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Design, principle, constraints,

and optimal control

ARIOUS TYPES OF
electric machines can be
considered for an application to integrated starter

generator (ISG). Permanent magnet (PM)


synchronous machines present interesting
performances; nevertheless, it remains
difficult to reach a significant constant
power zone under good efficiency conditions and power factor. The loss of control
of electronics at high-speed operations
may lead to high-terminal voltages,
which can become dangerous for the
whole vehicle. In this study, we examine
the main advantages and drawbacks of the
induction machine, reluctant, and PM
machine. Then we present more precisely
the wound rotor synchronous machine
(WRSM) performances for ISG applications. All these machines must follow

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strict rules and specifications (low length,


high torque, speed, and efficiency). Different kinds of machines have already
been evaluated.
The switched reluctance generator has
received a great deal of attention for aircraft engine applications, where robustness
and high-speed operations are imposed.
Such a realization was described in 1989
[1]. The rotation speed reaches up to
25,000 r/min. In automotive applications,
the rotation speed is limited to 6,000 r/

U.S. NAVY PHOTO BY JOURNALIST 2ND CLASS STEPHEN P. WEAVER

min for integrated structures. Nevertheless, some recent studies have been carried
out [2] and evidenced low efficiencies and
high-voltage ripples in the generator
BY GUY FRIEDRICH
& ANTHONY GIRARDIN

mode. Induction machines have also been


investigated in an integrated structure
[3][5] or in a belt-driven structure [6].
These studies showed a reduction in the
maximum available power for high-speed
operations. The power factor decreases

26

with high speed, but efficiencies remained

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MRA.2009.932592

1077-2618/09/$25.002009 IEEE

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account this phenomenon for our


greater than 80% for a wide speed
optimal control. A simple analytical
range. The main advantage of this
A DEFAULT ON
method for considering the iron
kind of machine is its ability to suplosses is proposed and used in the
port high rotor temperature (up to
THE POWER
optimization process. Optimal cur250 C) and its intrinsic fault-tolerant
rents, simulations, and experimental
function due to its passive rotor. A
CONVERTER
results are discussed and evidence
default on the power converter does
that WRSM is a challenger to the
not generate high current or voltage
DOES NOT
induction and the synchronous PM
on the vehicle network. Its main drawmachine for ISG application.
back is the oversizing of the power
GENERATE HIGH
converter due to the magnetizing curCURRENT OR
Machine and
rent, which is difficult to reduce
Control Structure
because the application requires, for
VOLTAGE ON THE
the integrated structure, a relatively
high air gap (0.5 mm) due to the
Constraints Due to ISG Application
VEHICLE
vibrational constraints.
As other automotive applications, ISG
Synchronous PM machines, thanks
is very constrained:
NETWORK.
to the drop of the costs of PMs, may
1) low length
be a good choice for starter-generator
2) high torque at low speed with
(SG) applications. The application
minimum power taken on the
requires a wide constant power zone, and so interior magbattery (170 N  m at 400 Arms, 8 kW)
nets are required. The principle of flux weakening with
3) operating points at high speed ( 6,000 r/min)
this kind of machine has been well known since 1980
4) power and voltage limited by the battery: 8 kW,
[7][9], and its application to ISG has been described in
2136 V in the motor mode (starter or boost) and
[10] and [11]. High efficiencies are reached despite high
4250 V in the generator mode (power depending
Id negative value for high-speed operation. Recently, this
on the battery technology)
5) limited battery energy storage
kind of machine has been studied in a multibarrier struc6) current limited by inverter or thermic conditions
ture, which is called PM-assisted reluctance motor gener(150 400 Arms)
ators [12], [13]. The recent apparition of bistate
magnetic materials allows the use of this kind of structure
7) high-temperature variation (25 C 180 C).
for high peripheral-speed operation [14]. The main probThese constraints create specific consequences (highlem of such machines is the apparition of high-voltage magnetic saturation) and limitations (current, voltage,
terminals in the case of a lack of control of the power power, and energy).
electronics in a high-speed operation (no id control). This
possible high voltage imposes supplementary protection Design
systems to disconnect the electric machine from the net- Figure 1 shows a cross section of a WRSM dedicated to an
work to limit damages on the vehicle.
ISG application. The procedure for designing is not
In this context, wound-rotor synchronous machine described in this article and is based on an optimal
have great advantages: low cost (no rare earth PM) and approach that has been previously presented for a PM
three control variables (id, iq, and if) allows new optimiza- structure [15]. The main characteristics of the optimal
tion possibilities compared with PM machine (id and iq). design are summarized in Table 1.
A special design of the rotor minimizes the required field
current and allows the use of a rotating transformer if a Control Scheme
total brushless configuration is required. Beyond these This machine is used as a starter and a generator. Its conadvantages, it is interesting to note a significant improve- trol is unified by using a unique torque control: positive
ment of the safety, thanks to the possibility of canceling of torques for motor operations and negative for generator.
the field current, and therefore, limiting the risks of high Figure 2 shows this control scheme.
voltages for high-speed operations.
The flux-density level in the air gap is limited only by
the quality of sheets used thus authorizing significant specific torque.
Moreover, during the generating mode, the converter
can be operated in a synchronous rectifier mode, thus
authorizing an increase in the efficiency and a reduction in
the electromagnetic disturbances and converter losses by
avoiding an operation in the pulsewidth modulation
(PWM) mode.
X
After a presentation of ISG constraints, the machine
Y
design, and control structure, models of the WRSM and
its environment are described. The cross-saturation
1
phenomenon is detailed, and we propose an off-line
finite element (FE) method to calculate, taking into WRSM cross section.

