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Chapter 16

Physics: Principles with

Applications, 6th edition

Giancoli

2005 Pearson Prentice Hall

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for

the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning.

Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web)

will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials

from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using

the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to

abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and

the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Two charged balls are

repelling each other as

they hang from the ceiling.

What can you say about

their charges?

is negative

2) both are positive

3) both are negative

4) both are positive or both

are negative

Two charged balls are

repelling each other as

they hang from the ceiling.

What can you say about

their charges?

is negative

2) both are positive

3) both are negative

4) both are positive or both

are negative

other only can tell you that they

have the same charge,

charge but you do

not know the sign. So they can

be either both positive or both

negative.

Follow-up: What does the picture look like if the two balls are oppositely

charged? What about if both balls are neutral?

From the picture,

what can you

conclude about

the charges?

1)

2)

3)

From the picture,

what can you

conclude about

the charges?

1)

2)

3)

have the same charge, since they

repel each other. The YELLOW

ball also repels the GREEN, so it

must also have the same charge

as the GREEN (and the PINK).

A metal ball hangs from the ceiling

1) positive

2) negative

3) neutral

4) positive or neutral

5) negative or neutral

A metal ball hangs from the ceiling

1) positive

2) negative

3) neutral

4) positive or neutral

5) negative or neutral

charge is negative.

negative However, even if

the ball is neutral,

neutral the charges in the

ball can be separated by induction

(polarization), leading to a net

attraction.

remember

the ball is a

conductor!

Two neutral conductors are connected

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

near, but does not touch. The wire is

the conductors?

Two neutral conductors are connected

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

near, but does not touch. The wire is

the conductors?

charge will flow from the blue to the green

polarization Once disconnected,

the charges will remain on the separate

conductors even when the rod is removed.

Follow-up: What will happen when the

conductors are reconnected with a wire?

What is the magnitude

1) 1.0 N

2) 1.5 N

3) 2.0 N

F1 = 3N

F2 = ?

4) 3.0 N

5) 6.0 N

What is the magnitude

1) 1.0 N

2) 1.5 N

3) 2.0 N

F1 = 3N

F2 = ?

4) 3.0 N

5) 6.0 N

due to the fact that the form of Coulombs Law is totally

symmetric with respect to the two charges involved. The

force of one on the other of a pair is the same as the reverse.

reverse

Note that this sounds suspiciously like Newtons 3rd Law!!

F1 = 3N

F2 = ?

2) 3.0 N

what is the magnitude of F1?

F1 = ?

4Q

1) 3/4 N

F2 = ?

3) 12 N

4) 16 N

5) 48 N

F1 = 3N

F2 = ?

2) 3.0 N

what is the magnitude of F1?

F1 = ?

4Q

1) 3/4 N

F2 = ?

3) 12 N

4) 16 N

5) 48 N

Originally we had:

F1 = k(Q)(Q)/r2 = 3 N

Now we have:

F1 = k(4Q)(Q)/r2

which is 4 times bigger than before.

Follow-up: Now what is the magnitude of F2?

The force between two charges

1) 9 F

separated by a distance d is F. If

2) 3 F

3) F

4) 1/3 F

each charge?

5) 1/9 F

F

d

Q

3d

The force between two charges

1) 9 F

separated by a distance d is F. If

2) 3 F

3) F

4) 1/3 F

each charge?

5) 1/9 F

F

Originally we had:

Fbefore = k(Q)(Q)/d2 = F

Now we have:

Fafter = k(Q)(Q)/(3d)2 = 1/9 F

d

Q

3d

Follow-up: What is the force if the original distance is halved?

Two balls with charges +Q and +4Q

are fixed at a separation distance

another charged ball Q0 on the line

(or value) of Q0

the net force on Q0 will be zero?

zero

+4Q

+Q

3R

Two balls with charges +Q and +4Q

are fixed at a separation distance

another charged ball Q0 on the line

(or value) of Q0

the net force on Q0 will be zero?

zero

by both charges, so a point where

these two repulsive forces cancel

+4Q

+Q

would be attracted by both, and the

same argument holds.

