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Teachers Book

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Essential Science
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Essential Science teaches basic concepts of Science,


Geography and History through English.
Content and language are carefully interwoven
in Essential Science.
The syllabus covers all the scientific contents which
students require at this level.

Science, Geography and History

The language objectives correlate with those set out


in the Cambridge Young Learners suite.

Cdigo de pedido: S-0676X

Science, Geography and History

The Students Book guides students towards


curricular objectives.

Activity
Book

A series of presentations explain key concepts


in clear and simple language.
Basic activities in the Students Book give students
the confidence to ask questions, and make
descriptive statements.

The Activity Book provides reinforcement


and extension activities.

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It includes projects and tasks to widen


the students horizons, and stimulate
reflection on work and progress.
The Students CD gives an
extensive selection of recorded
texts.

Students CD

www.indexnet.santillana.es
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Learner autonomy is
encouraged.

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The students self-confidence


will grow, as their fluency
and pronunciation improve.

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Essential Science provides a wealth of material to


teachers and students. This gives teachers great
flexibility to choose. They can adapt their work in
view of the time the students spend on Science,
Geography and History in English.

Teachers Book

Richmond World Facts Readers provide a series of


stimulating and carefully graded texts on Geography,
Science, Culture and History. 58 readers at 6 levels
of proficiency are available.
Internet resources are available for teachers and
students on our websites. Links encourage students
to go further in their research.
Richmond Students Dictionary: a valuable reference
tool.
Assessment, Extension and Reinforcement
worksheets provide teachers with additional
resources.
Science, Geography and History

Posters and flashcards give teachers important visual


back-up.

This Teachers Book offers page-by-page teaching


suggestions, solutions to the Activity Book activities,
and a guide to other resources.

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Hadrians Wall

baths

theatre

aqueduct

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sarcophagus

Appian Way

Roman Empire

Class CD1

Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S.L.

A T L A N T I C

Sea

statue

road

10

sarcophagus

11

theatre

12

aqueduct

13

theatre

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Boundaries

temple

Class CD2

The Teachers CD contains a selection


of recorded texts as well as all
the Students CD recordings.

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CONTENTS FOR SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

Natural sciences

UNIT

CONCEPTS

BOOK 5

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

01. Living things

Living and non-living things


Characteristics of life
processes
Cells and the parts of a cell
Unicellular and multicellular
organisms

Interpreting a diagram
Studying photographs

Respect for all


living things

02. Plants

Flowering and non-flowering


plants
Classification of plants
Plants breathe, make food
and reproduce

Observing parts of a plant


Describing the reproduction
of plants

Fruit and health

03. Invertebrates

Characteristics
of invertebrates
Invertebrate groups
Characteristics
of arthropods

Classifying invertebrates
Studying labelled drawings

Protecting
animal habitats

04. Vertebrates

Characteristics
of vertebrates
Vertebrate groups
Classification of reptiles,
fish and amphibians

Comparing vertebrates
Associating groups with their
habitats

Benefits of
a fish diet

05. Nutrition

The main organs in the


digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory
systems
The processes of nutrition,
digestion, respiration,
circulation and excretion

Interpreting anatomical
drawings
Observing photographs

Healthy eating
habits

06. Matter

The properties of matter


Differentiating physical
and chemical changes
Changes in matter
Changes in state

Explaining events
scientifically
Using personal experience
to interpret a subject

Tetanus

07. The atmosphere

The atmosphere
The hydrosphere
The geosphere
Changes in the Earths
surface

Sequencing information
Extracting information from
photographs, drawings
and diagrams

Natural
disasters

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Geography and History

UNIT

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CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

18. The landscape

The concept of landscape


Inland and coastal
landforms
Mountains, plains
and coasts in Spain

Interpreting maps

Rubbish

19. Rivers

Rivers, lakes
and watersheds
Climate and weather
Living things and their
habitats

Observing drawings and photos


Locating climate zones on a globe

The effects
of human
action on the
environment

10. Population

The concept of population


Causes and types
of migration
Characteristics of the
population in Spain

Interpreting a population bar


Doing a census

Respect for
people from
other cultures
Respect
for senior
citizens

11. The economy

The concept of active


population
The agricultural, industrial
and service sectors
Tourism and transport
in Spain

Identifying industries in own area


Using maps to locate services

The
importance
of all types of
work
Road safety

12. Prehistory
and Antiquity

Periods of Prehistory and


characteristics of prehistoric
life
Early civilisations on the
Iberian peninsula
The Roman legacy in Spain

Interpreting historical maps


Studying ancient monuments

Understanding
our cultural
legacy from
the past

13. The Middle Ages

The Germanic tribes


and the Visigothic kingdom
The characteristics
of Al Andalus
The expansion of the
Christian kingdoms
Society in Spain after 1492

Putting historical events in order


Interpreting historical maps

Respect
for historic
buildings

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The Student's Book


indicates Richmond
World Facts Readers.

Title
This is the
number and
title of the unit.

Living things
LOOK

indicates an
Internet Activity.

Look at this photo.


What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?

indicates
a reading
activity.

Look
The units begin
with a LOOK or
COMPARE
section which
focuses
attention on the
theme of the
unit.

READ

shows that it is
also recorded.

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things


and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:


Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things.


Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.


Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

Living things have the following characteristics:


Sensitivity

They are born from other living things.

Living things react to their environment.

They eat.
They react to their environment.

Activities

Reproduction

They grow.

Living things have offspring.

They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

indicates that the


activity should
first be done
orally.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things


What living things are there in your home?

Activities at the bottom


of the page reinforce
basic concepts, and
practise structures and
vocabulary.
Some are linked to
citizenship themes.

LIVING THINGS

indicates that it
can also be used
as a writing
exercise.

Read
Information is organised
into numbered sections.

Rivers
EXPRESSING POSSESSION
A regions characteristic temperature
The Earths climate
A rivers course and flow

Essential language

Population
DESCRIBING PEOPLE

The Essential
Language section
summarises all the
key language used at
this level.

The population is the number of people


Urban populations are people
Rural populations are people
People

who

live in a place.
live in cities.
live in villages and towns.
leave a country are called emigrants.

True or false? Make more sentences.


The population is the number of people who visit a place.

True. / False.

TALKING ABOUT MANNER


The number of inhabitants in a place changes
The adult population is growing
Some countries are
The population is not
Some areas are

continually.
quickly.
densely populated.
evenly distributed.
sparsely populated.

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The Activity Book


Learner autonomy:
the students assess
their own progress.

I can do it

Activities
The Activity
Book offers
a wealth of
activities.

Contents

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 2. Date

UNIT
UNIT

II CAN
CAN DO
DO IT
IT

Living
Living things
things
Our
senses
Plants

THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS


KINGDOMS

Read
Read
and
and tick
tick



compare
and kingdoms.
non-living things.
I canI can
classify
living living
thingsthings
into three
3I canI can
identify
animal and plant habitats.
describe
a cell.

identifythe
ourdifferent
five senses.
I canI can
distinguish
parts of a plant.
6I canI can
parts of the eye and the ear.
talk name
about the
photosynthesis.

1. Match and label.


system

tissue

organ

organism

cell

name
some bones and muscles.
I canI can
classify
invertebrates.
say how
use our
muscles.groups.
9 10I canI can
describe
the we
different
arthropod

Our
body
Invertebrates
Animals
Vertebrates

classify
animals in different
groups.groups.
I canI can
name
the characteristics
of vertebrate
identify
what different
animals eat.
12 13I canI can
classify
vertebrates
into groups.

Vertebrates
Nutrition
and
invertebrates

identify
vertebrates
and
invertebrates.
I canI can
locate
the main
organs of
nutrition.
namethe
theprocesses
characteristics
of mammals.
16 16I canI can
describe
involved
in nutrition.

The
Earth
Matter

thegeneral
three parts
of theof
Earth.
I canI can
talk identify
about the
properties
matter.
compare
solids,
liquids
and gases.
21 25I canI can
identify
changes
of state
in matter.

Water
The atmosphere

where
we find water.
I canI can
talk say
about
the purpose
of the atmosphere.
describe
the water
25 27I canI can
explain
the water
cycle.cycle.

Air
The landscape

characteristics
of air.
I canI can
talk describe
about thethe
concept
of landscape.
identify
someinland
atmospheric
phenomena.
28 30I canI can
identify
the main
and coastal
landforms.

Plants
Rivers

identify
stems,
and roots.
I canI can
describe
rivers
and leaves
watersheds.
compare
bushes
andzones.
grasses.
32 32I canI can
distinguish
thetrees,
Earths
climatic

Flowering
Populationplants

of the parts
of a flower.
I canI can
talk name
about some
the concept
of population.
describe
how plants
grow.of migration.
38 35I canI can
identify
the causes
and types

The
The landscape
economy

identify
different
landscapes.
I canI can
identify
the three
economic
sectors.
namepublic
the parts
a mountain.
41 40I canI can
describe
andof
private
service sectors.