27

Models

THE MATLAB
OPTIMIZATION
TOOLBOX
PROVIDES A
NONLINEAR
CONSTRAINED
OPTIMIZATION
ROUTINE.

Machine

The WRSM is modeled by classical


Parks equations (d-q reference frame).
Nevertheless, taking into account the
magnetic saturation does not allow the
use of inductances.
Saturation

Because of magnetic saturation, flux


cannot be expressed as inductances
functions. Each flux wd and wq is a
nonlinear function of the currents
id ; iq , and if :

Optimal design
257 mm

Internal diameter

134 mm

Main sizes
Iron length

53 mm

Air gap

1 mm

Air-gap diameter

214 mm

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Electrical parameters

28

Stator resistance

17 mX

Rotor resistance

1.5 X

Maf (unsaturated)

4 mH

Ld (unsaturated)

0.2 mH

Lq (unsaturated)

0.17 mH

If max

23 A

12

Stator filling factor

0.4

Materials
Iron

UGINE FEV 700-P-65

Battery

T*

Optimal
Control
Laws

Id *
Iq*

PWM

Inverter

If*
Ia

Ib
d/dt

Optimal torque control.

wq fq (id , iq , if ):

(2)

Iron Losses

Other parameters
Pole number

(1)

The functions fd and fq are calculated by interpolation of tables,


which were realized with the FE software FLUX2D [16]. For different
operating points (iq , iq , and if ), the
three-phase fluxes (wabc ) are evaluated (internal function), and then,
the direct and quadrature fluxes are
deduced [17].
Figure 3 shows the results of the FE
software FLUX2D calculation: wd for
different values of iq with If 0 A
and If 24 A, and then wq for different values of id with If 0 A and If 24 A.
Figure 3(a) (If 0 A) shows a classic evolution of wd
as a function of id for iq 0 (upper curve). The important
influence of the cross saturation by comparing in the
same figure the drop of wd for a given value of id and a
high value of iq is noted. For example, for id 346 A, wd
is reduced by about a half when iq varies from 0 to its
maximum value.
Figure 3(c) shows the influence of If on wd . The
coupling between wd and iq is lower but still present.
This reduction of coupling is due to the high value of If
saturating the d axis.
Figure 3(b) and (d) show a classical evolution of wq as a
function of iq. The cross-saturation phenomenon is still
present, but the influence of If is relatively low.
Figure 2 shows the importance of considering the cross
saturation for the determination of the optimal currents.

TABLE 1. MAIN RESULTS.

External diameter

wd fd (id , iq , if ):

Iron losses remain one of the most difficult phenomena


to model. Many publications deal with this problem,
but it is difficult to find a model that is sufficiently
simple and low time consuming to be evaluated for
each iteration of the optimizer loop. On the other
hand, iron losses in WRSM are linked to four parameters, Id , Iq , If , and xs , and so, even tabulated data calculated by an off-line FEs method would require lots of
simulations to reach a sufficient accuracy. Our choice
is to use the classic Bertotti approach and develop an
analytical model, which will be
called by the optimizer. For the
evaluation of iron losses, we neglect the saturation phenomenon
to determine the peak air-gap flux
density, and so, we can use conWRSM
stant values of Ld , Lq , and Maf . The
analytical model used is summarized in Figure 4.
The iron losses model uses the
classic Park transform to determine
the peak air-gap flux density (sinusoidal repartition). We consider a
ratio equal to two between iron and
2
air-gap flux density value (tooth/slot
ratio 1). Once the maximal flux

density is calculated, we apply the


simplified Bertotti formula [18]:
Bam

PIron C0 f
Kcf ( f Bm ) ,
|{z} |{z}
Hysteresis

an energetic model is known. The


power-switches voltage drop is taken
into account by an equivalent dc-bus
voltage drop.