Follow-up: What happens if both charges are +Q?

Where would the F = 0 point be in this case?

3R

Two balls with charges +Q and +4Q are separated by 3R. Where

should you place another charged ball Q0 on the line between

the two charges such that the net force on Q0 will be zero?

+4Q

+Q

1

4

2R

R

3R

Two balls with charges +Q and +4Q are separated by 3R. Where

should you place another charged ball Q0 on the line between

the two charges such that the net force on Q0 will be zero?

+4Q

+Q

1

2R

R

3R

F = k(Q0)(Q)/R2

F = k(Q0)(4Q)/(2R)2

farther from +4Q. In fact, Q0 must be twice as far from +4Q,

since the distance is squared in Coulombs Law.

Two balls with charges +Q and 4Q

are fixed at a separation distance

of 3R. Is it possible to place

another charged ball Q0 anywhere

on the line such that the net force

on Q0 will be zero?

2) yes, but only if Q0 is negative

3) yes, independent of the sign

(or value) of Q0

4) no, the net force can never be

zero

4Q

+Q

3R

Two balls with charges +Q and 4Q

are fixed at a separation distance

of 3R. Is it possible to place

another charged ball Q0 anywhere

on the line such that the net force

on Q0 will be zero?

2) yes, but only if Q0 is negative

3) yes, independent of the sign

(or value) of Q0

4) no, the net force can never be

zero

placed to the left of the +Q charge,

such that the repulsive force from the

+Q charge cancels the attractive

4Q

+Q

3R

Follow-up: What happens if one charge is +Q and the other is Q?

A proton and an electron are

held apart a distance of 1 m

and then released. As they

approach each other, what

happens to the force between

them?

1) it gets bigger

2) it gets smaller

3) it stays the same

A proton and an electron are

held apart a distance of 1 m

and then released. As they

approach each other, what

happens to the force between

them?

1) it gets bigger

2) it gets smaller

3) it stays the same

two charges is inversely proportional to

the distance squared.

squared So, the closer they

get to each other, the bigger the electric

force between them gets!

Q1Q 2

Fk

r2

Follow-up: Which particle feels the larger force at any one moment?

A proton and an electron are held

1) proton

2) electron

moment?

A proton and an electron are held

1) proton

2) electron

moment?

p

The two particles feel the same force.

force

Since F = ma, the particle with the smaller

mass will have the larger acceleration.

acceleration

This would be the electron.

Q1Q 2

Fk

r2

A proton and an electron

are held apart a distance

of 1 m and then let go.

Where would they meet?

1) in the middle

2) closer to the electrons side

3) closer to the protons side

A proton and an electron

are held apart a distance

of 1 m and then let go.

Where would they meet?

1) in the middle

2) closer to the electrons side

3) closer to the protons side

feel the same force.

force But, since F = ma, and

since the protons mass is much greater,

greater the

protons acceleration will be much smaller!

smaller

original position.

position

Follow-up: Which particle will be moving faster when they meet?

2

3

of the net force on charge

+2Q

+Q

charges?

+4Q

2

3

of the net force on charge

+2Q

+Q

charges?

+4Q

The charge +2Q repels +Q towards

the right. The charge +4Q repels +Q

upwards, but with a stronger force.

Therefore, the net force is up and to

+2Q

up

Follow-up: What happens if the

yellow charge would be +3Q?

+4Q

You are sitting a certain distance from

a point charge, and you measure an

electric field of E0. If the charge is

doubled and your distance from the

charge is also doubled, what is the

electric field strength now?

(1) 4 E0

(2) 2 E0

(3) E0

(4) 1/2 E0

(5) 1/4 E0

You are sitting a certain distance from

a point charge, and you measure an

electric field of E0. If the charge is

doubled and your distance from the

charge is also doubled, what is the

electric field strength now?

