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Chapter 1--The Nature of Human Resource Management

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. One of the first factors that increased the importance of human resource management was
A. the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
B. the worker revolution.
C. technological advances in computers.
D. the increase in manufacturing.
E. the growth in the service sector.

2. The view of HRM as part of the legal enforcement arm of an organization is largely applicable
A. in the industrialized nations.
B. only in the United States.
C. in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
D. in the G8 countries.
E. nowhere.

3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on all of the following EXCEPT
A. race.
B. religion.
C. astrological sign.
D. gender.
E. national origin.

4. Since September 11th, 2001 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, companies have become more concerned
about
A. downsizing.
B. outsourcing.
C. security.
D. quality.
E. productivity.

5. Early research that determined the importance of individual and group behavior to organizations involved
the
A. Hawthorne Studies.
B. scientific management groups.
C. total quality management investigations.
D. use of employee testing.
E. outsourcing studies.

6. The basic notion of the human relations movement was that


A. employees had to be intimidated to be motivated.
B. technology was in decline.
C. satisfied employees would work harder for the company.
D. unions were a waste of time.
E. group work must be avoided in companies.

7. In the 1930s and 1940s, units within a company that dealt with employees' behavioral challenges and issues
were called
A. legal departments.
B. scientific administration.
C. finance departments.
D. personnel departments.
E. human science administration.

8. During the 1950s and 1960s, all of the following developed within the field of human resource management
EXCEPT
A. selection tests from World War II were adapted for use in private industry.
B. reward and incentive systems became more sophisticated.
C. government legislation expanded, adding more complexity to human resource management.
D. unions became more powerful and demanded more benefits for their members.
E. the human resource management function was recognized as being critically important to organizational
success.

9. The 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal for corporate managers to make decisions based on all of the
following EXCEPT
A. gender.
B. age.
C. religion.
D. race.
E. national origin.

10. ____ include all individuals who gain knowledge and utilize the information effectively to enhance the
organization.
A. Group members
B. Recruiting teams
C. Selection specialists
D. Knowledge workers
E. Training networks

11. A human resource management system integrates which of the following functions?
A. finance function
B. operations function
C. marketing function
D. other fundamental organizational functions
E. all of these

12. All of the following researchers contributed to the early growth of the scientific management EXCEPT:
A. Elton Mayo
B. Lillian Gilbreth
C. Thomas Edison
D. Frederick Taylor
E. Frank Gilbreth

13. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic goals of the human resource management function as
discussed in the text?
A. Helping the global economy
B. Promoting individual growth and development
C. Complying with legal and social obligations
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Facilitating organizational competitiveness

14. Improving quality ______ productivity.


A. always increases
B. almost always increases
C. has no effect on
D. always decreases
E. almost always decreases

15. Genevieve, a human resource staff member, has the task of investigating employee complaints about civil
rights violations at work. Which of the goals of HR management is Genevieve working on?
A. Facilitating organizational competitiveness
B. Complying with legal and social obligations
C. Promoting individual growth and development
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Recruiting sufficient workers to meet demand

16. Shihan is a project manager in the human resources department of Intel, the U.S. semiconductor
manufacturer. Shihan says, "I work on issues ranging from dependent care to work/life benefits. I work with
employees to better understand their needs and to help design programs for them." Which of the fundamental
goals of HR management is Shihan working on?
A. Complying with legal and social obligations
B. Controlling costs
C. Facilitating organizational competitiveness
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Promoting individual growth and development

17. Which of the following would typically be considered a staff, rather than a line, manager?
A. Human resource manager
B. Operations manager
C. Financial manager
D. Marketing manager
E. Sales manager

18. HR activities are typically carried out by


A. line managers.
B. staff managers.
C. neither line nor staff managers.
D. both line and staff managers.
E. executive team members only.

19. The goals of human resource management typically include all of the following activities EXCEPT
A. facilitating organizational competitiveness.
B. enhancing productivity and quality.
C. complying with legal and social obligations.
D. promoting individual growth and development.
E. overseeing financial reporting as part of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

20. The managers who are directly involved in creating goods and service are known as
A. HR managers.
B. staff managers.
C. line managers.
D. chief executive managers.
E. executive team managers.