Prehistory
Water
and weather
and Antiquity

course
of aofriver.
I canI can
talk describe
about thethe
main
periods
Prehistory.
talk and
about
the weather.
44 44I canI can
identify
describe
some Roman ruins.

Population
The Middle Ages

compare
cities,
towns and
villages.
I canI can
sequence
events
in Spanish
history.
some
means ofoftransport.
48 48I canI can
talk identify
about the
importance
the Golden Age.

Work
Extra Past and present

51

I can identify some types of work.


I can talk about the needs of industry.

53

I can talk about the past.


I can make a family tree.

PROJECT 1: Classify plants


PROJECT
Animal
index
cardsa fungus
PROJECT 1:
2: Observe
and
describe
PROJECT
Make
skeletonatoclimate
study bones
PROJECT 2:
3: Make
andainterpret
graph and joints
PROJECT
An experiment
PROJECT 3:
4: Investigate
changes in matter
PROJECTS
objects
to experiment
with Peninsula
air
PROJECT 5:4-7:
TheMake
Roman
provinces
of the Iberian
PROJECT
Make a relief model of your autonomous community
GLOSSARY8:
GLOSSARY:

2. Complete the sentences.

Tisse

a.

are made up of

b.

are made up of

c.

are made up of

which work together.

tisse

which work together.


which work together.

Many systems work together in an organism.


3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1.
KINGDOMS
Animal

Plant

Fungi

19
20
19
21-24
36
37
37
38-39
54-55
56-57
56-63
58-64

Project 3

MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH


Use this information to construct a climate graph.
Temperature is in degrees centigrade (C).

stem

Precipitation is in millimetres (mm).


F

Temperature

13

15

18

20

24

26

25

19

10

Precipitation

50

54

70

78

83

60

30

15

90

86

88

69

Glossary

tuber

Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line
to connect the points from all twelve months.
2. Complete the precipitation.
Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height
on the graph.
T (C)

P (mm)

50

100

40

80

30

60

20

40

10

20

0
J

36

Multicultural
non-sexist education

Peace
education

sunlight

Students use the


glossary to record
the vocabulary
they have learned.

1. Complete the temperature.

Health
education

Projects and tasks


Projects and tasks
lead the students to
reflect, and carry out
simple experiments.

Road safety

Consumer
education

worm

stolon

alligator
amphibian
aquatic

abdomen

beak

arachnid

bony fish

arthropod

carnivore

cephalothorax

cartilaginous fish

cnidarian

cetacean

crustacean

cold-blooded

echinoderm

crocodile

exoskeleton

egg

insect

feather

invertebrate

fin

mollusc

fur

myriapod

gill

oviparous

habitat

parasite

incubation

shell

lizard

sponge

lung

thorax

mammal
57

Environmental
education

Citizenship

Sex
education

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The Teacher's Book


Materials for reinforcement
and extension

UNIT 1

UNIT 0

Living things
RESOURCES

Content objectives

Resource folder

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Distinguishing living things and non-living things


Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes
Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell
Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms
Learning how living things are organised

PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 1

1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born


are made up of
2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients
Tissues which work together
3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food
4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells such as the heart
5. Describing position: around the cell between the nucleus and the membrane
6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Cells and life processes
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315
The structure of plant and animal cells and life
processes, along with other biology topics.
For students and teachers.

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Living things and non-living


things
The characteristics of living
things and life processes
The cell and the parts of a cell:
cytoplasm, membrane
and nucleus
The organisation of living
things: cell, tissue, organ,
system, organism
The principal kingdoms
of living things: animal, plant
and fungi

Interpreting a diagram about


the organisation of living things
Studying photographs to learn
about living things
Classifying living things into
three kingdoms
Identifying the characteristics
of the three kingdoms of living
things

ATTITUDES

Living things
http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html
A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms
of living things and human organ systems.
For students and teachers.

Appreciating life and living


things

The fungi kingdom


http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?
objid=BIO304
A closer look at the fungi kingdom.
For students and teachers.

The Organisation of the Human Body


Cells

Other resources

Assessment criteria

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Reinforcement: Worksheet 1
Extension: Worksheet 1

Language objectives

Contents for
English skills

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Reinforcement and extension

The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are
made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made
up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100
trillion cells.
Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another,
and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two
hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone
cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on.
The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells
are long and thinwhen they contract, they produce movement.
The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and
the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and
controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike
substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell
membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can
enter and exit a cell.

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

Muscle Tissue

Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For
example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cellone to
make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells.
Humans have four types of tissue.
Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce
movement.
Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the
sense organs.
Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons.
Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs.
Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up
only about one fifth of our weight.
There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue,
which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which
is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a mans weight and
20% of a womans weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.

Bone

Distinguishing living things and non-living things


Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing
Recognising the three parts of a cell
Explaining how living things are organised
Classifying living things into three kingdoms

nucleus

cytoplasm
cell
membrane
Bone Tissue

Muscle

Organs
An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made
up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue
in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth
tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is
epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.

Systems
A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common
function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the
respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular
and reproductory systems.

Skeleton

Muscular System

Musculoskeletal System

* Not yet available in English

16

17

Other resources

Internet resources

Activity Book

38

Solutions

Worksheet 8. Date

Worksheet 7. Date

Read and learn

Apply your knowledge


WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?

AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE
1. Read carefully.

There are
solutions to
all Activity Book
activities.

1. Complete the word maps about animals.

The tapeworm

Reproduction: animals are divided into

The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal.


It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.

Oviparou

For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm


eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animals intestine.
Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles.
If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig,
the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm.
This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness
and anaemia.

are born from eggs.

Viviparou

are born from their


mothers womb.

Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces.


These can infect other animals.
Skeletons: animals are divided into
2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm.

It is an invertebrate.

It is an amphibian.

It is a parasite.


It is oviparous.


It is viviparous.

It is an herbivore.

Verebrae

are animals with a skeleton.

Inrebrae

have no bones.

3. Order the information as it appears in the text.

1
3

What kind of animal a tapeworm is


How it goes from animals to humans

4
2

How it lives inside a person


How it lives inside an animal

VOCABULARY
What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.

4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites.


M. A. hookwar
flatwor
ascari
trichi>ell
10

Muscle Cells

Bone Cells

nucleus
cytoplasm
cell
membrane

Tissue

Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Contents for
Science skills

UNIT CONTENT

gill

trace

lung
9

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Language objectives
Content objectives
A cross-reference
to the content
objectives
on the previous
double page.

A cross-reference
to the language
objectives.

Hands on
A classroom experience
which is motivating and
simple to do.

Vocabulary
Presented in
alphabetical order.
It is recommended
that students
learn it.

Vocabulary
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1,2, 3.

Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.

cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular,


nucleus, unicellular

Cells

I Special attention
READ

LOOK

Using the vocabulary correctly

Points which may be


difficult for the students
in both Science and
English.
Vocabulary

Content objectives: 3, 4.

are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things,


nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity

Living things

I Special attention

Special attention

Understanding that cells are threedimensional and not flat

1. What is a cell?

Relative clauses with which

Look at this photo.

I Hands on

What non-living things


can you see?

Living things are made up of tiny units


called cells.

What living things


can you see?

Understanding that humans are made up


of tiny cells

Cells are the smallest living units


in a living thing.
Some living things are made up of a single cell.

I Hands on

They are unicellular.


Other living things are made up of many cells.

Our pets

These cells are amplified by a microscope.

They are multicellular.

Encourage Ss to talk about their


experiences with pets.
Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What
does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats)
What does it need? (food, water )

2. What are cells like?

Making yoghurt

Cells differ in shape and size.

Pour two litres of warm milk into


a container. Add two plain yoghurts
and mix. Put a lid on the container
and cover it with a towel.
Ask: What do you think will happen
after twelve hours? (The milk will
change to yoghurt.)
Examine the mixture later. Explain that
the bacteria in the yoghurt caused
a chemical change. Bacteria are
unicellular living things.

They carry out different tasks.


For example, our skin cells
are different from our bone cells.

READ

I Presentation

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things


and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:

Cells have three parts:


The membrane is the covering
around the cell.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.

Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

LOOK Focus on the photo and questions.


Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves.
Non-living things: air, buildings

3. Parts of a cell 2

Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things.

Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

The nucleus is the part


which controls the cell.

Living things have the following characteristics:


Sensitivity

They are born from other living things.


They react to their environment.

Ask: How do you know cows are living


things? (They are born, eat, react, grow,
reproduce and die.) What do cows need to
live? (food, water, space)

The parts of animal and plant cells

Cytoplasm is between the nucleus


and the membrane.

Living things react to their environment.

They eat.

We use microscopes to study small things.

Reproduction

They grow.

Living things have offspring.

They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

cytoplasm

Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

nucleus

Complete the sentence.

What living things are there in your home?

Cells have three parts:

LIVING THINGS

LIVING THINGS

nucleus
cytoplasm
membrane

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things

react to their environmentgrowdie/ Open answers.

Plant
cell

This is why some plant stems are hard.

