heavier than 4 count or finer than 120 count.1 count yarn means 840 yards
to weigh 1 lb. 2 count yarn means 1,680 yards (twice as long as 1 lb), and of 10 count yarn
means 8400 yards (10 times as long) to weigh 1 lb and so on. Therefore split the one count yarn
into almost any number and call it yarn of that count .This is the system used to control the size
of the spun yarn of 100% cotton, polyester, wool, acrylic, ramie, rayon or any mixture of them.
Characteristics of textile spun yarn

composed of short staple fibers of definite length

Made from natural cotton, flax or wool staple fibers

Made from natural or man-made filaments which are chopped or cut into
short lengths and referred to as filament staple yarns

Individual fiber length vary

Bigger and wider in diameter than filament fiber yarns

Fuzzy appearance and feel, fiber ends protrude from yarn

Uneven number of fibers throughout

Range from soft, loose construction to hard finished, fine twist yarns

Thick and thin areas highly twisted

Fall apart when untwisted

Dull or flat in appearance

Rough to touch

Natural textural appearance and feel

Bulkier to the feel

Provide good covering power

Snagging depends on fabrics structure

Pilling depends on fiber content

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Yarn Spinning
Yarn spinning is the process of manufacturing yarn from different types of fibres into a
continuous length from one or more type of fibers. Spinning is the most important and the initial
step in fabric manufacturing. The major goals of spinning is to produce the quality yarn from raw
material, then remove the process faults followed by winding the short length bobbins on Cones.
There are different types of spinning, the most commonly forms of spinning are: Ring, Rotor, Air
Jet, Friction etc.

In this page

1. Spinning
2. Open-End or Rotor or Break Spinning
3. Air-Jet/Air Vortex Spinning
4. Textile Yarn's Construction
5. Degree of textile Yarn Twist/Twist Tension/Yarn Tension:
6. Warp Spinning
7. Integrated Composite Yarn Spinning
8. Twistless Spinning
9. Coverspun Spinning
10.Self-Twist Spinning
11.Fasciated Spinning
12.Friction Spinning
13.The Direction of Twists

Spinning

The term 'spinning' can be refer to the whole activity or just to the final process of making the
yarn from fibers. This involves attenuating (stretching) the yarn to the required tex giving the
thread strength by adding twist and winding to on a bobbin.
The object of spinning and of the process that precede it is to transform the single fibers into a
cohesive and workable continuous length yarn. Basically, in the case of natural fibers, the
processing involves opening, blending, carding (in some cases also combing), drawing and
roving to produce the material for the spinning frame. This is followed by the spinning itself.

Open-End or Rotor or Break Spinning

The most successful of the new spinning systems is open end rotor spinning which is now termed
as conventional spinning system. The success of rotor spinning is due to the increase of its
productivity.

Open-end (also known as Rotor spinning or break spinning) spinning systems have come into
wide use for spinning of short and medium staple fibers directly from sliver to yarn in one step
without carding or roving.It is relative a new product invented in early 1970s.OE is spun by
means of air current and not by spindles.(when it is spun by spindles it is called ring spun yarn).
Sliver is fed into a breaking or opening unit to separate the fibers from one another, and the
fibers are then forced by air pressure into a hollow rotor rotating at high speeds
The fibers are deposited by centrifugal force on the sides of the hollow rotor, and the resulting
yarn is removed continuously by a stationary tube mounted with in the rotor. The rotating rotor
provides twist to the yarn and produces a yarn with somewhat greater higher pitch and bulk and
somewhat lower strength than ring spun yarns.
It is more even in size than ring spun yarn. It has no nub. The great advantages are the evenness
and no nub because unevenness and nubs are cause of defects in fabric. However, there is a
disadvantage, if we use it to make fabric for brushing; the result will not be good as the fiber in
the OE yarn cannot be brushed out easily.
Advantages of rotor spinning:

Lower labor cost

Less power consumption

Cheaper raw material

Larger package size

Higher productivity, because of higher speed

Elimination of roving, no use if simples m/c

Easy handling

Less Floor space

Limitations

Wide range of count cannot be spun

Very finer count cannot be spun

Yarn strength and quality is lower than ring yarn

More bulky yarn

Higher twist factor

Production of Rotor spinning

Production/hour per m/c in kg = Rotor speed (rpm) 60* yarn tex


--------------------------- * -- ------------------ *Eff% * No of Rotor
Twist per meter 1000* 1000
Air-Jet/Air Vortex Spinning