21. Who would typically have responsibility for carrying out human resource activities in a small, independent
business?
A. The human resource manager
B. The owner or general manager
C. A human resource specialist
D. An operating manager
E. A secretary or an administrative assistant

22. Which of the following is NOT a requirement for being a successful human resource manager?
A. An understanding of the legal environment
B. An understanding of labor relations
C. An understanding of the process of change management
D. A degree in human resource management
E. Knowledge of business and corporate strategy

23. A ____ involves the set of expectations about the exchanges that occur between employees and employers.
A. knowledge worker
B. cost-benefit analysis
C. human relations movement
D. downsizing
E. psychological contract

24. A sporting goods retail company hires another firm to manage all of its payroll functions. This process is
known as:
A. HRIS.
B. Theory X.
C. Theory Y.
D. professional accreditation.
E. outsourcing.

25. As the human resource field becomes more professional, more HR managers are acquiring the Human
Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) credential. Which organization was instrumental in establishing that
credential?
A. The U.S. Department of Labor
B. Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
C. The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
D. The National Labor Relations Board
E. No single organization was instrumental. Colleges and universities established the HRCI.

26. The modern term used to describe the management of people is


A. administrative synthesis.
B. compliance management.
C. strategic formulation.
D. personnel management.
E. human resource management.

27. Both the military and its suppliers became more interested in person-job matching during
A. the Civil War.
B. World War I.
C. World War II
D. the Vietnam War.
E. the Korean War.

28. The HRCI offers several certifications, including all of the following EXCEPT the
A. PHR
B. SPHR
C. GPHR
D. UPHR
E. all of these are certifications offered by the HRCI

29. The widespread use of ____ has affected how HR systems are delivered.
A. line managers
B. staff managers
C. executive teams
D. electronic technology
E. person-job fit principles

30. Following the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act falls under which particular goals of
HR?
A. facilitating organizational competitiveness.
B. enhancing productivity and quality.
C. complying with legal and social obligations.
D. promoting individual growth and development.
E. none of these

31. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Mr. See appears to be influenced by which era of management?
A. the Hawthorne era
B. Theory X/Y era
C. human relations era
D. scientific management era
E. production era

32. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. In recognizing that training, selection, and compensation procedures are all interrelated,
Mr. See recognizes human resource management as a
A. system.
B. strategic resource.
C. center of expertise.
D. core decision process.
E. network.

33. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. The career planning and fitness programs provided to A-OK employees help fulfill
which fundamental goal of human resource management?
A. Complying with legal obligations
B. Complying with social obligations
C. Enhancing productivity and quality
D. Promoting individual growth and development
E. Facilitating organizational competitiveness

34. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Who is likely to be responsible for the human resource management function in an
organization of this size?
A. A full-time human resource manager
B. Mr. See
C. The sales manager
D. The operations manager
E. An administrative assistant

35. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Should Mr. See be worried about the ability of his human resource staff to effectively
cope with the changes that are needed in that function?
A. Yes. Without a specialized degree and foundation of experience, HR staffs are likely to violate legal
requirements of human resource management.
B. Yes. No staff could cope with all of the changes that Mr. See envisions in the immediate future for his HR
function.
C. Yes. Without many years of experience in HR exclusively, Mr. See's staff will be out of touch with the needs
of his workers.
D. No. These changes will be made quite easily and simply, and do not need much attention to planning or
expert knowledge.
E. No. Job experience is a good preparation for much HR work.

36. The realization that human resource management was an important field was spearheaded by the passing of
the Rollins-Robinson Act.
True False

37. The human resource function in organizations today is viewed as a key activity that can enhance the bottom
line.
True False

38. Historically, personnel managers developed and promoted executives.


True False

39. Scientific management focused on increasing efficiency and productivity.


True False

40. Productivity is the total set of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to
satisfy stated or implied needs.
True False

41. Line managers are those responsible for an indirect or support function that have costs but whose bottomline contributions are less direct.
True False

42. The PHR certification is similar to passing the CPA exam.


True False

43. Designing jobs that are more challenging and satisfying is part of a company's HR compliance with legal
obligations.
True False

44. Utility analysis attempts to measure the effectiveness of different HR approaches in terms of such metrics as
a firms financial performance.
True False

45. In order to take the PHR, SPHR, or GPHR certification exams, an individual must have at least 10 years of
professional experience.
True False

46. Contrast scientific management and the human relations movement in terms of their focus on employees
and their behaviors.