Animal
cell

READ Elicit examples of the characteristics


of living things. Ask: When are more calves
born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass)
When chickens grow, what do they
become? (hens, cockerels) What animal
does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)

membrane

Plant cells also have a hard cell wall


around the membrane.

wall

membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm

Ss read 1 and 2 with 1 and 2 . They


then do the activities at the bottom of the
page.

I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

R Activity Book, page 3.

1 Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB.


Ask Ss to match the sentence halves.

1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.


Ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells.
2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing.
3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular.
4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular /
unicellular.
5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Living things
Non-living things
Nutrients
Animals
There are three

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

provide energy.
basic life processes.
are born and die.
do not reproduce.
are living things.

Answers: 1 c. 2 d. 3 a. 4 e. 5 b.

Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular.


5. different.
Respecting all living things.
All living things, big or small, deserve
our respect.

I Presentation
READ Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask:
What are the parts of an animal cell?
(membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm)
What are the parts of a plant cell?
(nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall)
Give examples of unicellular living things:
bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa
Point out that cells have three dimensions
and are not flat. Cells can have different
shapes: cubes, octahedrons
Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see
cells? (with a microscope)
Ss read 1-3 with 3 , 4 and 5 . They then
do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Bacteria and living things. Bacteria


can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia.
Some bacteria are used to make food,
like yoghurt.

18

Presentation
The suggestions include
texts as well as graphic
materials, such as
photographs, drawings,
diagrams and graphs.

19

Activity Book
R This symbol
indicates a revision
activity.
E This symbol
indicates an extension
activity.

Content and language


development
These activities combine
Science and Language
skills.

Citizenship
Citizenship themes
are identified with
symbols.

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Learning skills
Techniques

To extract information, it is important to study the


whole picture carefully as well as look at the details.

Various learning skills can help students to master the


contents of Essential Science:

The students study the accompanying texts, which


give the names of the different parts or functions.

Highlighted words

Memorisation
To memorise new vocabulary, it is useful to associate
the words with mental pictures, and then revise them
in order.
In order to teach the circulatory system, for example,
students touch the corresponding parts of their
bodies.

These are printed in bold. They highlight key points


and vocabulary.

Experiments
Before an experiment begins, the students
are asked to predict how they think it will end.
Students need to have a clear idea
of an experiments different stages.

Photographs
The photographs help students to obtain information.
It can be helpful to ask the students to study
a picture before they have read the caption
or received any other external information.
Focus the students attention: What do you see
in the photo? Can you see ?

Point out the following:


material they will need
initial situation
sequence of events
final result

Go on to analyse the picture systematically,


highlighting all the details.

Enquiry questions

Drawings

Learning should never be a purely mechanical


process. Questions can be used to elicit prior
knowledge, and find out students ideas.

These drawings represent parts of the human body,


plants, etc. Some are realistic, while others are
simplified.

Students should be encouraged to predict what they


will learn: What do you know about volcanoes?
What do you think this unit / this page is going
to be about?
Comparison questions encourage students to relate
information from different sections: In what ways are
... different from ... ?

he digestive
ystem 26
mouth
pharynx
salivary
glands

oesophagus

This type of question should be adapted to the


language level of the class.

Activities

liver

stomach

pancreas
small
intestine
anus

10

large
intestine
rectum

Initially, the activities at the bottom of the page


should be done orally with the whole class. Later,
most can be written down, either as homework
or as whole class activites. This will help students
to master the key concepts and language.
Some citizenship questions may be difficult
for the students in English. It is advisable to begin
by eliciting short, simple replies.

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Recorded Material

Defining

Some sections of each Unit are recorded on the


Students CD. There is a more complete selection
of texts on the Class CD.

Prepositions of place: Students copy the texts,


or use pencils to underline prepositions of place.
In pairs they ask each other: Where is ?,
and answer using the correct preposition.

The listening exercises can be used in the


presentation stage of the Unit.
Students should listen to the recording at least
twice before they check their answers.
The exercises can be corrected on the board,
or by looking at the text in the book.
For revision purposes, the listening exercises can
be used at the end of the unit to recycle vocabulary
or revise the content.
The recorded material will help students with the
pronunciation of new language and vocabulary.

Essential Language

Relative pronouns: Students identify examples


of relative pronouns (who which ). They write
True / False sentences to test their partners, using
relative pronouns to give correct or incorrect
definitions.

Describing
Properties: verb to have: The students write
affirmative and negative sentences.
Describing a process, using linking words: First,
then, next, etc. The students find more examples
of processes using these linkers in other units.
There is / there are + singular / plural nouns.
Students find and underline more examples
of this structure.

The Essential Language section in the Students Book


(pages 51 - 56), summarises the main functions and
structures.
Here are some practical suggestions for using this
section:

The atmospher
e

MAKING IMPE
RSONAL STAT
EMENTS
wind.
are caused by
differences in
water temperatu
re.
movements of
Water in liquid
the Earths crust
form
.
Water in solid
oceans, seas,
form
is found in / on
rivers and lakes
Water vapour
.
mountains.
the atmosphe
re.
GIVING EXAM
PLES
Water can be
a liquid or a solid,
There are hund
reds of minerals,
ice or snow.
Precipitation is
such as
water,
diamonds.
rain, snow or hail.
Waves
Ocean currents
Earthquakes

Expressing facts
The Present Simple tense in the affirmative,
negative, interrogative forms: Students underline
examples of the structure in each unit, either copying
the texts, or using pencils.
Passive verb forms: Students identify the structure:
verb to be + past participle, and write examples.

The landscape

Giving examples
Students ask questions related to examples from
the unit, for example: Are vegetables consumer
products?

54

ESSENTIAL LANG

INDICATING
LOCATION
Coastal plains
are flat land
near
A marsh is wet
the coast.
land
near
Low-lying coast
the mouth of a
s are plains
river.
by
High coasts are
the sea.
high areas
by
There are high
the sea.
mountains
in
The Ebro depre
some areas.
ssion is
in
the north.
MAKING IMPE
RSONAL STAT
Central Spain
EMENTS
is dominated
An island
is completely
a large plateau.
The Central Plate
surrounded
au
by
is divided
water.
the Central Moun
tain Chain.
UAGE

Talking about the past


Students copy the table from Unit 12 into their
notebooks. They test each other with True / False
questions in pairs.

11

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Contents
Linking units and contents
Before students look at the Contents list, write a few
titles on the left of the board: The landscape; Living
things; Population; The economy.

Contents

On the right, write, in a different order, some of the


information about the titles: Migration; Mountains
and plains in Spain; Cells; The primary and secondary
sectors.

PAGE

Living things
01 Cells
The organisation of living things Kingdoms
Plants
02 Plant nutrition Plant reproduction
03 Invertebrates
Invertebrate groups Arthropods
Vertebrates
04 Birds
Reptiles Fish and amphibians
Nutrition
05 The digestive system Respiration and excretion Blood circulation
06 Matter
The properties of matter Changes in matter Changes of state
The atmosphere
07 The
hydrosphere The geosphere Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering
The landscape
08 Mountains
and plains in Spain The coast Spanish coasts
Rivers
09 Climate Vegetation and fauna
10 Population
Migration The population of Spain
economy
11 The
The primary and secondary sectors in Spain The service sector in Spain
and Antiquity
12 Prehistory
The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times Roman Hispania
Middle Ages
13 The
Al Andalus The Christian kingdoms Spain after 1492

..................................................................5

.........................................................................9

Students volunteer to go to the board and draw a line


between a title and its information.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

The students now have the list of contents (page 2


of the Students Book), open in front of them. Draw
something on the board to represent a title, for
example, a dog (Unit 4), and a mountain (Unit 8).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Students guess which unit is referred to. Students


then volunteer to draw other titles on the board, and
the activity continues. They may also do this activity
in pairs.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Anagrams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Write anagrams on board, for example CLIMATE


(TEMACLI) and ask the students to say which unit is
being referred to. The students could do this in pairs.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Multicultural
non-sexist education

Notes:

12

Peace
education

Health
education

Road safety

Consumer
education

Environmental
education

Citizenship

Sex
education

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General questions
Ask general questions:
A

How many units are there in the book?

What is the first / last unit about?

Learning to learn

What do you think you will study in Unit (5)?

ABOUT THIS BOOK

What are Units 4, 8, 12 about? (These questions


can also be asked in pairs.)

Look at pictures A-M.


Match them to Units 1-13 on page 2.
Then look at the book. Check your answers.
Unit .........

Unit .........

Which unit is about animals / plants / the Earth?


(These questions can also be asked in pairs.)

Which unit discusses reptiles?


Which unit do you like best / is most interesting
for you?
Unit 1

Unit 7

Unit .........

Unit .........

Pairwork activities

In pairs, the students test each other:


A: Mountains?
B: Unit 8. Birds?
Unit 10

Unit 5

Unit .........

A: Unit 4. Population?

Unit .........

B: Unit 10.

Answers: a 2; b 13; c 1; d 7; e 12; f 4; g


10; h 5; i 8; j 11; k 3; l 6; m 9.
Unit .........

Unit .........

Unit 9
3

Notes:

13

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You already know a lot!


