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Ultrasonic Irradiation Effect on the

Activity of Platinum and Palladium


Catalysts for Hydrogenation of Palm
Olein

Salimah Shafii, Wu Lihua, Mohd Ridzuan Nordin*, Liew Kong Yong


(Master of Science)
Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology
University Malaysia Pahang, 26300, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Outline

 Introduction
 Problems statement
 Methodology
 Result and Discussion
 Summary
Importance of hydrogenation
of vegetable oil??

 Increasing the stability of the oil

 Improve its utility


Problem statement

Commercial hydrogenation reaction

 Nickel as catalyst
 Required high temperature and pressure
 High formation of trans fatty acids
(unhealthy for human consumption)
How to solve this problem?

 Noble metal catalyst


 Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on
hydrogenation reaction
Methodology

Catalyst preparation

Add NaOH 0.1M and immerse sample


Metal salt + PVP reflux until dark
mix in water and colloidal solution
brown homogeneous inside ultrasonic bath
methanol solvent dispersion obtain.

Catalyst with highest dispersion Sample analysis for


and smallest particles will be characterize the
selected to hydrogenation colloidal particles
process
Hydrogenation reaction

Catalyst and H2 charge several


time and catalyst Palm olein inject to
butan-1-ol fed into reactor
reactor activate for 60 min

Sample taken at 10 min Reaction start


intervals and methylated immediately at 32oC and
before analyze with GC atmospheric pressure
Results

(a) (b)
Micrograph image nanoparticles; (a) PVP-Pt and (b) PVP-Pd

Platinum Palladium
Average diameter = 1.38 nm
Average diameter = 1.30nm

Distribution, %
Distribution, %

1 1.5 2.0 1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


2.5
Diameter of particles,nm Diameter of particles, nm
Different molar ratio of palm
olein to catalyst
Effect of ultrasonic irradiation in
hydrogenation reaction
Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on Pt
and Pd catalyst in hydrogenation of
palm olein
Summary
 Small particles size of Pt and Pd produced ~1.3 nm
 At molar ratio of palm olein to Pt catalyst of
25000:1 has the highest TON
 Ultrasonic irradiation increased conversion of
linoleate compared to conventional stirring
 Pt has higher selectivity of stearate but lower trans
meanwhile Pd has higher selectivity of monoenes
but higher trans formation