47. What is meant by a "human resource management system," and how does this relate to the concept of an
organization as a system?

48. What are the important goals of human resource management? For each goal, give two examples of specific
HR actions or techniques that organizations can use to obtain that goal.

49. What are the contemporary human resource perspectives?

50. Describe the common paths to a human resource management career. What are the human resource
professional certifications?

Chapter 1--The Nature of Human Resource Management Key

1. One of the first factors that increased the importance of human resource management was
A. the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
B. the worker revolution.
C. technological advances in computers.
D. the increase in manufacturing.
E. the growth in the service sector.

2. The view of HRM as part of the legal enforcement arm of an organization is largely applicable
A. in the industrialized nations.
B. only in the United States.
C. in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
D. in the G8 countries.
E. nowhere.

3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on all of the following EXCEPT
A. race.
B. religion.
C. astrological sign.
D. gender.
E. national origin.

4. Since September 11th, 2001 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, companies have become more concerned
about
A. downsizing.
B. outsourcing.
C. security.
D. quality.
E. productivity.

5. Early research that determined the importance of individual and group behavior to organizations involved
the
A. Hawthorne Studies.
B. scientific management groups.
C. total quality management investigations.
D. use of employee testing.
E. outsourcing studies.

6. The basic notion of the human relations movement was that


A. employees had to be intimidated to be motivated.
B. technology was in decline.
C. satisfied employees would work harder for the company.
D. unions were a waste of time.
E. group work must be avoided in companies.

7. In the 1930s and 1940s, units within a company that dealt with employees' behavioral challenges and issues
were called
A. legal departments.
B. scientific administration.
C. finance departments.
D. personnel departments.
E. human science administration.

8. During the 1950s and 1960s, all of the following developed within the field of human resource management
EXCEPT
A. selection tests from World War II were adapted for use in private industry.
B. reward and incentive systems became more sophisticated.
C. government legislation expanded, adding more complexity to human resource management.
D. unions became more powerful and demanded more benefits for their members.
E. the human resource management function was recognized as being critically important to organizational
success.

9. The 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal for corporate managers to make decisions based on all of the
following EXCEPT
A. gender.
B. age.
C. religion.
D. race.
E. national origin.

10. ____ include all individuals who gain knowledge and utilize the information effectively to enhance the
organization.
A. Group members
B. Recruiting teams
C. Selection specialists
D. Knowledge workers
E. Training networks

11. A human resource management system integrates which of the following functions?
A. finance function
B. operations function
C. marketing function
D. other fundamental organizational functions
E. all of these

12. All of the following researchers contributed to the early growth of the scientific management EXCEPT:
A. Elton Mayo
B. Lillian Gilbreth
C. Thomas Edison
D. Frederick Taylor
E. Frank Gilbreth

13. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic goals of the human resource management function as
discussed in the text?
A. Helping the global economy
B. Promoting individual growth and development
C. Complying with legal and social obligations
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Facilitating organizational competitiveness

14. Improving quality ______ productivity.


A. always increases
B. almost always increases
C. has no effect on
D. always decreases
E. almost always decreases

15. Genevieve, a human resource staff member, has the task of investigating employee complaints about civil
rights violations at work. Which of the goals of HR management is Genevieve working on?
A. Facilitating organizational competitiveness
B. Complying with legal and social obligations
C. Promoting individual growth and development
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Recruiting sufficient workers to meet demand

16. Shihan is a project manager in the human resources department of Intel, the U.S. semiconductor
manufacturer. Shihan says, "I work on issues ranging from dependent care to work/life benefits. I work with
employees to better understand their needs and to help design programs for them." Which of the fundamental
goals of HR management is Shihan working on?
A. Complying with legal and social obligations
B. Controlling costs
C. Facilitating organizational competitiveness
D. Enhancing productivity and quality
E. Promoting individual growth and development

17. Which of the following would typically be considered a staff, rather than a line, manager?
A. Human resource manager
B. Operations manager
C. Financial manager
D. Marketing manager
E. Sales manager

18. HR activities are typically carried out by


A. line managers.
B. staff managers.
C. neither line nor staff managers.
D. both line and staff managers.
E. executive team members only.