This section shows students that they already have
considerable prior knowledge.
Explain that this will help them throughout the year.
This section can also be used as a diagnostic test at
the beginning of the year.
Choose how many words to include according to the
level of the class.

YOU ALREADY KNOW


YOU ALREADY KNOW
A LOT!
A LOT!
PLANTS
ANIMALS
Name
four things plants need.
Whatneed
do animals
eat?
Plants
the correct
Herbivores...eat plants.
temperature,

TITLE
TITLE
What
is the number of the unit?
What is the number of the unit?
What is the title?

What is the title?

Carnivores eat
Omnivores eat

ANIMALS
How do animals breathe?

FOOD
Can you name five types of food?

FOOD
Do you know the names of three meals?
What is a healthy diet?

What
first
section
on on
thethe
page?
Whatisisthe
the
first
section
page?

THE BODY
THE
BODY
What
can babies do when they are born?
Name
fourtwo
parts
of the digestive system.
Name
things.
Name
three
parts
of the
What
can't
babies
dorespiratory
when theysystem.
are born?
Name
two
parts
of
the excretory system.
Name two things.

LOOK AT THE PHOTO


LOOK AT THE PHOTO
What is the animal doing?
What is the animal doing?
Can you see trees?
Can you see water?
What else can you see in the photo?
What else can you see in the photo?
Think about what you see in photos.
Think have
abouta what
you see in photos.
Photos
lot of information.

Photos have a lot of information.

PLANTS
THE
ATMOSPHERE
What
Name more two things.
Can
you do
talkplants
about need?
the weather?
Today
it is sunny;
today it is raining; ...
Sunlight,
and
THE UNIVERSE
MINERALS
Do isyou
the names
of any
astronomical
What
theknow
difference
between
minerals
bodies?
and
rocks?
The Sun, planets,
How many hours are there in a day?
THE ECONOMY
Can
you name six jobs in the service sector?
LIGHT
Lawyers,
Do you...know the seven colours in a rainbow?

Red, indigo and violet.


ROMAN TIMES
AUTONOMOUS
COMMUNITIES
Describe
Roman cities.
In What
Romanis cities,
thereofwere
buildings:
the name
yourimportant
Autonomous
amphitheatres,
...
Community?

Which other communities are close to your


Autonomous
Community?
MUSLIMS
AND CHRISTIANS
Where did Muslims and Christians live?
OCEANS
CONTINENTS
Muslims
livedAND
in cities
surrounded by ...
Can you...name three continents?
Christians

Can you name two oceans?


These
areare
topics
youyou
will will
study
These
topics
this
year.this year.
study
You already know a lot!

You already know a lot!

Notes:

14

LIVING THINGS

What
second
section
on on
thethe
page?
Whatisisthe
the
second
section
page?
EXPLANATIONS
EXPLANATIONS
These
give you important
information.
Thesetexts
paragraphs
have important
information.
Important
appear
likethis:
this:water,
react, food.
nutrients.
Importantwords
words
are like
SYMBOLS
SYMBOLS
The
onon
thethe
CDCD
Thetext
textis is
Richmond
World
Facts
Richmond
World
Facts
There
Internet
activity
Thereis isanan
Internet
activity
Speak

Speak

Read

Read

Write

Write

ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITIES
Theseexercises
exercises
give
These
give
youyou
practiceininESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL
SCIENCE.
practice
SCIENCE.

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Focus on the page

Living things

Use the text in the right-hand column of page 4 to show


the students how their textbook is organised.

LOOK

TITLE AND PHOTO


Ask the students to tell you the number and title
of the unit. Then ask them to look at the photo
and predict what they think the unit will be about:
What do you think this unit is going to be about?

Look at this photo.


What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?

Explain that photos include a great deal of


information. Ask the students: What can you
see in the photo?
If their language level allows it, suggest that they
compare this landscape with their own region:
Is this landscape different from your region?
(Its green )

READ

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things


and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:

People, animals and plants are living things.


Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

Further suggestions for teaching page 5 are given


on page 18 of this Teachers Book.

Nutrition
Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

The use of photos is discussed in the Learning skills


section on page 10 of this Teachers Book.

Living things have the following characteristics:


They are born from other living things.
They eat.
They react to their environment.

Sensitivity
Living things react to their environment.
Reproduction

They grow.

Living things have offspring.

They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

EXPLANATIONS AND SYMBOLS


Explain that the students have their own
Students CD.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things


What living things are there in your home?

LIVING THINGS

Students should listen to the recordings at home,


which will help them to assimilate what they have
learned. It is helpful if they sometimes listen to the
recordings without using the Students Book.
This sharpens their auditory capacity. The recordings
also help them to work on their pronunciation.
Further suggestions for exploiting the recording
are given in the Learning skills section on page 11.
ACTIVITIES

Notes:

Some activities reinforce acquisition of the scientific


contents. Others focus on citizenship reflection.
Suggestions for exploitation are given in the
Learning skills section on page 10.

15

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UNIT 1

Living things
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Distinguishing living things and non-living things


Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes
Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell
Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms
Learning how living things are organised

Language objectives
1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born
are made up of
2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients
Tissues which work together
3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food
4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells such as the heart
5. Describing position: around the cell between the nucleus and the membrane
6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Living things and non-living


things
The characteristics of living
things and life processes
The cell and the parts of a cell:
cytoplasm, membrane
and nucleus
The organisation of living
things: cell, tissue, organ,
system, organism
The principal kingdoms
of living things: animal, plant
and fungi

Interpreting a diagram about


the organisation of living things
Studying photographs to learn
about living things
Classifying living things into
three kingdoms
Identifying the characteristics
of the three kingdoms of living
things

Assessment criteria

16

Distinguishing living things and non-living things


Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing
Recognising the three parts of a cell
Explaining how living things are organised
Classifying living things into three kingdoms

ATTITUDES

Appreciating life and living


things

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 1
Extension: Worksheet 1

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 1

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Cells and life processes
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315
The structure of plant and animal cells and life
processes, along with other biology topics.
For students and teachers.
Living things
http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html
A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms
of living things and human organ systems.
For students and teachers.
The fungi kingdom
http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?
objid=BIO304
A closer look at the fungi kingdom.
For students and teachers.

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

Cells
The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are
made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made
up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100
trillion cells.
Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another,
and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two
hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone
cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on.
The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells
are long and thinwhen they contract, they produce movement.
The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and
the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and
controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike
substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell
membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can
enter and exit a cell.

Muscle Cells

Bone Cells

nucleus

cytoplasm
nucleus
cytoplasm

cell
membrane

cell
membrane
Bone Tissue

Muscle Tissue

Tissue
Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For
example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cellone to
make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells.
Humans have four types of tissue.
Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce
movement.
Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the
sense organs.
Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons.
Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs.
Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up
only about one fifth of our weight.
There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue,
which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which
is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a mans weight and
20% of a womans weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.

Bone

Muscle

Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Other resources

The Organisation of the Human Body

Organs
An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made
up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue
in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth
tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is
epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.

Systems
A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common
function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the
respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular
and reproductory systems.

Skeleton

Muscular System

Musculoskeletal System

* Not yet available in English

17

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Vocabulary
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1,2, 3.

are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things,


nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity

Living things

Special attention
LOOK

Using the vocabulary correctly


Relative clauses with which

Look at this photo.

Hands on

What non-living things


can you see?

What living things


can you see?

Our pets
Encourage Ss to talk about their
experiences with pets.
Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What
does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats)
What does it need? (food, water )

READ

Presentation

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things


and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:


Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.

Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

LOOK Focus on the photo and questions.


Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves.
Non-living things: air, buildings

Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

Living things have the following characteristics:


Sensitivity

They are born from other living things.

Living things react to their environment.

They eat.
They react to their environment.

Ask: How do you know cows are living


things? (They are born, eat, react, grow,
reproduce and die.) What do cows need to
live? (food, water, space)
READ Elicit examples of the characteristics
of living things. Ask: When are more calves
born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass)
When chickens grow, what do they
become? (hens, cockerels) What animal
does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)

Reproduction

They grow.

Living things have offspring.

They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things


What living things are there in your home?

react to their environmentgrowdie/ Open

LIVING THINGS

Ss read 1 and 2 with 1 and 2 . They


then do the activities at the bottom of the
page.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

R Activity Book, page 3.

Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB.


Ask Ss to match the sentence halves.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Living things
Non-living things
Nutrients
Animals
There are three

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

provide energy.
basic life processes.
are born and die.
do not reproduce.
are living things.

Answers: 1 c. 2 d. 3 a. 4 e. 5 b.

Respecting all living things.


All living things, big or small, deserve
our respect.

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Vocabulary
Content objectives: 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.

cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular,


nucleus, unicellular

Cells

Special attention
READ

Understanding that cells are threedimensional and not flat

1. What is a cell?
Living things are made up of tiny units
called cells.

Understanding that humans are made up


of tiny cells

Cells are the smallest living units


in a living thing.
Some living things are made up of a single cell.

Hands on

They are unicellular.


Other living things are made up of many cells.
These cells are amplified by a microscope.

They are multicellular.