Air-Jet/Air-Vortex spinning is similar to open-end spinning but utilizes a stationary tube rather
than a rotor. A high speed air vortex is created in the tube that deposits fibers with in the tube and
simultaneously provides twist due to the vortex. The yarn is continuously withdrawn as in the
case of open end spinning.The air-jet spinning system which are now commercially available are
capable for processing of short polyester and its blend of medium to fine count range .Compared
to other modern spinning systems it has the advantage of being able to spin fine yarn and at
present it cannot be used for spinning coarser yarns.
Disadvantages of Air-jet Spinning

Twist characteristics is different along the length

Very short staple fiber cannot be spun

Produce harsh and compact yarn structure

100% cotton cannot be spun

Variation of C.V of C.S.P yarn is more

Advantages

Strength of yarn is more

Bending modules is higher

Production
Count

Speed

Ne 45 poly/cotton

140m/mt

Ne 60 poly

140m/mt.

Ne Cotton

130m/mt.

Textile Yarn's Construction

Yarn count, yarn ply and yarn construction interrelate to form the characteristics of yarn. Yarn
construction is classified as:

Simple /Conventional yarn: These are two or more simple single yarns
plied or twisted together. They are referred to as two, three, four, five or six
ply yarn. Size and number of plies may be changed for different weaves or
fabric structures.

Complex/Novelty yarns: These are single or plied yarn structures


characterized by internationally introduced irregularities in size and twist
effects. The irregularities of novelty yarns may be uniform or random.

Metallic yarns: A monofilament flat yarn produced by lacquering aluminium


pigment or by laminating aluminium foil between layers of plastic. After this
webs are cut into wide coils and the rolls are slit into fine ribbon like yarn.
After slitting the yarn is wound onto spools or coils depending on type of
ribbon. Since metallic yarns are flat rather than round most as most of other
man-made fiber yarns, the size of the yarn is specified in inches.

Textured Yarns: Textured yarns are the end result of physical, chemical or
thermal manipulation of fibers and yarns so that they are no longer straight
or uniform. The manipulation process of textured yarn results in the
modification and altering of the arrangement of the fiber and yarn.
Texturizing produces a permanent change in the physical structure of the
yarn. The fibers no longer lie parallel to the other.

Bulked/High Bulked/Lofted Yarns: Texturising of yarns also produce


bulked yarns. High bulk yarns are created and processed by nonlinearity or
loop formation in individual filaments. The process introduces crimps, loops,
curls and crinkles into the yarn. Bulk yarn may also be shrunk and stretched
introducing shrink differentials. The resulting yarns of these processes are
bulked, fluffed, puffed and twisted yarns.

Stretch Yarns: Almost all man-made and natural fibers can be treated to
produce yarns with some degree of stretch and recovery. Stretch properties
may be applied to yarns by chemical or mechanical methods. Not all methods
or fibers will achieve equally effective stretch properties.

Degree of textile Yarn Twist/Twist Tension/Yarn Tension:

The degree or amount of yarn twist may vary from slight or almost no twist at all to tightly or
highly twisted. The amount of yarn twist is measured in the number of turns per inch (TPI). The
amount of twist required to hold the fibers and yarns together depends on the diameter or size of
yarns. Thicker yarn will require less twist to hold them together and are referred to as low twist

yarns. Finer yarns will require more twist to hold them together and are referred to as high twist
or hard twist yarns. Spun yarns are twisted tightly in order to hold the short staple together.
Filament yarns do not require high twist unless producing textured or crepe yarns.
Degree of yarn twist affects the yarn in the following ways:

Diameter of fineness

Softness or hardness

Bending behavior

Specific volume

Covering power

Permeability

Tensile strength

Strength

Stress distribution

Extension and recovery

Resistance to creases and abrasion piling behavior

Degree of yarn twist affects the fabrics:

Hand

Appearance

Texture

Drapability qualities

Performance expectation

Durability

Serviceability

Degree of Yarn twist and uses

Degree of yarn twist Uses No twist/Untwisted Novelty fabrics, Losely woven fabrics, Damask
and brocade. Low/Soft Twist Soft surfaced fabrics, Napped fabrics, As a filling yarn Slack Twist
Silk filament yarns, Man-made filament yarns Moderate/Average Twist Staple fibers warp yarns
High/Hard Twist Compact yarns, harder smooth surfaced fabrics Twist-on-twist Yarns with high
number or turns per inch, Rough, pebbly or crinkled fabrics
Warp Spinning

