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ARIOUS TYPES OF

electric machines can be

considered for an application to integrated starter

synchronous machines present interesting

performances; nevertheless, it remains

difficult to reach a significant constant

power zone under good efficiency conditions and power factor. The loss of control

of electronics at high-speed operations

may lead to high-terminal voltages,

which can become dangerous for the

whole vehicle. In this study, we examine

the main advantages and drawbacks of the

induction machine, reluctant, and PM

machine. Then we present more precisely

the wound rotor synchronous machine

(WRSM) performances for ISG applications. All these machines must follow

high torque, speed, and efficiency). Different kinds of machines have already

been evaluated.

The switched reluctance generator has

received a great deal of attention for aircraft engine applications, where robustness

and high-speed operations are imposed.

Such a realization was described in 1989

[1]. The rotation speed reaches up to

25,000 r/min. In automotive applications,

the rotation speed is limited to 6,000 r/

min for integrated structures. Nevertheless, some recent studies have been carried

out [2] and evidenced low efficiencies and

high-voltage ripples in the generator

BY GUY FRIEDRICH

& ANTHONY GIRARDIN

investigated in an integrated structure

[3][5] or in a belt-driven structure [6].

These studies showed a reduction in the

maximum available power for high-speed

operations. The power factor decreases

26

1077-2618/09/$25.002009 IEEE

greater than 80% for a wide speed

optimal control. A simple analytical

range. The main advantage of this

A DEFAULT ON

method for considering the iron

kind of machine is its ability to suplosses is proposed and used in the

port high rotor temperature (up to

THE POWER

optimization process. Optimal cur250 C) and its intrinsic fault-tolerant

rents, simulations, and experimental

function due to its passive rotor. A

CONVERTER

results are discussed and evidence

default on the power converter does

that WRSM is a challenger to the

not generate high current or voltage

DOES NOT

induction and the synchronous PM

on the vehicle network. Its main drawmachine for ISG application.

back is the oversizing of the power

GENERATE HIGH

converter due to the magnetizing curCURRENT OR

Machine and

rent, which is difficult to reduce

Control Structure

because the application requires, for

VOLTAGE ON THE

the integrated structure, a relatively

high air gap (0.5 mm) due to the

Constraints Due to ISG Application

VEHICLE

vibrational constraints.

As other automotive applications, ISG

Synchronous PM machines, thanks

is very constrained:

NETWORK.

to the drop of the costs of PMs, may

1) low length

be a good choice for starter-generator

2) high torque at low speed with

(SG) applications. The application

minimum power taken on the

requires a wide constant power zone, and so interior magbattery (170 N m at 400 Arms, 8 kW)

nets are required. The principle of flux weakening with

3) operating points at high speed ( 6,000 r/min)

this kind of machine has been well known since 1980

4) power and voltage limited by the battery: 8 kW,

[7][9], and its application to ISG has been described in

2136 V in the motor mode (starter or boost) and

[10] and [11]. High efficiencies are reached despite high

4250 V in the generator mode (power depending

Id negative value for high-speed operation. Recently, this

on the battery technology)

5) limited battery energy storage

kind of machine has been studied in a multibarrier struc6) current limited by inverter or thermic conditions

ture, which is called PM-assisted reluctance motor gener(150 400 Arms)

ators [12], [13]. The recent apparition of bistate

magnetic materials allows the use of this kind of structure

7) high-temperature variation (25 C 180 C).

for high peripheral-speed operation [14]. The main probThese constraints create specific consequences (highlem of such machines is the apparition of high-voltage magnetic saturation) and limitations (current, voltage,

terminals in the case of a lack of control of the power power, and energy).

electronics in a high-speed operation (no id control). This

possible high voltage imposes supplementary protection Design

systems to disconnect the electric machine from the net- Figure 1 shows a cross section of a WRSM dedicated to an

work to limit damages on the vehicle.

ISG application. The procedure for designing is not

In this context, wound-rotor synchronous machine described in this article and is based on an optimal

have great advantages: low cost (no rare earth PM) and approach that has been previously presented for a PM

three control variables (id, iq, and if) allows new optimiza- structure [15]. The main characteristics of the optimal

tion possibilities compared with PM machine (id and iq). design are summarized in Table 1.