2. What are cells like?

Making yoghurt

Cells differ in shape and size.

Pour two litres of warm milk into


a container. Add two plain yoghurts
and mix. Put a lid on the container
and cover it with a towel.
Ask: What do you think will happen
after twelve hours? (The milk will
change to yoghurt.)
Examine the mixture later. Explain that
the bacteria in the yoghurt caused
a chemical change. Bacteria are
unicellular living things.

They carry out different tasks.


For example, our skin cells
are different from our bone cells.

3. Parts of a cell 2
Cells have three parts:
The membrane is the covering
around the cell.
The nucleus is the part
which controls the cell.

We use microscopes to study small things.

The parts of animal and plant cells

Cytoplasm is between the nucleus


and the membrane.

membrane
cytoplasm

Plant cells also have a hard cell wall


around the membrane.

nucleus

Plant
cell

This is why some plant stems are hard.

Animal
cell
Cells have three parts:

LIVING THINGS

Presentation

cytoplasm
membrane

Complete the sentence.

nucleus

wall

membrane, nucleus and

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells.
2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing.
3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular.
4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular /
unicellular.
5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.

Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular.


5. different.

READ Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask:


What are the parts of an animal cell?
(membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm)
What are the parts of a plant cell?
(nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall)
Give examples of unicellular living things:
bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa
Point out that cells have three dimensions
and are not flat. Cells can have different
shapes: cubes, octahedrons
Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see
cells? (with a microscope)
Ss read 1-3 with 3 , 4 and 5 . They then
do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Bacteria and living things. Bacteria


can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia.
Some bacteria are used to make food,
like yoghurt.

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Content objectives: 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

cell, organ, organism, system, tissue

The organisation of living things

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Understanding new concepts

1. How are living things organised? 4

Pronunciation of muscle, tissue

The organisation of living things

Multicellular living things


have the following structure:

Hands on
Atlas of human anatomy
Use an atlas of human anatomy, or the
Richmond poster of the human body,
to show different structures in the
human body.
Ask: What does the human body
consist of? (bones, organs, muscles ...)
What are the major organs in the
digestive system?
(mouth, oesophagus, stomach)

Cells form tissues:


Tissues, such as muscle tissue,
are made up of cells
which work together.

cell

Tissues form organs:


Organs, such as the heart,
are made up of tissues
which work together.

tissue

Organs form systems:


Systems, such as the digestive system,
are made up of organs
which work together.

5
muscle
cell

muscle
tissue

muscle
organ

An organism is a complete living thing:


Many systems work together in an organism.
All living things are organisms.
All the systems in an organism
work together to keep
a living thing healthy.
system
muscular
system

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Explain that the human
body is organised into systems which work
together.

tissue
cell

Use different colour chalk and write these


words inside the same concentric circles:
muscle cell, muscle tissue, deltoid muscle,
muscular system, organism.
Ss read 1 with 7 . They then do the
activities at the bottom of the page.
R Activity Book, page 4.

Prevention. Periodic health check-ups


can help prevent illness by detecting
health problems before they become
serious.

20

organism
system

Put the words in order from the simplest structure


to the most complex structure.

Draw concentric circles on the BB and write


these words from the centre outwards:
cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism.
Ask: What is the simplest unit in the
human body? (a cell) Which is more
complex, an organ or a cell? (an organ)
Which is more complex, an organ or an
organism? (an organism)

organ

organism

Make more sentences.


Change the underlined words.

human
being

Tissues, such as muscle tissue, are made up of


cells which work together.

cell, tissue, organ, system, organism / Model Answer (M.A.) Systems


the digestive system organs. Organsthe hearttissues

LIVING THINGS

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Vocabulary. Write these sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to write the jumbled words correctly.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A human being is an NAGROMIS.


Human beings are ILTUMRALULELC.
One type of tissue is ELSCUM tissue.
Tissues are made up of SELCL.
The heart is an AGRON.
One type of system is the VITESGIDE system.

Answers: 1. organism. 2. multicellular. 3. muscle. 4. cells.


5. organ. 6. digestive.

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Pgina 21

Vocabulary
Content objectives: 4, 5.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 6.

animal kingdom, fungi kingdom, kingdoms,


plant kingdom

Kingdoms

Special attention

READ

1. Kingdoms
Living things are classified
into groups called kingdoms.
The three principal kingdoms are the animal
kingdom, the plant kingdom and the fungi kingdom.

Understanding the concept of kingdom


Understanding that fungi are neither plants
nor animals

Hands on

2. The animal kingdom 6


Animals are multicellular.
Animals can move.

They eat other living things.


They can move from one place to another.
They have a nervous system and sense organs.
They react to stimuli.

3. The plant kingdom 7


Plants are multicellular.
They use sunlight and substances
from the soil and air to make their food.
They cannot move.
They have roots in the ground.
Plants grow well when there is a lot of sunlight
and water.

Plants do not have a nervous system


or sense organs. However, they react
slowly to some stimuli. For example,
many plants grow towards the light.

4. The fungi kingdom


Most fungi are multicellular.
A few are unicellular.
They depend on other organisms for food.
They do not make their own food.
They are fixed to something.
They cannot move.
A mushroom is the top part of a fungus.
Most of it is underground.

LIVING THINGS

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB.
Ss copy the sentences and circle the correct option.
1. Living things are classified into three / four kingdoms.
2. Animals can / cannot move from one place to another.
3. Plants have / do not have a nervous system or sense organs.
4. Plants grow towards / away from the light.
5. Fungi depend on / do not depend on other organisms for food.
6. Fungi can / cannot move.

Answers: 1. three. 2. can. 3. do not have. 4. towards.


5. depend on. 6. cannot.

Mould

Put a few drops of water on a slice


of bread.
Place inside a plastic bag. Put the bag
in a warm, dark place.
Show Ss the bread after a few days.
Ask: What has happened?
(The bread has developed mould.)
Ask: What does the mould need to
grow? (moisture, warmth and nutrients)

Presentation
READ Present with 9 and 10 . Ask: Can
animals move? (Yes) Can plants move?
(No) Can mushrooms move? (No) How do
plants obtain food? (They make their food.)
Ask about plants and fungi.
Help Ss make a tree diagram. Title: The
three kingdoms. Level 1: The animal
kingdom, The plant kingdom, The fungi
kingdom. Level 2: characteristics of each.
Level 3: examples.
Read and listen to 11 and 12 . Ask: Can
you give some examples of fungi? (bread
and fruit mould, yeast) What do you know
about mushrooms? (many are poisonous)
E Activity Book, page 5.

Yeast and bread. Yeast is a


microscopic fungus used to make bread.
It feeds on sugar and produces carbon
dioxide, making the bread rise.

21

Worksheet 1. Date

Apply your knowledge


CLASSIFICATION

20:25

1. Match and label.

1. Classify into living or non-living things.


tissue

organ

organism

cell

el
E

organis

tiss
C

syse

orga>

wind

people

cows

chairs

rocks

air

trees

snakes

fungi

glass

flowers

plastic

LIVING

NON-LIVING

eop
cow
te
snae
flor
fung^

chair
glas
plasti
ai
win
rock

Pgina 22

system

2. Complete the sentences.


a.
b.
c.

Tisse
Organ
Sysem

are made up of
are made up of
are made up of

ell
tisse
organ

which work together.


which work together.
which work together.

Many systems work together in an organism.


VOCABULARY

3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1.

Match and write.

KINGDOMS

Animal

Plant

Fungi

eop
cow
snae

tre
flor

fung^

sensitivity

nutritio>
ensitivit
eproductio>

reproduction

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge


THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS
KINGDOMS

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Activity Book

22
Worksheet 2. Date

nutrition

: living things eat food, which contains nutrients.


: living things react to their environment.
: living things have offspring.

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Worksheet 3. Date

Read and learn


FUNGI

20:25

1. Read carefully.
cap

What type of living things are fungi?


Pgina 23

Fungi are living things. They are born, grow, reproduce


and die, but they are not plants or animals.
They are not plants because they cannot make their
own food. They absorb nutrients from the remains of
other living things. They are not animals because they
do not have sense organs and they cannot move.

stem

Some fungi, such as yeast, are too tiny to see.


Others, such as moulds, are also tiny, but you can
see them all together.
Some fungi are in the ground. In autumn,
they become mushrooms and grow above the ground.
There are many edible mushrooms.

mushroom
2. Identify.
B

mould
A

mushrooms
C

microscopic yeast
B

VOCABULARY
Match.
Fungi are

they do not have sense organs.

Fungi are not plants because

born, grow, reproduce and die.

Fungi are not animals because

they cannot make their own food.

Investigate. Which edible mushrooms are found in your region?


Model Answer (M. A.)

Butto> mushroom a foun i> m egio>.