The warp or hollow spindle spinning system uses the technique of wrapping, a continuous
filament yarn round a central core of parallel staple fiber and this system can be used for both
short and long staple. Warp spinning is considered as complementary to the ring and not a
complete replacement. It is suitable for coarse count up to 30s.
Limitations of Warp Spinning:

Only used for short staple fibers

Using a binder is a cost factor

Fabric appearance s not good due to presence of binder

Yarn has no self strength

Count

Production

50 tex

89 meters/mt

143 tex

134meters/mt

500 tex

250 meters/mt

Integrated Composite Yarn Spinning

A composite yarn is formed by melt extruding fibers from a spinneret or by coating filaments
with a molten polymer followed by coating the emerging fibers with short staple fibers. The
resulting matrix is immediately twisted causing the staple fibers to imbed in the extruded fibers
before cool ing. The resulting composite yarn is formed at a very rapid rate on the Bobtex
spinning apparatus developed for this process.
Twistless Spinning

In twistless systems liquid or powdered polymer adhesives are applied to sliver or filament tow
and the adhesive activated by heating or steam to cause the individual fibers to adhere to one
another. In some systems, after textile substrate formation from the twist1ess yarns the adhesive

is removed to improve the aesthetics of the resulting textile. Adhesives used include polyvinyl
acetate, polyvinyl alcohol. and starch.
Coverspun Spinning

Covers pun is both the name of a spinning system and a yarn. In this system staple rovings are
drafted in a conventional manner, and then the roving is passed into a hollow vertical spindle. On
the outside of the spindle a filament yarn, from a cylindrical spool rotating at 20,000 to 30,000
rpm, is fed into the top of the hollow vertical spindle with the roving. The rotating filament
spindle causes the filament to wrap around the core of the staple to produce a wrapped yarn
consisting of 80% to 95% staple.
Self-Twist Spinning

In self-twist spinning, two parallel sl ivers are fed between two reciprocating rollers which form
identical left hand or right hand twists in each of the slivers alternating down the length of the
sliver. The resulting false-twisted yarns are then brought together so that the right hand twist
segment of one sliver is phased with the left hand twist of the other sliver. On relaxation, the
slivers untwist over one another to form a stable yarn.
Fasciated Spinning

In fasciated spinning long staple sliver without twist is introduced into a I imited space and
subjected to a torque jet operating at right angles to the flow of the sliver thereby imparting a fal
s e twist to the sliver. As the sliver exits the torque jet it rapidly untwists, and the outer fibers
tend to break away from the sliver and wrap around the inner sliver to give a strong yarn
consisting of mostly parallel fibers with some fibers tightly twisted around the outside.
Friction Spinning

The basic principle of friction spinning is that it is an opening system, it is a variation of the
open-end spinning system and often referred to as the DREF system.T he fibers are carried with
an air flow forward, to the collecting area between the two friction surfaces. Friction spinning
like AirJet spinning is limited in practice by the yarn quality. Finer count yarn produced in
friction spinning than ring or Rotor spinning with comparatively production level.In this system,
one or more slivers are fed onto a rapidly rotating card drum which opens the sl iver to form
single fibers. The separated single fibers are blown from the card drum by a stream of air onto
the junction of two parallel perforated drums turning in the same direction. The rotating
perforated drums under suction cause the fibers to be compressed and twist around one another
to form a uniform yarn which is continuously removed onto a spool. The resultant yarns are
bulky and have properties similar to woolen yarns.
The Direction of Twists

Twist is produced with the aid of spindles, rotors, rollers, and so on. Since two twist directions,
left and right, are always possible, the fiber windings can also have two directions. The direction
of the twist is indicated as Z- or S-twist depending on the transverse orientation of the fibers, i.e.
the orientation relative to the diagonals of the letters Z and S. Z-twist is normally used in short
staple spinning, though not to the exclusion of S-twist.
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Dyeing Methods

Dyeing can be performed using continuous or batch processes. Yarn dyeing is used to create
interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-coloured yarns in the weaving process.
Substances which cause these changes are called dyestuffs.