A special design of the rotor minimizes the required field

current and allows the use of a rotating transformer if a Control Scheme

total brushless configuration is required. Beyond these This machine is used as a starter and a generator. Its conadvantages, it is interesting to note a significant improve- trol is unified by using a unique torque control: positive

ment of the safety, thanks to the possibility of canceling of torques for motor operations and negative for generator.

the field current, and therefore, limiting the risks of high Figure 2 shows this control scheme.

voltages for high-speed operations.

The flux-density level in the air gap is limited only by

the quality of sheets used thus authorizing significant specific torque.

Moreover, during the generating mode, the converter

can be operated in a synchronous rectifier mode, thus

authorizing an increase in the efficiency and a reduction in

the electromagnetic disturbances and converter losses by

avoiding an operation in the pulsewidth modulation

(PWM) mode.

X

After a presentation of ISG constraints, the machine

Y

design, and control structure, models of the WRSM and

its environment are described. The cross-saturation

1

phenomenon is detailed, and we propose an off-line

finite element (FE) method to calculate, taking into WRSM cross section.

27

Models

THE MATLAB

OPTIMIZATION

TOOLBOX

PROVIDES A

NONLINEAR

CONSTRAINED

OPTIMIZATION

ROUTINE.

Machine

Parks equations (d-q reference frame).

Nevertheless, taking into account the

magnetic saturation does not allow the

use of inductances.

Saturation

cannot be expressed as inductances

functions. Each flux wd and wq is a

nonlinear function of the currents

id ; iq , and if :

Optimal design

257 mm

Internal diameter

134 mm

Main sizes

Iron length

53 mm

Air gap

1 mm

Air-gap diameter

214 mm

Electrical parameters

28

Stator resistance

17 mX

Rotor resistance

1.5 X

Maf (unsaturated)

4 mH

Ld (unsaturated)

0.2 mH

Lq (unsaturated)

0.17 mH

If max

23 A

12

0.4

Materials

Iron

Battery

T*

Optimal

Control

Laws

Id *

Iq*

PWM

Inverter

If*

Ia

Ib

d/dt

wq fq (id , iq , if ):

(2)

Iron Losses

Other parameters

Pole number

(1)

which were realized with the FE software FLUX2D [16]. For different

operating points (iq , iq , and if ), the

three-phase fluxes (wabc ) are evaluated (internal function), and then,

the direct and quadrature fluxes are

deduced [17].

Figure 3 shows the results of the FE

software FLUX2D calculation: wd for

different values of iq with If 0 A

and If 24 A, and then wq for different values of id with If 0 A and If 24 A.

Figure 3(a) (If 0 A) shows a classic evolution of wd

as a function of id for iq 0 (upper curve). The important

influence of the cross saturation by comparing in the

same figure the drop of wd for a given value of id and a

high value of iq is noted. For example, for id 346 A, wd

is reduced by about a half when iq varies from 0 to its

maximum value.

Figure 3(c) shows the influence of If on wd . The

coupling between wd and iq is lower but still present.

This reduction of coupling is due to the high value of If

saturating the d axis.

Figure 3(b) and (d) show a classical evolution of wq as a

function of iq. The cross-saturation phenomenon is still

present, but the influence of If is relatively low.

Figure 2 shows the importance of considering the cross

saturation for the determination of the optimal currents.

External diameter

wd fd (id , iq , if ):

to model. Many publications deal with this problem,

but it is difficult to find a model that is sufficiently

simple and low time consuming to be evaluated for

each iteration of the optimizer loop. On the other

hand, iron losses in WRSM are linked to four parameters, Id , Iq , If , and xs , and so, even tabulated data calculated by an off-line FEs method would require lots of

simulations to reach a sufficient accuracy. Our choice

is to use the classic Bertotti approach and develop an

analytical model, which will be

called by the optimizer. For the

evaluation of iron losses, we neglect the saturation phenomenon

to determine the peak air-gap flux

density, and so, we can use conWRSM

stant values of Ld , Lq , and Maf . The

analytical model used is summarized in Figure 4.