5

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Pgina 24

UNIT 2

Plants
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Recognising the distinguishing features of flowering and non-flowering plants


Understanding how to classify plants and the main characteristics of each group
Identifying what plants need
Learning how plants breathe and make their own food
Understanding how plants reproduce
Appreciating the important role plants have in nature

Language objectives
1. Describing properties: Plants have , angiosperms have
2. Describing processes (passive, present simple): are absorbed from the soil
transported from the roots Photosynthesis takes place
3. Expressing quantity: almost all gymnosperms some grasses
4. Giving examples: such as pine trees
5. Giving additional information: small plants which live stems which extend
6. Describing movement (prepositions): through the roots up the stem from
the stamens to the ovary

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

The parts of a plant and their


functions
Plant classification
Plant nutrition: respiration
and photosynthesis
Flowers as organs of
reproduction: the parts of
a flower, pollination, how
seeds form and germinate
Types of special stems
involved in plant reproduction

Observe the different parts


of a plant
Classify plants into two groups
Describe the processes carried
out in plant nutrition
Describe the processes carried
out in the reproduction of
flowering plants using the
correct sequence
Interpret drawings, photographs
and diagrams correctly

ATTITUDES

Appreciate the role of plants


and show an interest in
protecting them

Assessment criteria

24

Distinguishing the different parts of a plant


Understanding the processes carried out in plant reproduction
Identifying the different groups of plants with their main characteristics
Explaining the process of photosynthesis
Understanding the difference between respiration and photosynthesis
Knowing about different types of plant reproduction
Interpreting diagrams, drawings and photographs correctly to obtain answers
Respecting plants

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Pgina 25

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 2
Extension: Worksheet 2

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 2

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Plants
http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/
The Great Plant Escape combines facts, pictures
and activities. For students and teachers.
Plants and animals
http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chapters.html
The Open Door Web Site has a wealth of material about
plants and animals, including how plants breathe, feed
and reproduce. For teachers.
How plants grow
http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/
HowPlantsGrow/HowPlantsGrow.html
How Plants Grow includes information on pollination,
seeds and bulbs.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

C OCONUT :
S EED

OR

F RUIT ?

www.richmondelt.com

25

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Pgina 26

Vocabulary
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

angiosperms, cones, fungi, gymnosperms, leaves,


mosses, stem

Plants

Special attention
LOOK

Not all plants have flowers


Pronunciation of breathe and moisture

How many plants


can you see
in this photo?

Hands on

What are the plants like


where you live?

Cones
Collect different gymnosperm cones.
Get Ss to compare their shape, size
and colour.
Lift the pine cone scales to show where
the seeds are and what they are like.

READ

1. Plant groups
Plants have roots, a stem and leaves.
The roots are in the soil. Water and other substances
are absorbed from the soil through the roots.
The stem supports the leaves.
Water and nutrients are transported from the roots
to the leaves inside the stem.
The leaves breathe and make the plants food.

Presentation

pine cone

Flowering plants are the biggest group of plants.

26

olives

Angiosperms have flowers and fruit.


Chestnut trees and some grasses are angiosperms.

3. Non-flowering plants
Non-flowering plants are the smallest group
of plants. They need shade and moisture.
moss

Mosses are small plants which live


on rocks, trees and the ground.
Ferns are larger than mosses.
They have thick, underground stems and big leaves.

Draw a table on the BB. Title: PLANT


GROUPS. First level: Flowering plants
Non-flowering plants. Second level:
Gymnosperms Angiosperms.
Third level: examples.

Ancient trees. Some trees live


for hundreds of years. They are part
of our natural heritage. We should respect
and protect them.

grapes

Gymnosperms have small flowers, but no fruit.


Their seeds are all together in cones.
Almost all gymnosperms are trees,
such as pine trees.

READ Draw a plant on the BB with the


three main parts and a line to show the
ground. Ask: What is the part in the soil?
(the roots) What supports the leaves?
(the stem) What makes the plants food?
(the leaves) Ss read 1-3 with 13 , 14 , 15 .

R Activity Book, pages 6, 7.

Angiosperm fruit

2. Flowering plants 8

LOOK Establish that plants have different


shapes, sizes, colours, leaves Focus on
the photo and elicit answers.

Examples:
Gymnosperms: cedar, cypress, fir
Angiosperms: wheat, poppy, oak, rosemary
Non-flowering plants: moss, fern

Gymnosperm
cone

ferns

Ferns and mosses


are found in dark,
humid forests.

PLANTS

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Quiz. Ask Ss to close their books. Read out these questions.
Ss write the answers in their notebooks.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Which is the biggest group of plants?


Which is the smallest?
Plants have roots, a stem and what else?
What does the stem transport to the leaves?
What do the leaves make?
Where do we find ferns and mosses?

Answers: 1. flowering plants. 2. non-flowering plants. 3. leaves.


4. water and nutrients. 5. food for the plant. 6. in forests /
on rocks and trees.

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Content objectives: 3, 4, 6.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 6.

Pgina 27

Vocabulary: autotrophs, carbon dioxide,


elaborated sap, nutrition, oxygen,
photosynthesis, raw sap, respiration, sunlight

Plant nutrition

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Respiration

Plants, like all living things, breathe


continually

The exchange of gases

Like all living things, plants breathe.


They take oxygen from the air, and release
carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases
is called respiration. It takes place
in leaves continually, day and night.

Respiration

oxygen

Photosynthesis

2. Plant nutrition
Plants obtain food in a different way
from animals. Plants are autotrophs:
they make their own food. To make food,
plants need sunlight, carbon dioxide,
water, and minerals from the soil.

carbon
dioxide

carbon
dioxide

Hands on
oxygen

Plants produce oxygen


Plant nutrition 10

3. Water and minerals


sunlight
carbon
dioxide

Water and minerals are important for plant


nutrition. In the soil, minerals dissolve in water.
Plants absorb this water through their roots.
These nutrients, called raw sap,
travel up the stem to the leaves.

raw
sap

oxygen

4. Photosynthesis 9
Photosynthesis enables plants to make
food from sunlight, carbon dioxide,
water and minerals.
Photosynthesis takes place in the leaves.
In the leaves, raw sap mixes with carbon
dioxide and becomes elaborated sap.
This is the plants food.

leaf
elaborated
sap

Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis,


so it only takes place during the day.
During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen.

raw sap
roots

water and dissolved minerals

Do you have plants in your home? How do you take care of them?

PLANTS

Put an aquatic plant in a jar full of


water. Cover the plant with a short
inverted funnel and place an inverted
test tube over the funnel.
After several days, show Ss the
bubbles in the inverted test tube.
Explain that the plant releases oxygen
when it makes food during photosynthesis.

stem

Complete the sentence. To make food, plants need

10

Distinguishing respiration and


photosynthesis

sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals. M. A. I give them


sunlight and water and replant when necessary.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB.
Ss copy the sentences and complete them with the correct words.
oxygen food stem minerals gases leaves respiration

1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are


2. Plants breathe through their
3. When they breathe, plants take from the air and release
carbon dioxide.
4. The exchange of gases is called
5. Plants make their own
6. Water and are important for plant nutrition.
7. In plants, nutrients travel up the to the leaves.

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Ask: What happens to
plants in a room without light? (they die)
Do plants breathe? (yes)
Ss read 1-3 and listen to 16 , 17 , 18 .
Ask: What do plants need to survive?
(sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals)
Where does respiration take place?
(in the leaves) How do plants obtain food?
(They make their own food.)
Ask: What is raw sap? (a mixture of water
and minerals) Where does it form?
(in the roots)
Ss read 4 with 19 . Ask: What is
elaborated sap? (the plants food)
Where does it form? (in the leaves)
Ss do the activity at the bottom
of the page.

Answers: 1. gases. 2. leaves. 3. oxygen. 4. respiration. 5. food.


6. minerals. 7. stem.

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Pgina 28

Vocabulary: asexual reproduction, bulbs, germinate,


ovary, petal, pollen, pollination, seeds, sepal, sexual
reproduction, stamens, stolons, tubers

Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Plant reproduction

Special attention

READ

The sequence in the reproductive


processes of angiosperms

The parts of a flower 11

Fruit comes from flowers

corolla

1. Sexual reproduction
Flowers are the reproductive organs of the plant.
pollen

Tubers and bulbs are underground stems


stamens

ovary

Hands on

petal
sepal
calyx

Needs of seeds

The stamens are the male parts


which produce pollen.
The ovary is the female part which contains
ovules. Ovules become seeds.

2. Pollination
Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens.
Pollination is the movement of pollen
from the stamens to the ovary.
Pollination usually takes place in the same plant.
However, wind and insects also carry pollen
to other plants.

Soak some lentils in water. Then put a


folded paper napkin and some lentils
on three soup plates.
Wet the napkin in plate 1. Do not wet
the napkin in plate 2. Cover the lentils
in plate 3 completely with water.
Ask: What will happen to the lentils?
(The lentils in plate 1 germinate
because they have air and water.
The lentils in plate 2 stay the same
because they have no water.
The lentils in plate 3 begin to germinate
but later die because they have no air.)

3. Seeds and fruit

Insect pollination
Wind pollination

After pollination, the flower changes. Its petals fall.


The ovary grows, and becomes a fruit with seeds
inside. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground.
The fruit opens, and its seeds fall out.
The seeds germinate: they open, and small roots
and tiny leaves grow. A new plant forms.