19. The goals of human resource management typically include all of the following activities EXCEPT
A. facilitating organizational competitiveness.
B. enhancing productivity and quality.
C. complying with legal and social obligations.
D. promoting individual growth and development.
E. overseeing financial reporting as part of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

20. The managers who are directly involved in creating goods and service are known as
A. HR managers.
B. staff managers.
C. line managers.
D. chief executive managers.
E. executive team managers.

21. Who would typically have responsibility for carrying out human resource activities in a small, independent
business?
A. The human resource manager
B. The owner or general manager
C. A human resource specialist
D. An operating manager
E. A secretary or an administrative assistant

22. Which of the following is NOT a requirement for being a successful human resource manager?
A. An understanding of the legal environment
B. An understanding of labor relations
C. An understanding of the process of change management
D. A degree in human resource management
E. Knowledge of business and corporate strategy

23. A ____ involves the set of expectations about the exchanges that occur between employees and employers.
A. knowledge worker
B. cost-benefit analysis
C. human relations movement
D. downsizing
E. psychological contract

24. A sporting goods retail company hires another firm to manage all of its payroll functions. This process is
known as:
A. HRIS.
B. Theory X.
C. Theory Y.
D. professional accreditation.
E. outsourcing.

25. As the human resource field becomes more professional, more HR managers are acquiring the Human
Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) credential. Which organization was instrumental in establishing that
credential?
A. The U.S. Department of Labor
B. Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
C. The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
D. The National Labor Relations Board
E. No single organization was instrumental. Colleges and universities established the HRCI.

26. The modern term used to describe the management of people is


A. administrative synthesis.
B. compliance management.
C. strategic formulation.
D. personnel management.
E. human resource management.

27. Both the military and its suppliers became more interested in person-job matching during
A. the Civil War.
B. World War I.
C. World War II
D. the Vietnam War.
E. the Korean War.

28. The HRCI offers several certifications, including all of the following EXCEPT the
A. PHR
B. SPHR
C. GPHR
D. UPHR
E. all of these are certifications offered by the HRCI

29. The widespread use of ____ has affected how HR systems are delivered.
A. line managers
B. staff managers
C. executive teams
D. electronic technology
E. person-job fit principles

30. Following the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act falls under which particular goals of
HR?
A. facilitating organizational competitiveness.
B. enhancing productivity and quality.
C. complying with legal and social obligations.
D. promoting individual growth and development.
E. none of these

31. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Mr. See appears to be influenced by which era of management?
A. the Hawthorne era
B. Theory X/Y era
C. human relations era
D. scientific management era
E. production era

32. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. In recognizing that training, selection, and compensation procedures are all interrelated,
Mr. See recognizes human resource management as a
A. system.
B. strategic resource.
C. center of expertise.
D. core decision process.
E. network.

33. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. The career planning and fitness programs provided to A-OK employees help fulfill
which fundamental goal of human resource management?
A. Complying with legal obligations
B. Complying with social obligations
C. Enhancing productivity and quality
D. Promoting individual growth and development
E. Facilitating organizational competitiveness

34. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Who is likely to be responsible for the human resource management function in an
organization of this size?
A. A full-time human resource manager
B. Mr. See
C. The sales manager
D. The operations manager
E. An administrative assistant

35. Scenario 1.1


A-OK Company, an insurance company of 200 employees, provides life and automobile insurance to clients
throughout the southwestern United States. The company's owner, Paul E. See, believes that happy employees
are productive employees, so Mr. See provides employees services such as career planning and an on-site
fitness center. Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex, A-OK is in the process of
redesigning its training program for its sales agents. Mr. See also realizes that A-OK needs to examine its
selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent.
Mr. See is worried about this, because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management
degree. In fact, they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function.
Refer to Scenario 1.1. Should Mr. See be worried about the ability of his human resource staff to effectively
cope with the changes that are needed in that function?
A. Yes. Without a specialized degree and foundation of experience, HR staffs are likely to violate legal
requirements of human resource management.
B. Yes. No staff could cope with all of the changes that Mr. See envisions in the immediate future for his HR
function.
C. Yes. Without many years of experience in HR exclusively, Mr. See's staff will be out of touch with the needs
of his workers.
D. No. These changes will be made quite easily and simply, and do not need much attention to planning or
expert knowledge.
E. No. Job experience is a good preparation for much HR work.