WOUND ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINE
ALLOWS HIGH
POWER FACTOR
EVEN IN FLUXWEAKENING
MODE.

(3)

eddy current

with C0 and a linked to the magnetic


material, whose values are deduced
from steel data sheets. Kcf ((pd)2 =
(6qmv )) (d, q et mv : with d, thickness
of the sheet; f, fundamental frequency;
q, steel resistivity, mv steel density; and
Bm peak value of the flux density (sinusoidal hypothesis). An example of
results for a constant speed and field
current is given in Figure 5. Excess
losses are neglected.

Battery

The battery is modeled by a voltage


source in a series with an internal
resistance as shown in Figure 6.
Maximum power supply equals to
Pbmax

E2b
:
4Rb

(4)

In the generator mode, the terminal


voltage is regulated at a constant value
(around). The battery is thus modeled
by a simple voltage source Vch .

Inverter

Electromechanical Equations

Converter behavior is considered as ideal. Nevertheless, its


efficiency can be considered in the optimization process if

For a given operating point (id , iq , if , and xs ), the following electrical and mechanical data are performed:

0.065
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.065
1,040

PSID for If = 24 A

PSID (Wb)

PSID (Wb)

PSID for If = 0 A

Iq = 0 A
Iq = 200*sqrt(3)A
Iq = 400*sqrt(3)A
Iq = 600*sqrt(3)A

693

346173 0 173 346


ld (A)

693

1,040

Iq = 0 A
Iq = 200*sqrt(3)A
Iq = 400*sqrt(3)A
Iq = 600*sqrt(3)A

693

(a)

346173 0 173 346


ld (A)

693

1,040

693

1,040

(c)

0.065
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.065
1,040

PSIQ for If = 24 A

PSIQ (Wb)

PSIQ for If = 0 A

PSIQ (Wb)

0.065
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.065
1,040

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0.065
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.065
1,040

693

346173 0 173 346


lq (A)

693

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A
Id = 200*sqrt(3)A
Id = 400*sqrt(3)A
Id = 600*sqrt(3)A

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A
Id = 200*sqrt(3)A
Id = 100*sqrt(3)A
Id = 0 A
(b)

1,040

693

346173 0 173 346


lq (A)

Id = 400*sqrt(3)A
Id = 200*sqrt(3)A
Id = 100*sqrt(3)A
Id = 0 A

Id = 100*sqrt(3)A
Id = 200*sqrt(3)A
Id = 400*sqrt(3)A
Id = 600*sqrt(3)A

(d)

3
Calculation results: (a) wd for If 0 A, (b) wq for If 0 A, (c) wd for If 24 A, and (d) wq for If 24 A:

29

6) electrical and mechanical power

1) current (rms)
Irms

s
i2d i2q

(5)

2) flux (table)
wd wd (id , iq , if ),
wq wq (id , iq , if )

(6)
(7)

3) total losses
Piron losses Piron (id ,iq ,Maf ,xs ),
(8)
Pcopper losses 3Rs I2rms Rf I2f
(9)

WRSM IS A
CHALLENGER
FOR PERMANENT
MAGNET
MACHINE FOR
ISG
APPLICATIONS.

4) electromagnetic torque
h
i
Tem p wd iq  wq id

(10)

Pm Tm X

(15)

 sign(Tm )
Pm
g
Pe

Ub

Eb

E2b  4Rb Pb
2

(11)

vq Rs iq xs wd ,
s
v2d v2q
Vrms
3

(12)
(13)

(18)

9) The maximum current is equal to the maximum


inverter current in the starter mode and is limited
by the maximum current density in the WRSM
in the generator mode.
Ilim

Ld id + Maf If

(17)

where Pb is the power given by


the battery. It is equal to the
electrical power divided by the inverter efficiency.
If voltages are considered as sinusoidal, their maximal rms values are considered equal to
Ub
Vsup p :
2 2

vd Rs id  xs wq ,

(16)

8) battery voltage

Iinverter max
/ Js max

(starter)
(generator):

(19)

with Js max being the maximal stator current density.