A potato plant:
reproduction by tubers
stem

Some plants reproduce without flowers or seeds.

Tubers, such as potatoes, are underground stems.


The underground stem develops roots.
A thin stem rises above the ground,
and develops leaves. A complete plant grows.

tubers
A strawberry plant:
reproduction by stolons
new
plant

Presentation

stolon

4. Asexual reproduction

Bulbs, such as onions, also grow underground.


Some plants, such as strawberry plants, have
stolons. These are stems which extend across
the ground. Roots grow, and a new plant begins.
What is your favourite fruit?
What do the seeds look like?

READ Ask: What are the male and female


parts of a flower? (stamens and ovary,
respectively)
Play 21 and ask Ss to point to the parts in
the drawing as they hear the names.
SS read 1-4 and listen to

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

22 , 23 , 24 , 25 .

Ask: Why are stolons an example of


asexual reproduction? (New plants grow
from the stems without flowers or seeds.)
Ask: Can you name any bulbs? (onions,
tulips, hyacinths )
Discuss the questions at the bottom of the
page.
R Activity Book, page 8.
Fruit and health. Fruit helps us grow
strong and healthy. To get all the vitamins,
we should eat fresh fruit.

28

PLANTS

1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to


write the numbers in the correct sequence. Number 1 is correct.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The stamens produce pollen.


A new plant forms.
When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground.
The pollen moves from the stamens to the ovary.
Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens.
The seeds germinate: they open and small roots and leaves
grow.
7. The ovary grows and becomes a fruit with seeds inside.
8. The fruit opens and its seeds fall out.
9. After pollination, the petals fall.

Answers: 1 5 4 9 7 3 8 6 2.

11

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Pgina 29

1. Decide if these sentences are true or false.


1. Gymnosperms have small flowers.

True / False

2. Gymnosperms have fruit.

True / False

3. The seeds of gymnosperms are in the leaves.

True / False

4. Almost all gymnosperms are trees.

True / False

5. Angiosperms have no flowers.

True / False

6. Angiosperms have fruit.

True / False

7. Some grasses are angiosperms.

True / False

Answers: 1. True. 2. False. 3. False (in cones). 4. True. 5. False. 6. True. 7. True.

2. Circle the correct word.


1. Photosynthesis enables plants to make food / light.
2. Plants make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and roots / minerals.
3. Photosynthesis takes place in the stems / leaves.
4. Raw sap mixes with carbon dioxide / oxygen in the leaves.
5. Photosynthesis takes place during the day / night.
6. During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen / carbon dioxide.
Answers: 1. food. 2. minerals. 3. leaves. 4. carbon dioxide. 5. day. 6. oxygen.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

29

Apply your knowledge

1. Complete each sentence.


a. The stems of bushes are

gymnosperms

pine trees

sof an fexib.

soft and flexible

hard

ferns
b. Plants need the correct temperature, water, soil and
sunlight
mosses

without
flowers

ern

PLANTS

gymnoserm
with
flowers

pi> te

(They do not have any fruit.)

(They have fruit.)

cestnu te

2. Gymnosperm or angiosperm? Decide and label the photos.


A

salt

flor.

c. The reproductive organs of a plant are the


flowers

leaves

frui.

d. Seeds are inside the


fruit

flowers

e. Plants breathe and

ma tei ow> foo.

make their own food

angioserm

sunligh.

Pgina 30

chestnut trees

angiosperms

20:24

1. Use the words below to complete the word map.

PLANTS

eat other living things

2. Name the parts of the plant involved in the following processes.


production of pollen

formation of fruit

pollination

staen

ovar

staen, ovar

angioser

gymnoser

VOCABULARY
Match and write.
flower

gymnoser

angioser

angioser

gymnoser

pollinatio>
co>
frui
ovar
staen
flo

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Worksheet 4. Date

CLASSIFY PLANTS

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Activity Book

30
Tasks

Worksheet 5. Date

ovary

stamens

pollination

fruit

: movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary.


: part of gymnosperms which contains the seeds.
: part of angiosperms which contains the seeds.
: female part of the flower which turns into fruit.
: male parts of the flower which produce pollen.
: reproductive organ of the plant.

cone

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Notes:
Apply your knowledge
PLANT REPRODUCTION

20:24

1. Match and write. Then order the photos.

Pgina 31

germination
flowering
pollination
formation of fruits
and seeds

formatio> o fruit an ed

florin@

@erminatio>

pollinatio>

2. Complete the table.

1
2
3
4

2/10/06

Worksheet 6. Date

Stage

What happens?

@erminatio>
florin@
pollinatio>
formatio> o
fruit an ed

Sed oe> an smal root an tin ea gro.


Flor apea. Tei etal attrac inect.
Pole> mo fro t staen t t ovar.
Afe pollinatio>, t flo chan@e. It etal fal.
T ovar grow an coe frui wit ed.

31

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UNIT 3

Invertebrates
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Identifying characteristics of invertebrates and where they live


Learning names of invertebrate animals
Understanding the main characteristics of invertebrate groups
Identifying the characteristics of arthropods and where they live
Understanding the different arthropod groups
Appreciating the importance of protecting animal habitats

Language objectives
1. Describing and classifying invertebrates and arthropods: Invertebrates are
Arthropods are covered by have an external skeleton
2. Expressing contrast: Most are but some Many live in the sea others live
3. Giving examples: such as giant squids such as medusas
4. Expressing ability: Most invertebrates can move The arthropod can grow
5. Describing sequence: At first , then
6. Expressing frequency: They are usually and often have
From time to time

Contents
CONCEPTS

The main characteristics


of invertebrate animals
Invertebrate groups
Arthropods: characteristics,
groups, and anatomical
differences

PROCEDURES

Recognise different types


of invertebrates
Classify invertebrates into groups
Observe photographs and
drawings of invertebrates
Distinguish body parts
of insects, arachnids
and arthropods
Study labelled anatomical
drawings of invertebrate
animals

Assessment criteria

32

Recognising characteristics of invertebrate animals


Classifying invertebrates
Using the main characteristics to identify arthropods
Interpreting anatomical drawings
Showing interest in protecting nature

ATTITUDES

Understand the importance


of protecting habitats in order
to protect animal life

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Pgina 33

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 3
Extension: Worksheet 3

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 3

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Insects
http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/index.html
Everything you ever wanted to know about insects
and more. For teachers and students.
Invertebrate animals
http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/index.html
The Shape of Life gives facts, photos
and activities on all the invertebrate groups.
For students and teachers.
Let's talk about insects
http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/insects/12.html
A clever ant explains about insects.
For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

W E N EED

I NSECTS !

www.richmondelt.com

33

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Pgina 34

Content objectives: 1, 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary: exoskeleton, invertebrates, oviparous,


parasites, shells

Invertebrates

Special attention

COMPARE

Using the vocabulary correctly


Compare the photos.

Hands on

How many different animals can you see?


Think of other animals which live in,
or near, the sea.

Worms and light


Ask: Where do worms live?
(underground)
Cut off about one-third of the lid
of a shoebox.
Place the earthworms on a wet paper
towel at one end of the box.
Cover the box with the lid making sure
the worms are on the open side. Ask:
What will the worms do? (move to the
dark side)
Place the box away from the light.
Wait 30 minutes and take off the lid.
Ask: Why do the earthworms move to
the dark side? (They avoid light
because they live underground.)

READ

1. What are invertebrates? 12

2. How do invertebrates live?

Invertebrates are animals which do not have


a skeleton or a backbone.

Many invertebrates live in the sea,


but some live in fresh water.
Others live on land.

Size:
Most invertebrates are very small,
but some, such as giant squids,
are enormous.
Body shape:
Most invertebrates are symmetrical,
but some have irregular bodies.
Body covering:
Many invertebrate bodies are protected
by shells or exoskeletons,
but others have no covering.

Presentation

Most invertebrates can move,


but some attach themselves to rocks
or the sea floor.
Others, called parasites,
live inside other animals.
Invertebrates are oviparous.
A larva hatches from an egg.
At first, it does not look like an adult.
Then its physical appearance
changes.

Describe invertebrates. Most invertebrates are very small,


Why is it important to protect animals habitats?

COMPARE Focus on the photos and


questions.
12

READ Present 1 and 2 with 26 and 27 .


Ask Ss for examples of invertebrates:
Which are very small? (flies, ladybirds)
Which are a little larger? (snails, clams)
Which are even larger? (octopus, starfish,
crabs)
Ask: Which invertebrates have shells?
(limpets, mussels, cockles, snails) have
exoskeletons? (crabs, sea urchins,
starfish, scorpions) have no body
covering? (earthworms, squid, jellyfish)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
R and E Activity Book, page 9.

The vocabulary activity is Extension.


Present the vocabulary on the BB before
Ss name the organs.