In this page
1. Yarn Dyeing
2. Piece Dyeing
3. Dyeing Methods

Yarn Dyeing

Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-colored yarns
in the weaving process. In yarn dyeing, dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn.

Some methods of yarn dyeing are stock, package, and skein dyeing. Stock dyeing dyes fiber
using perforated tubes. In package dyeing (Figure 11), spools of yarn are stacked on perforated
rods in a rack and immersed in a tank where dye is then forced outward from the rods under
pressure. The dye is then pressured back through the packages toward the center to fully
penetrate the entire yarn. Most carded and combed cotton used for knitted outerwear is packagedyed. In skein dyeing, yarn is loosely coiled on a reel and then dyed. The coils, or skeins, are
hung over a rung and immersed in a dyebath (Corbman, 1975). Skein-dyed yarn is used for bulky
acrylic and wool yarns. Typical capacity for package dyeing equipment is 1,210 pounds (550 kg)
and for skein dyeing equipment is 220 pounds (100 kg).

Piece Dyeing

Most dyed fabric is piece-dyed since this method gives the manufacturer maximum inventory
flexibility to meet color demands as fashion changes. In terms of overall volume, the largest
amount of dyeing is performed using beck and jig equipment (Figure 11). Beck dyeing is a
versatile, continuous process used to dye long yards of fabric. About 1,980 pounds (900 kg) of
fabric can be dyed on beck equipment at a time. The fabric is passed in rope form through the
dyebath. The rope moves over a rail onto a reel which immerses it into the dye and then draws
the fabric up and forward to the front of the machine. This process is repeated as long as
necessary to dye the material uniformly to the desired color intensity. Jig dyeing uses the same
procedure of beck dyeing, however, the fabric is held on rollers at full width rather than in rope
form as it is passed through the dyebath (Corbman, 1975). This reduces fabric tendency to crack
or crease. Jig dyeing equipment can handle 550 pounds (250 kg) of fabric.
Other piece dyeing methods include jet dyeing and pad dyeing. Fabric can be jet-dyed (at up to
1,100 pounds (500 kg)) by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye solution are
forced through it at high pressures. The dye is continually recirculated as the fabric is moved
along the tube. Pad dyeing, like jig dyeing, dyes the fabric at full width. The fabric is passed
through a trough containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the
cloth and squeeze out the excess (Corbman, 1975). Figure 11 illustrates the beck, jig, and jet
methods for dyeing.
Dyeing Methods
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Dyeing can be performed using continuous or batch processes. Yarn dyeing is used to create
interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-coloured yarns in the weaving process.
Substances which cause these changes are called dyestuffs.

In this page
1. Yarn Dyeing
2. Piece Dyeing
3. Dyeing Methods

Yarn Dyeing

Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-colored yarns
in the weaving process. In yarn dyeing, dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn.
Some methods of yarn dyeing are stock, package, and skein dyeing. Stock dyeing dyes fiber
using perforated tubes. In package dyeing (Figure 11), spools of yarn are stacked on perforated
rods in a rack and immersed in a tank where dye is then forced outward from the rods under
pressure. The dye is then pressured back through the packages toward the center to fully
penetrate the entire yarn. Most carded and combed cotton used for knitted outerwear is packagedyed. In skein dyeing, yarn is loosely coiled on a reel and then dyed. The coils, or skeins, are
hung over a rung and immersed in a dyebath (Corbman, 1975). Skein-dyed yarn is used for bulky
acrylic and wool yarns. Typical capacity for package dyeing equipment is 1,210 pounds (550 kg)
and for skein dyeing equipment is 220 pounds (100 kg).

Piece Dyeing

Most dyed fabric is piece-dyed since this method gives the manufacturer maximum inventory
flexibility to meet color demands as fashion changes. In terms of overall volume, the largest
amount of dyeing is performed using beck and jig equipment (Figure 11). Beck dyeing is a
versatile, continuous process used to dye long yards of fabric. About 1,980 pounds (900 kg) of
fabric can be dyed on beck equipment at a time. The fabric is passed in rope form through the
dyebath. The rope moves over a rail onto a reel which immerses it into the dye and then draws
the fabric up and forward to the front of the machine. This process is repeated as long as
necessary to dye the material uniformly to the desired color intensity. Jig dyeing uses the same