Iron
Losses
Model

Lq iq
s

Piron (Losses)

Optimal Control
Principle

4
Iron losses determination.

1.6e+003
1.2e+003

100
400

80

800

Controlling the WRSM is equivalent to injecting currents


id , iq , and if , which minimizes the total losses with
respect to different constraints (torque, current, voltage,
and power).
8(T  , X), If (id , iq ) n min
 

1,800

120

Quadrature Current

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(14)

7) efficiency

5) voltage

30

Pe vd id vq iq Rf I2f ,

id , iq , if

1,600

Plosses

1,400
1,200
1,000

60
40

600
1.8e+003
1.4e+003
1e+003

20
0
0

Rb

800
200

600
400
200
0

Ib

8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Field Current

5
Example of iron losses evaluation for Id = 0 and 2,000 r/min.

Ub

Eb

6
Battery electrical model.

with
id (A)

Tm T  ,
Vrms  Vsup ,
Irms  Ilim ,

The MATLAB optimization toolbox [19] provides a nonlinear constrained optimization routine. It
minimizes an objective function f and
tries to maintain constrained functions g negative:

T (N m)

Pe  Pbmax:

x n min
f (x )


50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

0
25
500
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
5
1, 00
75
2, 0
0
2, 00
2
2, 50
5
2, 00
7
3, 50
0
3, 00
2
3, 50
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
0
4, 00
2
4, 50
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
0
5, 00
2
5, 50
5
5, 00
7
6, 50
00
0

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0
10
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30
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72

with
gi (x ) 5 0,

(r/min)
(a)

8i 1 . . . Nconstraints :

iq (A)

Objective Function

Here the objective function equals the


total losses:
f PTotal losses :
Constraints Function

The following are the constraints functions.


1) Mechanical torque is equal to the
command torque:


gt jTm  T j  ejT j:

(21)

gi Irms  Ilim :

(24)

Algorithm

The algorithm is shared by both parts.


1) In the first step, the maximal torque speed zone is established.
Speed is imposed by the application (06,000 r/min). Maximum
torques (positive and negative) are
calculated at standstill by a first
constrained optimization.

100
0
100
200

T (N m)

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22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

0
25
500
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
5
1, 00
7
2, 50
0
2, 00
2
2, 50
5
2, 00
7
3, 50
0
3, 00
2
3, 50
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
0
4, 00
25
4, 0
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
0
5, 00
2
5, 50
5
5, 00
7
6, 50
00
0

gp Pe  Pbmax :

200

if (A)

(23)

4) In the starter mode, electrical


power [see (14)] is limited by the
battery maximum power [see (4)]:

400

(r/min)
(b)

(22)

3) Applied voltage [see (13)] is


less than the available voltage
[see (18)]:
gv Vrms  Vsup :

400

0
25
500
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
5
1, 00
7
2, 50
0
2, 00
2
2, 50
5
2, 00
7
3, 50
0
3, 00
2
3, 50
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
00
4, 0
2
4, 50
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
0
5, 00
2
5, 50
5
5, 00
7
6, 50
00
0

e is a percentage (05e51) that


defines precision.
2) Current [see (5)] is lower than the
limit [see (19)]:

500

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T (N m)

(20)

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72

(r/min)
(c)
Optimal control currents: (a) id (A), (b) iq (A), and (c) if (A).

31

2) For each couple (T  , X), id , id ,


and if are calculated by optimization as seen earlier.
The optimizer MATLAB function fmincon [20] that allows
tabulated data was used. In our case,
the tabulated data were wd ; wq computed by a commercial FE software
(FLUX 2D).

32

Efficiencies = f (,T)
0.9

Performances

0.8

Efficiency

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

250
500
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
50
1, 0
7
2, 50
0
2, 00
2
2, 50
50
2, 0
7
3, 50
00
3, 0
3,250
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
00
4, 0
2
4, 50
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
0
5, 00
2
5, 50
50
5, 0
7
6, 50
00
0

153
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130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
72

The three calculated currents id , iq ,


and if are displayed in Figure 7.
1) In the starter mode (positive
torques), a reduction of the Id
component in the starter mode
allows a maximum value for Iq.
For high torque, If reaches its
maximal value. Nevertheless,
the optimizer reduces this current even in the constant torque zone to reduce total losses.
2) In the generator mode (negative torques), Id and If are
simultaneously controlled to
improve the efficiency. Iq
presents a classical evolution.