36. The realization that human resource management was an important field was spearheaded by the passing of
the Rollins-Robinson Act.
FALSE

37. The human resource function in organizations today is viewed as a key activity that can enhance the bottom
line.
TRUE

38. Historically, personnel managers developed and promoted executives.


FALSE

39. Scientific management focused on increasing efficiency and productivity.


TRUE

40. Productivity is the total set of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to
satisfy stated or implied needs.
FALSE

41. Line managers are those responsible for an indirect or support function that have costs but whose bottomline contributions are less direct.
FALSE

42. The PHR certification is similar to passing the CPA exam.


TRUE

43. Designing jobs that are more challenging and satisfying is part of a company's HR compliance with legal
obligations.
FALSE

44. Utility analysis attempts to measure the effectiveness of different HR approaches in terms of such metrics as
a firms financial performance.
TRUE

45. In order to take the PHR, SPHR, or GPHR certification exams, an individual must have at least 10 years of
professional experience.
FALSE

46. Contrast scientific management and the human relations movement in terms of their focus on employees
and their behaviors.
Scientific management is concerned with how to structure individual jobs to maximize efficiency and
productivity. Time and motion studies, for example, examined every motion a worker made in order to find
changes in movement or in equipment that could increase productivity. No attention was given to worker
behaviors other than overt physical behaviors. The human relations movement, in response to the Hawthorne
studies, began focusing on understanding the human character of employees. Research began to reveal that
individual and group behavior played an important role in organizations through attitudes, group norms, and
motivation.

47. What is meant by a "human resource management system," and how does this relate to the concept of an
organization as a system?
A human resource management system is an integrated and interrelated approach to managing human resources
that fully recognizes the interdependence among the various tasks and functions that must be performed. Every
element of the human resource management system must be designed and implemented so that full integration
with the various other elements can be performed. The human resource management system may be seen as a
subsystem of the complete organizational system. The human resource management subsystem both affects and
is affected by the other functional subsystems throughout the organization.

48. What are the important goals of human resource management? For each goal, give two examples of specific
HR actions or techniques that organizations can use to obtain that goal.
(1) Facilitating organizational competitiveness means providing support to help the organization achieve its
strategic goals. Human resource managers will ensure that the organization hires the right number and type of
workers, and they will help to control compensation costs, as part of achieving this goal. (2) Enhancing
productivity and quality can be accomplished through effective training and appropriate motivational rewards.
Both of these are the responsibility of the HR function. (3) Complying with legal and social obligations is
carried out by HR departments when they monitor such items as work hours and overtime pay and when they
ensure that the organization's hiring is nondiscriminatory. (4) Promoting individual growth and development
could take the form of broad-based training such as teaching fundamental math skills to operating employees, or
it could consist of wellness and other programs to enhance the quality of work life.

49. What are the contemporary human resource perspectives?


The HR function requires dedicated professionals who can balance legal, ethical, and profit concerns. Mergers,
acquisitions, downsizing, knowledge workers, and legal imperatives have combined to elevate HRM to a more
strategic role in companies. At the same time the HR staffs have been shrinking due to outsourcing functions
like payroll, recruitment, insurance and benefits.

50. Describe the common paths to a human resource management career. What are the human resource
professional certifications?
Most HR managers start with a degree in business. They might have a concentration in HR. Some companies
rotate managers through HR so the managers gain a broad base of knowledge. An MBA usually allows
managers to start at a higher level. The Society for Human Resource Management has created the HRCI. It
offers three core certifications: the Professional in Human Resources (PHR), Senior Professional in Human
Resources (SPHR), and Global Professional in Human Resources (GPHR).