procedure of beck dyeing, however, the fabric is held on rollers at full width rather than in rope
form as it is passed through the dyebath (Corbman, 1975). This reduces fabric tendency to crack
or crease. Jig dyeing equipment can handle 550 pounds (250 kg) of fabric.
Other piece dyeing methods include jet dyeing and pad dyeing. Fabric can be jet-dyed (at up to
1,100 pounds (500 kg)) by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye solution are
forced through it at high pressures. The dye is continually recirculated as the fabric is moved
along the tube. Pad dyeing, like jig dyeing, dyes the fabric at full width. The fabric is passed
through a trough containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the
cloth and squeeze out the excess (Corbman, 1975). Figure 11 illustrates the beck, jig, and jet
methods for dyeing.
Dyeing Methods

Beck Dyeing (end view)

Jet Dyeing

Jig Dyeing (end view)

Types of Dyes-Classification based on chemical structure - See more at:


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The Dyes are classified based on the fibres to which they can be applied and the chemical nature
of each dye. Dyes are complex unsaturated aromatic compounds fulfilling characteristics like

intense colour, soluability, Substansiveness and fastness. Dyes can be defined as the different
type of colouring particles which differ in each type from the other in chemical composition and
are used for colouring fabrics in different colours and shades which are completely soluble in
liquid media.

In this page
1. Type of Printing Dyes
2. Characteristics of Textile Dyes

Type of Printing Dyes

Dyes may be classified in several ways (e.g., according to chemical constitution, application
class, end-use). The primary classification of dyes is based on the fibers to which they can be
applied and the chemical nature of each dye. Table 6 lists the major dye classes, fixation rates,
and the types of fibers for which they have an affinity. Factors that companies consider when
selecting a dye include the type of fibers being dyed, desired shade, dyeing uniformity, and
fastness (desired stability or resistance of stock or colorants to influences such as light, alkali,
etc) (FFTA, 1991).
Most commonly in use today are the reactive and direct types for cotton dyeing, and disperse
types for polyester dyeing. Reactive dyes react with fiber molecules to form chemical bonds.
Direct dyes can color fabric directly with one operation and without the aid of an affixing agent.
Direct dyes are the simplest dyes to apply and the cheapest in their initial and application costs
although there are tradeoffs in the dyes shade range and wetfastness (Corbman, 1975). Direct
and reactive dyes have a fixation rate of 90 to 95 percent and 60 to 90 percent, respectively. A
variety of auxiliary chemicals may be used during dyeing to assist in dye absorption and fixation
into the fibers. Disperse dyes, with fixation rates of 80 to 90 percent, require additional factors,
such as dye carriers, pressure, and heat, to penetrate synthetic fibers (Snowden-Swan, 1995;
ATMI, 1997). Disperse dyes are dispersed in water where the dyes are dissolved into fibers. Vat
dyes, such as indigo, are also commonly used for cotton and other cellulosic fibers.

Characteristics of Textile Dyes

Dye
Class

Description

Method

Fibers
Typical
Typical
Typically
Pollutants
Fixatio
Applied
Associated with
n (%)
to
Various Dyes

Acid

Exhaust/ Beck/
water-soluble anionic
Continuous
compounds
(carpet)

wool,
nylon

Basic

water-soluble, applied
in weakly acidic
Exhaust/ Beck
dyebaths; very bright
dyes

acrylic,
some
97-98
polyesters

N/A

cotton,
rayon,
70-95
other
cellulosics

color; salt; unfixed


dye; cationic
fixing agents;
surfactant;
defoamer;
leveling and
retarding agents;
finish; diluents

polyester,
acetate,
80-92
other
synthetics

color; organic
acids; carriers;
leveling agents;
phosphates;
defoamers;
lubricants;
dispersants;
delustrants;
diluents

water-soluble, anionic
compounds;can be
applied directly to
Exhaust/
Direct cellulosics without
Beck/Continuou
mordants (or metals s
like chromium and
copper)