(1) 4 E0

(2) 2 E0

(3) E0

(4) 1/2 E0

(5) 1/4 E0

Doubling the charge puts a factor of 2 in the

numerator, but doubling the distance puts a factor

of 4 in the denominator, because it is distance

squared!! Overall, that gives us a factor of 1/2.

1/2

Follow-up: If your distance is doubled, what must you do to

the charge to maintain the same E field at your new position?

Between the red and the

blue charge, which of

them experiences the

greater electric field due

to the green charge?

+1

+2

1)

+1

2)

+2

+1

+1

Between the red and the

blue charge, which of

them experiences the

greater electric field due

to the green charge?

+1

1)

+1

2)

+2

+2

field due to the green charge because

they are at the same point in space!

space

+1

+1

Q

Ek 2

r

Between the red and the

blue charge, which of

them experiences the

greater electric force due

to the green charge?

+1

+2

1)

+1

2)

+2

+1

+1

Between the red and the

blue charge, which of

them experiences the

greater electric force due

to the green charge?

+1

+2

1)

+1

2)

+2

+1

+1

but the force on a given charge also depends

on the magnitude of that specific charge.

charge

F qE

-2 C

3

5) E = 0

-2 C

-2 C

3

5) E = 0

-2 C

of the square points towards that charge. For the

lower charge, the same thing is true. Then the vector

sum of these two E field vectors points to the left.

left

What if both charges were +2 C?

What is the electric field at

-2 C

2

3

5) E = 0

-2 C

-2 C

1

4

-2 C

What is the electric field at

-2 C

2

3

5) E = 0

-2 C

1

4

-2 C

from the center of the square toward their

respective charges. Because they are all

equal, the net E field is zero at the center!!

center

Follow-up: What if the upper two charges were +2 C?

What if the right-hand charges were +2 C?

-2 C

-Q

+Q

the electric field at the

position of the X ?

+Q

5

-Q

+Q

the electric field at the

position of the X ?

+Q

5

The two +Q charges give a resultant E field

that is down and to the right.

right The Q charge

has an E field up and to the left,

left but smaller

in magnitude. Therefore, the total electric

field is down and to the right.

right

Follow-up: What if all three charges reversed their signs?

Two charges are fixed along

the x-axis. They produce an

the negative y-axis at the

the following is true?

undetermined

5) charges cannot be equal

y

Q1

Q2

Two charges are fixed along

the x-axis. They produce an

the negative y-axis at the

the following is true?

undetermined

5) charges cannot be equal

y

is to use the GREEN and BLUE vectors.

These E vectors correspond to equal

that are both negative (because their

directions are toward the charges).

Q1

Q2

Follow-up: How would you get the E field to point toward the right?

In a uniform electric field in empty

space, a 4 C charge is placed and it

1) 12 N

this charge is removed and a 6 C

3) 24 N

instead, what force will it feel?

5) 18 N

2) 8 N

4) no force

In a uniform electric field in empty

space, a 4 C charge is placed and it

1) 12 N

this charge is removed and a 6 C

3) 24 N

instead, what force will it feel?

5) 18 N

2) 8 N

4) no force

be an electric field present, with magnitude:

E = F / q = 12 N / 4 C = 3 N/C

Once the 4 C charge is replaced with a 6 C

F = q E = (6 C)(3 N/C) = 18 N

Follow-up: What if the charge is placed at a different position in the field?

1)

What are the signs of the

charges whose electric

fields are shown at right?

2)

3)

4)

5) no way to tell

1)

What are the signs of the

charges whose electric

fields are shown at right?

2)

3)

4)

5) no way to tell

positive charges and terminate

on negative charges.

charges

Which of the charges has

the greater magnitude?

1)

2)

3) Both the same

Which of the charges has

the greater magnitude?

1)

2)

3) Both the same

the red charge,

charge so the red one

has the greater magnitude.

magnitude

of magnitudes for the two charges?

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