The iron losses model uses the

classic Park transform to determine

the peak air-gap flux density (sinusoidal repartition). We consider a

ratio equal to two between iron and

2

air-gap flux density value (tooth/slot

ratio 1). Once the maximal flux

simplified Bertotti formula [18]:

Bam

PIron C0 f

Kcf ( f Bm ) ,

|{z} |{z}

Hysteresis

power-switches voltage drop is taken

into account by an equivalent dc-bus

voltage drop.

WOUND ROTOR

SYNCHRONOUS

MACHINE

ALLOWS HIGH

POWER FACTOR

EVEN IN FLUXWEAKENING

MODE.

(3)

eddy current

material, whose values are deduced

from steel data sheets. Kcf ((pd)2 =

(6qmv )) (d, q et mv : with d, thickness

of the sheet; f, fundamental frequency;

q, steel resistivity, mv steel density; and

Bm peak value of the flux density (sinusoidal hypothesis). An example of

results for a constant speed and field

current is given in Figure 5. Excess

losses are neglected.

Battery

source in a series with an internal

resistance as shown in Figure 6.

Maximum power supply equals to

Pbmax

E2b

:

4Rb

(4)

voltage is regulated at a constant value

(around). The battery is thus modeled

by a simple voltage source Vch .

Inverter

Electromechanical Equations

efficiency can be considered in the optimization process if

For a given operating point (id , iq , if , and xs ), the following electrical and mechanical data are performed:

0.065

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.065

1,040

PSID for If = 24 A

PSID (Wb)

PSID (Wb)

PSID for If = 0 A

Iq = 0 A

Iq = 200*sqrt(3)A

Iq = 400*sqrt(3)A

Iq = 600*sqrt(3)A

693

ld (A)

693

1,040

Iq = 0 A

Iq = 200*sqrt(3)A

Iq = 400*sqrt(3)A

Iq = 600*sqrt(3)A

693

(a)

ld (A)

693

1,040

693

1,040

(c)

0.065

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.065

1,040

PSIQ for If = 24 A

PSIQ (Wb)

PSIQ for If = 0 A

PSIQ (Wb)

0.065

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.065

1,040

0.065

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.065

1,040

693

lq (A)

693

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A

Id = 200*sqrt(3)A

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A

Id = 600*sqrt(3)A

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A

Id = 200*sqrt(3)A

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A

Id = 0 A

(b)

1,040

693

lq (A)

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A

Id = 200*sqrt(3)A

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A

Id = 0 A

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A

Id = 200*sqrt(3)A

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A

Id = 600*sqrt(3)A

(d)

3

Calculation results: (a) wd for If 0 A, (b) wq for If 0 A, (c) wd for If 24 A, and (d) wq for If 24 A:

29

1) current (rms)

Irms

s

i2d i2q

(5)

2) flux (table)

wd wd (id , iq , if ),

wq wq (id , iq , if )

(6)

(7)

3) total losses

Piron losses Piron (id ,iq ,Maf ,xs ),

(8)

Pcopper losses 3Rs I2rms Rf I2f

(9)

WRSM IS A

CHALLENGER

FOR PERMANENT

MAGNET

MACHINE FOR

ISG

APPLICATIONS.

4) electromagnetic torque

h

i

Tem p wd iq wq id

(10)

Pm Tm X

(15)

sign(Tm )

Pm

g

Pe

Ub

Eb

E2b 4Rb Pb

2

(11)

vq Rs iq xs wd ,

s

v2d v2q

Vrms

3

(12)

(13)

(18)

inverter current in the starter mode and is limited

by the maximum current density in the WRSM

in the generator mode.

Ilim

Ld id + Maf If

(17)

the battery. It is equal to the

electrical power divided by the inverter efficiency.

If voltages are considered as sinusoidal, their maximal rms values are considered equal to

Ub

Vsup p :

2 2

vd Rs id xs wq ,

(16)

8) battery voltage

Iinverter max

/ Js max

(starter)

(generator):

(19)

Iron

Losses

Model

Lq iq

s

Piron (Losses)

Optimal Control

Principle

4

Iron losses determination.