Disper
not water-soluble
se

High
temperature
exhaust
Continuous

80-93

color; organic
acids; unfixed
dyes

cotton,
water-soluble, anionic Exhaust/ Beck
Reactiv
other
compounds; largest Cold pad batch/
60-90
e
cellulosics,
dye class
Continuous
wool

color; salt; alkali;


unfixed dye;
surfactants;
defoamer;
diluents; finish

organic compounds
Sulfur containing sulfur or
sodium sulfide

color; alkali;
oxidizing agent;
reducing agent;
unfixed dye

Vat

Continuous

cotton,
other
60-70
cellulosics

oldest dyes; more


Exhaust/Packag cotton,
chemically complex;
other

80-95

color; alkali;
oxidizing agents;

Dye
Class

Description

water-insoluble

Method

e/ Continous

Fibers
Typical
Typical
Typically
Pollutants
Fixatio
Applied
Associated with
n (%)
to
Various Dyes
cellulosics

reducing agents

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Package Dyeing
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Printing
Fabrics are often printed with colour and patterns using a variety of techniques and machine
types. It is the process of transferring colour, pattern, motif or decoration of one or more colours
in any one of a variety of methods or techniques to fabric. It involves the surface application of
colour in a predetermined pattern, design or motif by manual or mechanical directed discharge,
direct or resist methods.

In this page
1. Printing
2. Rotary screen printing
3. Direct printing

4. Discharge printing
5. Resist printing
6. Ink-Jet printing
7. Heat-transfer printing

Printing

Fabrics are often printed with color and patterns using a variety of techniques and machine types.
Of the numerous printing techniques, the most common is rotary screen. However, other
methods, such as direct, discharge, resist, flat screen (semicontinuous), and roller printing are
often used commercially. Pigments are used for about 75 to 85 percent of all printing operations,
do not require washing steps, and generate little waste (Snowden-Swan, 1995). Compared to
dyes, pigments are typically insoluble and have no affinity for the fibers. Resin binders are
typically used to attach pigments to substrates. Solvents are used as vehicles for transporting the
pigment and resin mixture to the substrate. The solvents then evaporate leaving a hard opaque
coating. The major types of printing are described below.

Rotary screen printing

Rotary screen printing uses seamless cylindrical screens made of metal foil. The machine uses a
rotary screen for each color. As the fabric is fed under uniform tension into the printer section of
the machine, its back is usually coated with an adhesive which causes it to adhere to a conveyor
printing blanket. Some machines use other methods for gripping the fabric. The fabric passes
under the rotating screen through which the printing paste is automatically pumped from
pressure tanks. A squeegee in each rotary screen forces the paste through the screen onto the
fabric as it moves along (Corbman, 1975). The fabric then passes to a drying oven.
Direct printing

In direct printing, a large cylindrical roller picks up the fabric, and smaller rollers containing the
color are brought into contact with the cloth. The smaller rollers are etched with the design, and
the number of rollers reflects the number of colors. Each smaller roller is supplied with color by
a furnisher roller, which rotates in the color trough, picks up color, and deposits it on the
applicator roller. Doctor blades scrape excess color off the applicator roller so that only the
engraved portions carry the color to the cloth. The cloth is backed with a rub- berized blanket

during printing, which provides a solid surface to print against, and a layer of gray cloth is used
between the cloth and the rubber blanket to absorb excess ink.
Discharge printing

Discharge printing is performed on piece-dyed fabrics. The patterns are created through removal,
rather than addition, of color, hence most discharge printing is done on dark backgrounds. The
dyed fabric is printed using discharge pastes, which remove background color from the substrate
when exposed to steam. Colors may be added to the discharge paste to create different colored
discharge areas (EPA, 1996).
Resist printing

Resist printing encompasses several hand and low-volume methods in which the pattern is
applied by preventing color from penetrating certain areas during piece-dyeing. Examples of
resist printing methods include batik, tie-dyeing, screen printing, and stencil printing.
Ink-Jet printing

Ink-jet printing is a noncontact printing method in which droplets of colorant solution are
propelled toward a substrate and directed to a desired spot. Ink jet is an emerging technology in
the textile industry and has not yet been adopted for widespread commercial use. The dye types
most amenable to ink-jet printing of textiles are fiber reactive, vat, sulfur, and naphthol dyes.
Heat-transfer printing

In heat-transfer printing, the pattern is first printed onto a special paper substrate. The paper is
then positioned against the fabric and subjected to heat and pressure. The dyes are transferred to
the fabric via sublimation.
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Finishing
Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fibre, yarn, or fabric to
improve appearance, texture, or performance. Some of the fabric finishing methods areBrushing, Shearing, Pressing, Raising, Beetling, Calendaring, Folding, etc. Finishing can be
carried out in 3 stages i.e. Pre-treatment, coloration and Finishing.

