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Goals and Objectives
4D Class
3rd Group
Widyah Nuraeni
Fatma Anisa Sari
Fida Fauziyya
Nurulita Ghany U.

Descriptions of Goals and Objectives
Formulating Goals and Objectives
Goals and Objectives Controversy
Example of Goals and Objectives

Descriptions of
Goals and

Definition of Goals
Brown (1995: 71) states that program
goals are defined in this book as
desirable and attainable program
purposes and aims based on perceived
language and situation needs.

The Characteristic of Goals

1. Goals are general statement of the programs
2. Goals should usually focus on what the
program hopes to accomplish in the future,
and particularly on what the students should
be able to do when they leave the program.
3. Goals can serve as one basis for developing
more precise and observable objectives.
4. Goals should never be viewed as permanent,
that is, they should never become set in

Examples of Goals

The students will learn

how to fill out forms in
French, read a menu
and order a meal.

Why are goals important in

curriculum planning?
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe find that setting
goals for instruction allows teachers to
determine what is acceptable evidence of
mastery. Assessments throughout the lesson
activities show if her/his student is making
progress toward the end goal. If progress is not
being made toward the goal, instruction can be
altered and interventions can take place to
assist the student in her learning.

Definitions of Objectives
Instructional Objectives will be defined
here as specific statements that
describe the particular knowledge,
behaviors, and / or skills that the
learner will be expected to know or
perform at the end of a course or
program. (Brown, 1995: 73)

Examples of Objectives
1. Understand conversation English
2. Develop oral language skills that will
prepare them to participate in class
discussion, make oral presentation before
an audience, and respond to questions,
as well as continue to improve through
self-evaluation of speech
(All of the points above are goals)

3. Correctly underline sentences that function

as examples within 600 word passages of
11th grade reading level on general
science topics three out of four times.
4. Find and write down the library call
numbers for 10 books found in the card
catalog when supplied with the only the
author and title with 90 percent accuracy.
(All of the points above are objectives)

Three Characteristics of
1. Performance
2. Conditions
3. Criterion
(indicated by Mager (1975:
Brown (1995: 74))



Comparison of Goals and

Goals are:
1. Broad, generalized statements about what is to
be lerned
2. General intentions
3. Intangible
4. Abstract
5. Cannot be validated
6. Long term
7. Defined before analysis
8. Written before objectives
9. Goals should be written from the instructors
point of view

Comparison of Goals and

Objectives are:
1. Narrow, specific statements about what is to be
2. Precise intentions
3. Tangible
4. Concrete
5. Can be validated or measured
6. Short term
7. Written after analysis
8. Prepared before instruction is designed
9. Objectives should be written from the students
point of view

Formulating Goal
and Objective

Formulating Goals into Objectives

According to Graves (2000: 83-85) here are several
frameworks of formulating goals which can help us to organize
our goals.
The first is named KASA (Knowledge, Awareness, Skills, and
Knowledge : What students will know and understand.
Awareness : What students need to be aware of when
learning something.
: What students can do with something
: The affective and values-based dimension of
The KASA framework is enhanced by David Thomson with
added another layer and turned into A TASK which is added T
for Teacher.

Stern (1992) has a similar framework for setting goals:

1. Proficiency
2. Cognitive
3. Affective
4. Transfer
A fourth way to organize goals is described by Fred
Genesee and John Upshur:
5. Language goals
6. Strategic goals
7. Socio affective goals
8. Philosophical goals
9. Method or process goals

Steps Involved in Narrowing The Perception

of Students Needs To Realizable Program
1. Examine the needs of the students as discovered and
presented in the needs analysis documents.
2. State the needs of the students in terms of realizable
goals for the program.
3. Narrow the scope of the resulting goals statements:
a. by analyzing them into their smallest units,
b. by classifying those units into logical groupings,
c. by thinking through exactly what it is that the
students need to know or be able to do to achieve
the goals.
4. State the smaller more specific goals as objectives
with as much precision as makes sense in the
context using the guidelines given in the reminder of
this chapter.