1.6e+003

1.2e+003

100

400

80

800

id , iq , and if , which minimizes the total losses with

respect to different constraints (torque, current, voltage,

and power).

8(T , X), If (id , iq ) n min

1,800

120

Quadrature Current

(14)

7) efficiency

5) voltage

30

Pe vd id vq iq Rf I2f ,

id , iq , if

1,600

Plosses

1,400

1,200

1,000

60

40

600

1.8e+003

1.4e+003

1e+003

20

0

0

Rb

800

200

600

400

200

0

Ib

8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Field Current

5

Example of iron losses evaluation for Id = 0 and 2,000 r/min.

Ub

Eb

6

Battery electrical model.

with

id (A)

Tm T ,

Vrms Vsup ,

Irms Ilim ,

The MATLAB optimization toolbox [19] provides a nonlinear constrained optimization routine. It

minimizes an objective function f and

tries to maintain constrained functions g negative:

T (N m)

Pe Pbmax:

x n min

f (x )

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

0

25

500

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

5

1, 00

75

2, 0

0

2, 00

2

2, 50

5

2, 00

7

3, 50

0

3, 00

2

3, 50

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

0

4, 00

2

4, 50

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

0

5, 00

2

5, 50

5

5, 00

7

6, 50

00

0

153

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

with

gi (x ) 5 0,

(r/min)

(a)

8i 1 . . . Nconstraints :

iq (A)

Objective Function

total losses:

f PTotal losses :

Constraints Function

1) Mechanical torque is equal to the

command torque:

gt jTm T j ejT j:

(21)

gi Irms Ilim :

(24)

Algorithm

1) In the first step, the maximal torque speed zone is established.

Speed is imposed by the application (06,000 r/min). Maximum

torques (positive and negative) are

calculated at standstill by a first

constrained optimization.

100

0

100

200

T (N m)

153

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

25

500

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

5

1, 00

7

2, 50

0

2, 00

2

2, 50

5

2, 00

7

3, 50

0

3, 00

2

3, 50

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

0

4, 00

25

4, 0

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

0

5, 00

2

5, 50

5

5, 00

7

6, 50

00

0

gp Pe Pbmax :

200

if (A)

(23)

power [see (14)] is limited by the

battery maximum power [see (4)]:

400

(r/min)

(b)

(22)

less than the available voltage

[see (18)]:

gv Vrms Vsup :

400

0

25

500

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

5

1, 00

7

2, 50

0

2, 00

2

2, 50

5

2, 00

7

3, 50

0

3, 00

2

3, 50

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

00

4, 0

2

4, 50

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

0

5, 00

2

5, 50

5

5, 00

7

6, 50

00

0

defines precision.

2) Current [see (5)] is lower than the

limit [see (19)]:

500

T (N m)

(20)

153

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

(r/min)

(c)

Optimal control currents: (a) id (A), (b) iq (A), and (c) if (A).

31

and if are calculated by optimization as seen earlier.

The optimizer MATLAB function fmincon [20] that allows

tabulated data was used. In our case,

the tabulated data were wd ; wq computed by a commercial FE software

(FLUX 2D).

32

Efficiencies = f (,T)

0.9

Performances

0.8

Efficiency

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

250

500

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

50

1, 0

7

2, 50

0

2, 00

2

2, 50

50

2, 0

7

3, 50

00

3, 0

3,250

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

00

4, 0

2

4, 50

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

0

5, 00

2

5, 50

50

5, 0

7

6, 50

00

0

153

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

and if are displayed in Figure 7.

1) In the starter mode (positive

torques), a reduction of the Id

component in the starter mode

allows a maximum value for Iq.

For high torque, If reaches its

maximal value. Nevertheless,

the optimizer reduces this current even in the constant torque zone to reduce total losses.

2) In the generator mode (negative torques), Id and If are

simultaneously controlled to

improve the efficiency. Iq

presents a classical evolution.

THE MAIN

DRAWBACK OF

THE WRSM IS THE

SUPPLY OF ITS

ROTOR WITH

A DC CURRENT.

(r/min)

Isoefficiencies.

153

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

1

0.98

0.96

0.94

Power Factor

0.9

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

0.8

(r/min)

Power factor.