In this page
1. Finishing

2. Chemical Treatments
3. Fabrication
4. Mechanical Treatments

Finishing

Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fiber,yarn, or fabric to


improve appearance, texture, or performance. Mechanical finishes can involve brushing, ironing
or other physical treatments used to increase the luster and feel of textiles. Application of
chemical finishes to textiles can impart a variety of properties ranging from decreasing static
cling to increasing flame resistance. The most common chemical finishes are those that ease
fabric care, such as the permanent-press, soil-release, and stain- resistant finishes. Chemical
finishes are usually followed by drying, curing, and cooling steps. Application of chemical
finishes are often done in conjunction with mechanical finishing steps (Snowden-Swan, 1995).
Selected mechanical and chemical finishing techniques are described below.

Chemical Treatments
Optical finishes

Optical finishes added to either brighten or deluster the textile.


Absorbent and soil release finishes

These finishes that alter surface tension and other properties to increase water absorbency or
improve soil release.
Softeners and abrasion-resistant finishes

Softeners and abrasion-resistant finishes are added to improve feel or to increase the ability of
the textile to resist abrasion and tearing.
Physical stabilization and crease-resistant finishes

These finishes, which may include formaldehyde-based resin finishes, stabilize cellulosic fibers
to laundering and shrinkage, imparting permanent press properties to fabrics (ATMI, 1997b).
Fabrication

Finished cloth is fabricated into a variety of apparel and household and industrial products. The
simpler of these products, such as bags, sheets, towels, blankets, and draperies, often are
produced by the textile mills themselves. Apparel and more complex housewares are usually

fabricated by the cutting trades. Before cutting, fabrics must be carefully laid out. Accuracy in
cutting the lay fabric is important since any defects created at this point may be carried through
other operations and end up in the final product. For simple household and industrial products,
sewing is relatively straightforward. The product may then be pressed to flatten the fabric and
create crisp edges.
Mechanical Treatments
Heatsetting

Heatsetting is a dry process used to stabilize and impart textural properties to synthetic fabrics
and fabrics containing high concentrations of synthetics. When manmade fibers are heatset, the
cloth maintains its shape and size in subsequent finishing operations and is - stabilized in the
form in which it is held during heatsetting (e.g., smooth, creased, uneven). Textural properties
may include interesting and durable surface effects such as pleating, creasing, puckering, and
embossing. Heatsetting can also give cloth resistance to wrinkling during wear and ease-of-care
properties attributed to improvements in resiliency and in elasticity. Pollution outputs may
include volatile components of spin finishes if heatsetting is performed before scouring and
bleaching processes. These components are introduced to the fabrics during the manufacture of
synthetic fibers, when proprietary spin finishes are applied to provide lubrication and impart
special properties, such as antistatic, to the fiber.
Brushing and napping

Brushing and napping decrease the luster of fabrics by roughening or raising the fiber surface
and change the feel or texture of the fabric (ATMI, 1997b). These processes involve the use of
wires or brushes that pull individual fibers.
Softening

Calendering, or ironing, can be used to reduce surface friction between individual fibers, thereby
softening the fabric structure and increasing its sheen. In calendering, the fabric passes through
two or more rolls. Typically, one roll is made of chilled steel, while the other is made of a softer
material like cotton fibers. The steel roll may also be heated using gas or steam. Once goods pass
through the machine they are wound up at the back of the machine.
Optical finishing

Luster can be added to yarns by flattening or smoothing the surfaces under pressure. This can be
achieved by beating the fabric surface or passing the fabric between calendering rolls. The luster
can be further increased if the rolls are scribed with closely spaced lines.
Shearing

Shearing is a process that removes surface fibers by passing the fabric over a cutting blade.

Compacting

Compacting, which includes the Sanforizing process, compresses the fabric structure to reduce
stresses in the fabric. The Sanforizing process reduces residual shrinkage of fabrics after repeated
laundering (Wingate, 1979). The fabric and backing blanket are fed between a roller and a
curved braking shoe, with the blanket under tension. The tension on the blanket is released after
the fabric and blanket pass the braking shoe. Compacting reduces the potential for excessive
shrinkage during laundering.
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