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Day8:

PART1:SUMMARYOFTHEENTIRESESSION:
1. Theidentifiersforpresenttense
2. Thenormalvs.lightvs.lightestpresenttense
3. TheLightHarf&TheLightestHarfGroups

PART2:INTRODUCTIONTOPRESENTTENSE

ThepasttenseisprocessedbytheArabicstudentbypayingattentiontochangesthatoccurattheendoftheword.
TheseendingswerestudiedonDay6.Thestandardendingswerelearnedbymeansofusingasasampleonpage

33andthenappliedusingtheexamplesonpages3437.Thestudyofthepresenttenseisanentirelydifferentconcept.
HereareafewintroductorypointswenotedaboutthepresenttenseinArabic:
a. Eachpresenttensecontainswithinitadoerpronoun.Todiscoverthatpronoun,studentsmustpayattentiontothe

cluesatthebeginningofthe first.Thisisdrasticallydifferentfromtheapproachwetookwhenstudyingthe
pasttensewherewegaveexclusiveemphasistotheending.Thebottomlineis:forpasttense,payattentiontothe
ending&forpresenttense,payattentiontofirstthebeginning,thentheending.
b. Thepresenttenseconjugationsservetodeliverthemeaningsofbothpresentandfuture.Ionlyrefertothemasthe
presenttenseforconciseness.Thepresenttenseconjugationissometimestranslatedinthepresent,othertimesin
thefutureandsometimesmaybetranslatedaseitherorbothsimultaneouslydependingonthecontext.
c. Whilethepasttensetendstoalludetoaneventthatoccurredonce,thepresenttensetendstoimplyanactthat
occurredcontinuously.InotherwordswhenIsaypresenttenseinArabic,Imreallysayingpresentcontinuous
tense.Hehelped,probablyjustoncewhereasHehelpsprobablyoverandoveragain.

PART3:THEIDENTIFIERSFORPRESENTTENSE
Inclasswelisted12identifiersforthepresenttense.Inthesenotesyouwillsee14identifiers.Theadditionaltwothat
arebeinginthesenotesarelogicaladditionsbutyoudontnecessarilyhavetoconcernyourselfwiththemtoomuchas
theyarentcommonoccurrencesandeveniftheydooccur,theyrenotsohardtofigureout.Wenotedthatthepresent
tensecanonlybeginwithoneoffourletters.Thesefourlettersare,,, or.Wealsonotedthatthesebeginning

letterscanonlyhaveeithertheu (
)ora ()onthem.Whetherthesoundshouldbeuoraisacasebycase

thingthatispredeterminedfortheandisnotsomethingyouhavetherighttochangeforagivenword.For

exampleiftheArabicwordis,youdonothavetherighttochangetheinto.Thatwouldbe
wrong.

Thelistofidentifiersisalogicalflowofitemsandshouldbeorganizedinyourmindintofourgroups.Thefirstgroupis
and.Thesecondgroupisthefourkindsof.Thethirdgroupisthefourkindsofandthenfinallythetwo
additionals.

1.

or beginning=I

2.

orbeginning=We

or beginning=He

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

orbeginning+
ending=Bothofthem

orbeginning+ ending=They

orbeginning+ending=They(women)

beginning=You
or

ending=Bothofyou
beginning+
or

meansIhelp.

meansWehelp.

meansHehelps.

meansBothofthemhelp

meansTheyhelp.

meansThey(women)help.

meansYouhelp

meansBothofyouhelp

meansAllofyou

10.

meansYouwomenhelp
beginning+ ending=Youwomen
or

11.
ending=Yousing.Fem.

meanYouhelp(fem.Sing.)
beginning+
or

12.
or

beginning=She(inadditiontomeaningyouin7)

meansShehelps

or

beginning+

ending=Bothofyoufem.(basedon11)

meansBothofyou(fem.)help
13.


9.

beginning+ ending=Allofyou
or

14.

ending=ThemBothfem.(basedon12)
beginning+
or

help

meansBothofthem(fem.)

Thefourteenitemslistedaboveseemlikealotofinformation.Firstofall,concernyourselfwith12ofthem.Thetipson
howtoconstructtwelveconjugationsinyourmindareasfollows:
a. Rememberthatthepresenttensecanonlybeginwith,thatisoror or.

b. TheisforIandtheisforwe.

c. Theisactuallyusedfourways.byitself(he),with
(bothofthem) with(they)andwith

(thosewomen)

d. Theisusedatleastinthesamefourwaysas.byitself(you),with
(bothofyou),with(all

ofyou),with(youwomen).

e. Theisusedintwoadditionalways:couldalsomeanshe andwithisyoufem.

Weappliedtheseidentifierstotheexamplesonpages40and41.Makesureyouunderstandeachcasecoveredin
classonthosetwopages.

PART4:THELIGHT&LIGHTESTPRESENTTENSES:
Thepresenttensechartonpage39canbedividedintothreeparts:

a. Wordsthatendwiththeusoundlikeor.

, or .
Wordsthatendwiththelike

b.

c. Thetwopluralfeminines; and .