Figure 8 show a good efficiency in the

generator mode at usual speeds for an

internal combustion engine (ICE) and a

high torque at low speeds in the motor

mode to easily crank the ICE. We can

notice high-efficiency values (greater

than 0.75) in the generator mode in a

wide torque-speed zone even at idle

speed (750 r/min).

In a previous publication [21], the

authors have developed an internal PM

(IPM) machine based on the same

specifications. Even if the comparison

is always difficult, we can say that the

efficiency performances are equivalent

in a wide operating zone. Nevertheless,

the WRSM has a higher efficiency for

high-speed and low-torque operations.

This phenomenon is due to the high Id

negative value, which generates high

copper losses to reach this operating

point. For low-speed and high-torque

operations, the IPM presents higher

efficiencies. Some results are compared

in the Table 2.

0.92

250

50 0

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

50

1, 0

7

2, 50

0

2, 00

2

2, 50

50

2, 0

7

3, 50

00

3, 0

3,250

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

00

4, 0

2

4, 50

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

0

5, 00

2

5, 50

50

5, 0

7

6, 50

00

0

T (N m)

T (N m)

Simulation Results

In this section, we present the simulation results.

shown in Figure 9. This figure shows

the main interest of the WRSM: the

power factor remains very high

(greater than 0.94) in the whole torque-speed plane. This allows to

reduce copper losses but especially

the dc bank of capacitors, which is

one of the larger and more fragile part

of the power converter, especially for

high-temperature conditions.

This high-power factor in the wide

operating range is the main advantage

10 N m at

4,000 r/min

30 N m at

1,000 r/min

ISG

0.75

0.87

WRSM

0.82

0.78

Efficiencies

ISG applications.

10

Experimental Results

Electric Machine

application of the WRSM to the ISG, a prototype was

designed and produced. Figure 10 shows the rotor of this

machine. A significant filling factor has to be noted. This

optimization result is linked to the minimization of the

rotor losses, not only to increase the efficiency of the system but also to reduce the power to be injected in the

rotor, to minimize the power of the rotor converter and

its associated rotating transformer in the case of a brushless realization.

Figure 11 shows the small length of the machine and

the particular care taken to the realization of very smalllength end windings.

Conclusions

This study presented an application of the principle of a

WRSM for an ISG application. A principle of optimal

control was also presented. The model used by the optimizer considers the particularly significant phenomenon

Experimental Results

11

Stator of the WRSM.

153

0.03

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

0.65

40

30

20

0.74

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

72

Efficiencies = f (,T )

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.77

0.77

0.74

0.77

0.72

0.75

0.72

0.73

0.3

0.2

0.1

250

50 0

750

1, 0

0

1, 00

2

1, 50

5

1, 00

7

2, 50

00

2, 0

2

2, 50

50

2, 0

7

3, 50

00

3, 0

3,250

5

3, 00

7

4, 50

00

4, 0

2

4, 50

5

4, 00

7

5, 50

00

5, 0

2

5, 50

50

5, 0

7

6, 50

00

0

is the supply of its rotor with a dc

current. For the presented results,

the rotor has been supplied by slip

rings. This solution has been efficiently used in our prototype even

for high-speed operations. Nevertheless, another study has been carried out to evaluate the feasibility

to supply the rotor with a rotary

transformer. Comprehensive results may be found in [22]. The

active part of the transformer is of

20 mm, with the structure used.

The maximal total power losses

reach 240 W (for If 25 A).

Nevertheless, this maximal current

is only required for the starter

mode. In the generator mode, especially for high-speed operations,

the field current is reduced to 4 A.

In that case, the transformer losses

are reduced to 50 W.

T (N m)

Rotor Supply

(r/min)

Isoefficiencies calculated and some points of measures.

12

The machine was assembled on a test bench to establish the efficiency cartography. Figure 12 shows the

experimental results in the shape of dots and compares them to simulations (colored zones). A good

correlation between measurements and simulations,

which enables the validation of the suggested

approach, was observed.

33

of cross saturation for this kind of

Taniguchi, Expansion of operating limits

machine while being based on an offfor permanent magnet motor by current

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San Antonio, [CD ROM] May 2005.

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