THE MAIN
DRAWBACK OF
THE WRSM IS THE
SUPPLY OF ITS
ROTOR WITH
A DC CURRENT.

(r/min)

Isoefficiencies.

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Power Factor = f (,T )

1
0.98
0.96
0.94

Power Factor

0.9
0.88
0.86
0.84
0.82
0.8
(r/min)

Power factor.

The isoefficiencies lines displayed in


Figure 8 show a good efficiency in the
generator mode at usual speeds for an
internal combustion engine (ICE) and a
high torque at low speeds in the motor
mode to easily crank the ICE. We can
notice high-efficiency values (greater
than 0.75) in the generator mode in a
wide torque-speed zone even at idle
speed (750 r/min).
In a previous publication [21], the
authors have developed an internal PM
(IPM) machine based on the same
specifications. Even if the comparison
is always difficult, we can say that the
efficiency performances are equivalent
in a wide operating zone. Nevertheless,
the WRSM has a higher efficiency for
high-speed and low-torque operations.
This phenomenon is due to the high Id
negative value, which generates high
copper losses to reach this operating
point. For low-speed and high-torque
operations, the IPM presents higher
efficiencies. Some results are compared
in the Table 2.

0.92

250
50 0
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
50
1, 0
7
2, 50
0
2, 00
2
2, 50
50
2, 0
7
3, 50
00
3, 0
3,250
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
00
4, 0
2
4, 50
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
0
5, 00
2
5, 50
50
5, 0
7
6, 50
00
0

T (N m)

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T (N m)

Simulation Results
In this section, we present the simulation results.

Optimal Control Currents

The values of the power factor are


shown in Figure 9. This figure shows
the main interest of the WRSM: the
power factor remains very high
(greater than 0.94) in the whole torque-speed plane. This allows to
reduce copper losses but especially
the dc bank of capacitors, which is
one of the larger and more fragile part
of the power converter, especially for
high-temperature conditions.
This high-power factor in the wide
operating range is the main advantage

TABLE 2. MAIN RESULTS.


10 N  m at
4,000 r/min

30 N  m at
1,000 r/min

ISG

0.75

0.87

WRSM

0.82

0.78

Efficiencies

of the WRSM compared with induction machine or IPM for


ISG applications.
10

Experimental Results

Rotor of the WRSM.

Electric Machine

To validate the preceding simulations and to consider the


application of the WRSM to the ISG, a prototype was
designed and produced. Figure 10 shows the rotor of this
machine. A significant filling factor has to be noted. This
optimization result is linked to the minimization of the
rotor losses, not only to increase the efficiency of the system but also to reduce the power to be injected in the
rotor, to minimize the power of the rotor converter and
its associated rotating transformer in the case of a brushless realization.
Figure 11 shows the small length of the machine and
the particular care taken to the realization of very smalllength end windings.

Conclusions
This study presented an application of the principle of a
WRSM for an ISG application. A principle of optimal
control was also presented. The model used by the optimizer considers the particularly significant phenomenon

Experimental Results

11
Stator of the WRSM.

153
0.03
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110
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90
80
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50
0.65
40
30
20
0.74
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
72

Efficiencies = f (,T )
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

0.77

0.77
0.74

0.77
0.72

0.75
0.72

0.73

0.3
0.2
0.1

250
50 0
750
1, 0
0
1, 00
2
1, 50
5
1, 00
7
2, 50
00
2, 0
2
2, 50
50
2, 0
7
3, 50
00
3, 0
3,250
5
3, 00
7
4, 50
00
4, 0
2
4, 50
5
4, 00
7
5, 50
00
5, 0
2
5, 50
50
5, 0
7
6, 50
00
0

The main drawback of the WRSM


is the supply of its rotor with a dc
current. For the presented results,
the rotor has been supplied by slip
rings. This solution has been efficiently used in our prototype even
for high-speed operations. Nevertheless, another study has been carried out to evaluate the feasibility
to supply the rotor with a rotary
transformer. Comprehensive results may be found in [22]. The
active part of the transformer is of
20 mm, with the structure used.
The maximal total power losses
reach 240 W (for If 25 A).
Nevertheless, this maximal current
is only required for the starter
mode. In the generator mode, especially for high-speed operations,
the field current is reduced to 4 A.
In that case, the transformer losses
are reduced to 50 W.

T (N m)

Rotor Supply

(r/min)
Isoefficiencies calculated and some points of measures.