Firstofall,dontconfusethetermlightherewiththesametermweusedunderstudy.Herewemeansomething
elsebyit.Thebasicideaisthatthepresenttenseoccursinitsnormalstateonpage39.Thenormalendingsare
changedtolightendingsunderspecialcircumstances.Therearetwothingstolearnaboutthistopic.(i)Whatdothe
lightversionsofeachpresenttenselooklikeand(ii)whatcausesthepresenttensetobelight.

Thefirstcolumngoingdownonpage39hasabunchofwordsthatendwithanu(skipping andincluding

onthebottomleft).Thefewwordsthatendwithu,then,are, , ,and .These






words,whenconvertedtotheirlightform,become,,,andrespectively.Sothelight

versionissimplyachangefromtheuendingtotheaendingforthesewords.Asforthewordswithattheend

(pointbabove),thelightversiondemandsthattheberemoved.So
&
wouldbeand

intheirlightforms. and wouldbe and intheirlightforms(theisa

writingformality). wouldbe initslightform.ThetwowordsthatIskippedonpurposebecausethey

areunchanged(pointcabove).Thesearethepluralfeminines and .Thesetwowordslookthesame

whethernormalorlight.Thefollowingchartisalightrenderingothenormalchartonpage39.

( isremovedwhenlight)
(isremovedwhenlight)

( Pl.Fem.Doesntchangewhenlight)
( isremovedwhenlight)

( isremovedwhenlight)
( isremovedwhenlight)

( Pl.Fem.Doesntchangewhenlight)
( isremovedwhenlight)

( uchangestoawhenlight)

(uchangestoawhenlight)

( uchangestoawhenlight)

( uchangestoawhenlight)

( isremovedwhenlight)

(uchangestoawhenlight)

Bycomparison,thelightestversionisonlydifferentfromthelightversioninonerespect.Itenforcesa
instead

ofanuendingforthefewwordsthathaveanuintheirnormalstate.Asfortherestofthechart,itlooksidenticalto
thelightversion.Heresthelightestchartincomparisontothenormaloneonpage39:

( isremovedwhenlightest)
(isremovedwhenlightest)

( F.Pl.Doesntchangewhenlightest)
( isremovedwhenlightest)

( isremovedwhenlightest)
( isremovedwhenlightest)

( F.Pl.Doesntchangewhenlightest) ( isremovedwhenlightest)

( uchangestosukoonwhenlightest)

(uchangestosukoonwhenlightest)

( uchangestosukoonwhenlightest)

( uchangestosukoonwhenlightest)

( isremovedwhenlightest)

( uchangestosukoonwhenlightest)

PART5:WHATMAKESTHEPRESENTTENSELIGHTORLIGHTEST?
THELIGHTGROUP:Thereisasmallgroupofthatwespokeaboutinclassyesterdaywhosejobistomakesure

thatthepresenttensecomingafterthemislight.

meanswillnotor or meanssothat meansinthatcase


meansto


meansuntil

Thewordsabovehavetheeffectofmakingthepresenttenselight.Herearesomeexamplesusing.


meansHewillnothelp. (Itookoffthetomake lighthere)meansSothattheyhelp.

maymeanUntilshehelpsorUntilyouhelp.SomeexamplesfromtheQuraninclude:

(becauseof,thenormallyischangedto)


,thenormally ischangedto)

(becauseof

(becauseof ,thenormally ischangedto)


(becauseof ,thenormally
ischangedto
)

THELIGHTESTGROUP:Anothersmallgroupofwordsensuresthatthepresenttenseoccurringafterthemisinits
lighteststate.Thethatenforcethelighteststateareasfollows:

meansif meansdidnt meansnotyet

meansand.shouldmeansthen.should meansshould

Herearesomeexamples: (ifhehelpsyou), (Ididnthelp), (theyhaventhelpedyet),


(thenheshouldhelp).

HerearesomeexamplesfromtheQuran:

(noticethenormallychangestothelightest becauseof) .IfAllahhelpsyou.





(noticethenormally changestothelightest becauseof) .Hedidntbeget.

(noticethenormally losesitsinthislightestformduetothe) Thentheyshould

worshiptheLordofthishouse.

PART5:SOMEADDITIONALPOINTSTHATDIDNTGETCOVEREDINCLASS

1. The
inthelightestformcanappeartobea
sometimes.ThisisonlydoneinArabictoconnecta

wordphoneticallytothefollowingwords.Heresanexample:

isclearlyacaseofthelightestpresenttense.Ifweaddanotherwordtothesentence,weget:

.Howarewetoreadthisifwedontwanttostopat


butratherspeakinflowhaving

phonetically?Wedosobyreplacingthe with .So


thewordpourintotheword


thewaytoreadinflowwouldbe:



.Eventhoughweseea
,asstudentsofArabicweknowthatitisactuallya

andthe
isjustthereallowingforbetterflowinreading/pronunciation.

2.

cameupwhenwewerestudying .Ithascomeupagainwhenwearestudyingthelightgroup.

Howisonetodistinguishwhichgroup belongstoatagiveninstance.Youwillnoticethatonpage27

whenwelistedthe11
thatoccurintheQuran,Imentioned twice.Ididsobecauseitoccurs

inthosetwotextualinstancesintheentireQuran(thoughoneofthemisrepeatedmorethan
asa

once).Asfortherestoftheinstancesof
intheQuran,assumethattheybelongtothis,thelightgroupfor
presenttense.