Instructional Objectives
Source of ideas of objectives
1. Other language program
2. The Literature
3. Taxonomies (click here!)
Sound instructional objectives
4. Subject
5. Performance
6. Conditions
7. Measure
8. Criterion

Outline of Blooms (1956) Taxonomy of

the Cognitive Domain
1. Knowledge
a. Knowledge of specifics
b. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with
c. Knowledge of universals and abstractions in a field
2. Comprehension
a. Translation
b. Interpretation
c. Extrapolation
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation

Outline of the Affective Domain

Taxonomy (outlined from Krathwohl et
al. 1956)


Receiving (Attending)
Characterisation by a value or value

Goals and

Battle Lines are Quickly Drawn

The main complaints that arise with
regard to objective:
1. Association
2. Some things just cannot be quantified
3. Objectives trivialize instruction
4. Objectives curtail a teachers freedom
5. Language
expressed in objectives

Objectives Do Not Bite

Objectives are most effective when a
variety of different types are used and
when the level of specificity for
different objectives is allowed to
Some objectives have two main
controversies: in the fairly specific
instructional objective format, or in the
less specific experimental objectives.

Objectives Do Not Bite

The problem that Brown (1995: 95)
faced that suspicion and contempt of
the use of objectives usually arises
from misunderstandings resulting from
stereotypes of what an objective is.
It results the cult of inefficiency
through default that is mainly faced by
some teachers.

Benefits of Instructional
The instructional objectives help the teacher
do the following:
1. Courage the creativity of learning
2. Convert the students perceived needs
into teaching points.
3. Think through the skills and sub skills.
4. Decide on what they want the students to
be able to do.
5. Decide on the appropriate level of

6. Providing a blueprint for the development

of tests and other evaluation instruments.
7. Adopt, develop, or adapt teaching
matched materials.
8. Develop professionally by letting them
focus on just what they are trying to
9. Evaluate
considered on done learning-teaching
10.Contribute to and learn from an ongoing
process of curriculum development.

Consideration for Achieving the Instructional

Objectives Benefits
1. Type and level of specificity are in range.
2. Not permanent feature.
3. Must be developed by consensus among
the involved teachers.
4. Must not be prescriptive in restricting
what teachers do in the classroom.
5. Be specific to a particular program.
6. Must be designed to help the teachers.

Objectives Do Not Bite

Objectives can be used to guide the
teaching of language within various
technique and exercises.
The difficulties of writing satisfactory
objectives can be solved by team working.
Objectives are only a part of the overall
process of curriculum development.

Example of Goals
and Objectives

Example Objectives from GELC

Reading Level B Course (GELC 1982)
The students should be able to do the following:
1. Skim a 600-word passage for six minutes, and then
answer multiple choice factual questions (without the
passage) with 60 percent accuracy.
2. Answer multiple factual questions on a 600-word
passage in six minutes, with 70 percent accuracy.
3. Answer multiple factual questions about a graph,
chart, or diagram in three minutes with 70 percent
4. Take notes in outline format on a 600-word passage
including main ideas and sub ideas (i.e., at least two
levels) with 70 percent accuracy.

9. Fill in connectors (provided)n in the appropriate blanks in a

600-word passage with 70 percent accuracy.
10.Write labels from missing elements in a graph, chart, or
diagram from information provided in a 600-word passage
with 70 percent accuracy.
11.Fill in meanings (provided) for the prefixes and stems given
in appendix in Long et al (1980) with 70 percent accuracy.
14.Fill in meanings of unknown words based on sentence level
context with 70 percent accuracy.
15.Identify sentences which function as examples in a 600word passage with 70 percent accuracy.
16.Identify sentences which function as analogies in a 600word passage with 70 percent accuracy.

Elements of Language Curriculum: A
Systematic Approach to Program
Development. Boston, Massachusetts:
Heinle & Heinle Publishers
Language Courses: A Guide for
Teachers.Ontario, Canada: Heinle &
Heinle Publishers

Questions Session

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