12

IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE  JULY j AUG 2009  WWW.IEEE.ORG/IAS

The machine was assembled on a test bench to establish the efficiency cartography. Figure 12 shows the
experimental results in the shape of dots and compares them to simulations (colored zones). A good
correlation between measurements and simulations,
which enables the validation of the suggested
approach, was observed.

33

IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE  JULY j AUG 2009  WWW.IEEE.ORG/IAS

[9] S. Morimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Hirasa, and K.


of cross saturation for this kind of
Taniguchi, Expansion of operating limits
machine while being based on an offfor permanent magnet motor by current
line calculation by FEs model. A
vector
control
considering
inverter
DUE
TO
ITS
HIGH
method regarding iron losses in the
capacity, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 26,
pp. 866871, Sept./Oct. 1990.
optimization process has been proPOWER FACTOR
[10] L. Chedot and G. Friedrich, Optimal conposed. The obtained results can be
trol of interior permanent magnet synchroconsidered as sufficiently accurate for
WRSM, AVOID AN
nous integrated starter-generator, Proc.
our application. The realization of a
Conf. European Power Electronics Assoc., Toulouse, [CD ROM] Sept. 2003.
prototype and its validation on a bench
OVERSIZING OF
[11] J. Wang, Z. P. Xia, S. A. Longand, and D.
made possible to show the good perHowe, Radial force density and vibration
THE POWER
formances of the WRSM in the kind of
characteristics of modular permanent magapplication, particularly the high
net brushless ac machine, in IEE Proc.
CONVERTER.
value of the power-factor that, beyond
Electrical Power Applications, 2006, vol. 153.
pp. 793801.
the reduction of the copper losses,
[12] I. Boldea, L. Tutelea, and C. I. Pitic, Pmallows the reduction of the consumed
assisted reluctance synchronous motor
reactive power and thus the reduction
generator (pm-rsm) for mild hybrid
in the capacity of the power converter compared with
vehicles: Electromagnetic design, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40,
no. 2, pp. 492498, 2004.
achievements using asynchronous or even synchronous
[13] S. Morimoto, M. Sanada, and Y. Takeda, Performance of PM-assisted
PM machines with wide flux-weakening zone.
synchronous motor for high-efficiency and wide constant-power operAll the presented results are issued from a prototype
ation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 12341240, Sept./
that is equipped with a rotor supplied by slip rings. This
Oct. 2001.
system is very efficient even for high-speed operations. [14] A. Refaie and T. M. Jahns, Application of bi-state magnetic material to an automotive ipm starter/alternator machine, IEEE Trans.
Nevertheless, for ISG structure, a rotary transformer supEnergy Conversion, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 7179, Mar. 2005.
ply would be adapted. Main results of a specific study have
[15] G. Friedrich, L. Chedot, J. Biedinger, and P. Macret, Integrated
been described.
starter generator: need of an optimal design and control approach:
Associating the advantages of the induction machine
Application to a permanent magnet machine, Proc. IEEE IEMDC,
San Antonio, [CD ROM] May 2005.
(robustness, low-cost, and passive rotor) to these PM
machines (high efficiency), the WRSM can constitute [16] Cedrat, Analyse des dispositifs electriques, magnetiques et thermiques par la
methode des elements finis. Notice dutilisation generale, Cedrat, Oct.
an interesting solution to the ISG or even in hybrid
1996.
vehicles applications.
[17] L. Chedot and G. Friedrich, A cross saturation model for interior

34

References
[1] S. MacMinn and W. Jones, A very high speed switched reluctance
starter generator for aircraft engine applications, in Proc. NAECON
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[2] A. De Vries, Commande et dimensionnement de machines a`
reluctance variable a` double saillance pour application alternodemarreur automobile, Ph.D. dissertation, Universite Paris XI,
Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Laboratoire Electricite Signaux et Robotique, 2004.
[3] G. Friedrich, L. Chedot, and J. Biedinger, Comparison of two optimal machine design for integrated starter-generator applications,
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permanent magnet synchronous machine. application to a startergenerator, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 12731281,
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starter generator the need of an optimal design and control approach:
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for a wound rotor synchronous machine for integrated starter generator, in Proc. IEEE VPPC [CD ROM], Sept. 2007.

Guy Friedrich (guy.friedrich@utc.fr) is with the University


of Technology of Compie`gne in Compie`gne, France. Anthony
Girardin is with Valeo Electrical System in Creteil, France.
Friedrich is a Senior Member of the IEEE. This article first
appeared as Optimal Control for a Wound Rotor Synchronous
Starter Generator at the 2006 IEEE Industrial Applications
Society Electrical Machines Conference.