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Concepts of Pipe Stress

Analysis

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Nilesh o Agrawal
Plant Design, Date:28.02.2008

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AIM

1. The aim of this interactive session is to facilitate understanding of the requirements of


Stress Analysis.

2. It is also aimed at reducing the possibility of changes in layout during stress analysis.

3. Anyway the interaction between stress group and layout is an ongoing process.

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Objectives of Pipe Stress Analysis

Pipe stress analysis provides the necessary techniques for engineers to design piping systems
without overstressing and overloading the piping components & connected equipment.
The objective of stress analysis can be listed as follows:
A) To limit the stresses in the piping system to the limiting value.
B) To limit the deflection in the piping system to the limiting value.
C) To ensure nozzle loads are within allowable.
D) To limit the loads on supports.
E) To check for leakage at flange joints.

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Objectives of Pipe Stress Analysis

F) Unintentional disengagement of pipes from supports.


G) Excessive displacement .
H) To Solve dynamic problems due to fluid hammer, pulsation, mechanical vibration etc.

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Working Philosophy of Stress Group

Different Loading
Parameters

Review Bid Document

Includes
Stress Analysis
Criteria

Preparation of
Work Instruction for Pipe Stress Analysis
Piping Modeling
& Analysis
Methodology

Mark-up of Stress Systems on P&ID

Layout Group

Stress isometrics with Design Parameters

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Working Philosophy of Stress Group

Safe

Perform Pipe Stress Analysis

Prepare Documentation

Unsafe

Add Flexibility
in Piping

Prepare Final
Stress Report

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Magnitude of Thermal Load

A pipe when held between two anchors, when heated up, tries to expand
against its restraints resulting in considerable, forces, moments and
stresses.

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Magnitude of Thermal Load

If the pipe is to be maintained in the heated position then there will be an axial
force P to compress the increase in pipe length of L.
The strain developed in the pipe,, is then calculated as
=L/L =
The internal stresses developed due to this strain is
= E =E ---Hookes Law

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Magnitude of Thermal Load

The force required to compress back is then defined by


P=A =A E
Where,
A=Area of c/s of pipe
E=Modulus of Elasticity of Pipe material
P=Compressive Force
= Stress developed
L=Axial compression of pipe
L=Length of Pipe

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Classification of Loads on Piping

Loads on Piping

Primary Loading
Sustained Loads like
dead weight etc.
Not Self-Limiting in nature
i.e.; deformation will not
bring relaxation on stress.

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Secondary Loading
Loads due to
Thermal Expansion etc.
Self-Limiting in nature
i.e.; deformation will result
in redistribution of stress.

Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Loads on Piping
Loading
Static Loading

Dynamic Loading

Pressure

Internal/External

Temperature

Weight

Restraint,
Differential Growth

Dead Weight

Live Weight

(Pipe Wt. Insul Wt) (Operating, Snow)

Random
Wind, Earthquake

Harmonic
Vibration, Pulsation
Impulse

Friction

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Relief valve, Fluid


hammer, Slug Flow
Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Stresses due to Sustained Loads:


SL <= WSh
The thickness of pipe used in calculating S L shall be the nominal
thickness less the erosion and corrosion allowance. This is calculated by
looking at Clause 302.3.5 (c)
Where,
SL =Sum of longitudinal stress to pressure weight and other sustained loading, KPa
S h =Basic allowable stress at the operating temp., KPa
W= Weld joint strength reduction factor

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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Allowable Displacement Stress Range SA:


The computed displacement stress range SE in a piping system
(Para 319.4.4) shall not exceed the allowable displacement stress range S A
SE <= SA
SA = f (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)
SA = f [1.25(Sc+Sh) SL] Liberal Allowable Stress
f= 6.0 (N)-0.2
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Requirements of ASME B31.3

The range of bending and torsional stresses shall be computed using the reference modulus
of elasticity at 210C and then combined to determine the computed displacement stress range
S E as below:

SE = Sb2+4St2

Where,

S b=Resultant bending stress


S t=Torsional Stress =Mt/2Z
Mt =Torsional Moment
Z =Sectional Modulus of Pipe

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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Stresses due to Occasional Loads:


The sum of longitudinal stresses SL due to sustained loads, such as pressure and weight,
and of stresses produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earthquake, shall not
exceed 1.33 times the basic allowable stress S h.

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Piping Loads on Structure

The pipe weight on structure is function of pipe supporting span.


Due to uniform loads (pipe weight, insulation weight, fluid weight) and concentrated
loads (valves and flanges) bending moment occurs.
The pipe weights are distributed uniformly across the unsupported span and lead to
maximum bending moment either at the center of the span or at the support location,
depending on the type of support used.

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Loads on Structure

Calculate the average pipe size on the pipe rack tier.


Calculate the weight of pipe between two columns in Kg/m.
Calculate the area load considering the width of the beam.
The standard area loads for pipe racks are:
Main pipe racks: 2.00 KN/m2
Secondary pipe racks:1.50 KN/m2

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Loads on Structure

Consider average pipe size = DN200 (SCH STD)


Water filled weight for DN 200, SCH STD = 75Kg/m
For pipe rack width of 6m, total nos. of DN 200 pipes that can be closely spaced = 30nos.
Total Weight = 30*75*6 = 13500 KG
Area sharing the load = (Distance between 2 columns) x (Width of Pipe Rack)
= 6 x 6 = 36 m2
Total Load = (Total Weight)/(Load Sharing area) = 13500/36
Total Load = 375 Kg/m2

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Deflection of Pipe

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Deflection of Pipe

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Location of Support Concentrated Load

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Location of Support Concentrated Load

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Location of Support & Concentrated Load

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Piping Arrangement Cantilever Beam

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Basic Support Types

1. Full Anchor:
Does not allows the pipe to move or twist in any of the directions.

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Basic Support Types

2. Directional Anchor:
Stops movement along the axes of the pipe, but permits movement
along the
sideways (perpendicular direction).

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Basic Support Types

3. Guides:
Stops movement along the sideways (perpendicular) direction of
the pipe,
but permits movement along the axes of the pipe.

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Basic Support Types

4. Resting:
Prevents downward motion of the pipe. Generally, defined to take
the weight
of the pipe and its components.

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Loads Due to Thermal Expansion

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Loads Due to Thermal Expansion

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Loads due to Thermal Expansion

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

The piping arrangement of sensitive equipments like pumps, air-cooler, compressor shall be
enough flexible to take care of thermal expansion.
Study the piping routine and calculate the thermal expansion manually. Calculate the
compensatory leg required to absorb the thermal expansion.
Provide support near to the concentrated weights, to reduce load transfer directly at nozzle.
Possibly, first support shall be guiding support, to reduce nozzle loads.

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Behaviour of Piping Loop 2D

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Piping Loop 3D

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Effect of Piping 3D Loop on Support Loads

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Restraints Location on Piping

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Restraints Location on Piping

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Restraints Location on Piping

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Supporting on Thermal Expansion

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Effect of Supporting on Thermal Expansion

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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EXAMPLES

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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EXAMPLES

2000

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

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Comments

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Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt

Thank you
for your attention

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