34

M.A. are symmetrical, are protected by shells or exoskeletons


INVERTEBRATES
M.A. If an animals habitat is destroyed, it can die

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Comprehension. Write the words and sentences on the BB.
Ss copy and complete the sentences with the correct word.
1

parasites sea shells or exoskeletons skeleton oviparous


1. Invertebrates do not have a
2. Many invertebrates are protected by
3. Not all invertebrates live in the
4. live inside other animals.
5. Invertebrates are
Answers: 1. skeleton. 2. shells or exoskeletons. 3. sea.
4. Parasites. 5. oviparous.

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Content objectives: 2, 3.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Pgina 35

Vocabulary: arthropods, cnidarians,


echinoderms, molluscs, sponges, worms

Invertebrate groups

Special attention

LOOK AND READ


A

SPONGES

CNIDARIANS

WORMS

The fact that anemone and coral are


animals

planaria

Some vertebrates are protected by hard


body coverings, but do not have a skeleton
coral

Hands on

jellyfish
tapeworm
anemone
D

earthworm

Draw and label

ECHINODERMS

1. Invertebrate groups 13
Sponges have irregular bodies.
They cannot move. They attach themselves
to rocks or the sea floor. They filter seawater,
and retain nutritive substances for food.
Cnidarians have jelly-like bodies.
They are marine animals.
They have tentacles which can sting you.
Some, such as coral and sea anemone,
attach themselves to rocks.
Others, such as medusas, can move about.

Arthropods are covered by a hard


exoskeleton. Some are aquatic. Others
are terrestrial.
Molluscs have a soft body.
Many are covered by one or two shells.

sea
urchin

starfish

Worms have long, soft bodies.


Some are cylindrical, and others are flat.
Some are aquatic, and others are terrestrial.
Many are parasites.
Echinoderms are symmetrical:
they are usually in five parts.
They are marine animals.
They have a skeleton made of hard plates,
and often have spines.
They are covered by a thin skin.

Ask: Which invertebrate animals


can you name? Write suggestions
on the BB.
Ss choose an invertebrate animal
and draw it.
They label the body parts.
They write what they know about
the invertebrate in the drawing.

ofiura
star

ARTHROPODS

beetle

scorpion

Presentation

river crab

MOLLUSCS

LOOK AND READ Focus on the illustrations.


Ask: How many groups of animals are
there? (six) Which names are in big
letters? (names of the invertebrate groups)
Which group does (coral) belong to?

snail
clam
octopus

INVERTEBRATES

13

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Listening. Write these sentences on the BB. Ss decide if they
are true or false, then check by listening again to 28 .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sponges have symmetrical bodies.


Cnidarians have tentacles which can sting you.
Medusas cannot move about.
Many worms are parasites.
Echinoderms are usually in four parts.
Arthropods are covered by a hard exoskeleton.
Molluscs have a hard body.

Answers: 1. False (irregular). 2. True. 3. False (can). 4. True.


5. False (five). 6. True. 7. False (soft).

Ask: How can we organise all the


information? (in a table) Ask: What type
of table should we use? Point out that in
this case, a double-entry table is useful.
Write the names of the invertebrate groups
down the left side. At the top, write
these headings: Body, Habitat, Other
characteristics, Examples.
Ss read 1 with 28 and complete the table.
Some squares will be empty.
R Activity Book, page 10.

Invertebrates and food. Many people


include invertebrates in their diet,
for example, prawns, squid, mussels
and snails.

35

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Pgina 36

Content objectives: 4, 5.
Language objectives: 1, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: abdomen, arachnids, arthropods,


cephalothorax, crustaceans, exoskeleton, head,
insects, myriapods, thorax

Arthropods

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

The fact that arachnids are not insects


Worms and myriapods are two different
groups

1. Arthropods
Arthropods have an external exoskeleton.
It is made up of many small plates, and covers
the body, legs and antennae.
The exoskeleton is rigid. From time to time,
the arthropod sheds it, and grows a new, flexible one.
As a result, the arthropod can grow
until its new exoskeleton becomes rigid.

Hands on

Arthropod sense organs are well developed:


they have antennae and eyes. The eyes can be simple or compound.
Compound eyes are made up of many smaller, simpler eyes.

Making a spider
Ask: How can we make a spider out
of plasticine?
Elicit suggestions from Ss. First,
make a small ball and a large ball.
Then connect them. Ask: How many
legs have spiders got? (eight)
Make four pairs of articulated legs
to place on the cephalothorax.

Insects, arachnids, crustaceans and myriapods are arthropods.

Insect: grasshopper 15
wing
wing

head
eye

leg
antenna
abdomen

2. Arthropod groups 14
Insects: An insects body is divided into three parts: head, thorax
and abdomen. The head has a mouth, two eyes and two antennae.
The thorax has six legs. Many insects also have wings on the thorax.
Insects are the most numerous arthropod group.
They are found in many different habitats.

mouth

abdomen

legs
cephalothorax

Flies and butterflies are insects.


Arachnids: Arachnids have eight legs.
The body is divided into two parts:
the abdomen and the cephalothorax.

Crustacean: lobster
pincher claws

Crustaceans: Crustaceans have ten or more legs.


Many have long antennae. The body is divided into two parts:
the abdomen and the cephalothorax.

Presentation

Lobsters, shrimps and crabs are crustaceans.

LOOK AND READ Ask: Which invertebrates


can we see in the drawings? (grasshopper,
spider, lobster) Which group do they belong
to? (insect, arachnid, crustacean) Which
invertebrate has a head / thorax /
abdomen? etc.
Have Ss copy this sentence: Arthropods
are invertebrate animals which have
exoskeletons made up of many small plates.
Ss make a double entry chart for
arthropods. Down the left, they write
the arthropod groups. They write these
headings: Body, Habitat, Other
characteristics, Examples.
29

and

30 .

They do the activity at the bottom of the


page.
E Activity Book, page 11.

Cochineals. Cochineal insects live


on cactus plants. The females produce
a deep red dye used to colour cloth,
cosmetics and food.

36

leg

Arachnid: spider

Spiders and scorpions are arachnids.

Ss read 1 and 2 with

thorax

Myriapods: Myriapods have long bodies with many legs.


The head has one pair of short antennae.

legs

Centipedes and millipedes are myriapods.

legs
antenna

Make more questions. Change the underlined words.


Do insects have six legs? Is an insects body divided into two parts?

abdomen

cephalothorax

Are there many insects or arachnids where you live?


Where do you see them?

14

Yes. No, three. M.A. Do arachnids have eight legs?


INVERTEBRATES
Do crustaceans have ten legs? Is a crustaceans body divided
into three parts? Is an arachnids body divided into three parts?

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Pairwork testing. Ss use their tables and the information
in their books to test each other on arthropods. They should
prepare a minimum of five questions for their partner and write
them down. Student A should ask all the questions first.
Student B should not look at his / her book or notes.

Then, the roles are reversed and Student B asks the questions.
Ask for feedback after a few minutes, e.g. How many questions
did you get right? Were any of your questions the same?

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Pgina 37

1. Match the sentence halves.


1. From time to time, the arthropod

a. are crustaceans

2. Arthropod sense organs

b. can be simple or compound

3. The eyes of arthropods

c. into three parts

4. An insect's body is divided

d. an arachnid

5. The spider is

e. myriapods

6. Shrimps and crabs

f. are well developed

7. Centipedes are

g. sheds its skeleton


Answers: 1 g. 2 f. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 6 a. 7 e.

2. Write the words below under the appropriate heading.


the sea shell symmetrical enormous fresh water irregular small on land
Body shape

Body covering

Size

Habitat

Answers: Body shape: symmetrical, irregular. Body covering: shell.


Size: enormous, small. Habitat: the sea, fresh water, on land.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

37

Apply your knowledge


WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?

20:27

1. Read carefully.

1. Complete the word maps about animals.

The tapeworm

Reproduction: animals are divided into

Oviparou

For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm


eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animals intestine.
Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles.
If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig,
the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm.
This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness
and anaemia.

Pgina 38

The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal.


It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.

are born from eggs.

Viviparou

are born from their


mothers womb.

Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces.


These can infect other animals.
Skeletons: animals are divided into
2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm.

It is an invertebrate.

It is an amphibian.

It is a parasite.


It is oviparous.


It is viviparous.

It is an herbivore.

Verebrae

are animals with a skeleton.

Inrebrae

have no bones.

3. Order the information as it appears in the text.

1
3

What kind of animal a tapeworm is


How it goes from animals to humans

4
2

How it lives inside a person


How it lives inside an animal

VOCABULARY
What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.

4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites.

hookwar
flatwor
ascari
trichi>ell

M. A.

10

gill

2/10/06

Worksheet 7. Date

Read and learn

AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE

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Activity Book

38
Worksheet 8. Date

trace

lung
9

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Notes:

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 9. Date

CLASSIFY INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

20:27

1. Name the invertebrate groups. Give examples.

Covered by a hard
exoskeleton

arthropod

Soft bodies, usually


covered by shells

mollusc

They cannot move


and live in the sea

spon@e

M. A.

spon@

cnidarian

M. A.

ellyfis

echinoerm

M. A.

starfis

Jelly-like bodies
and tentacles
Skeleton made of hard
plates; symmetrical

M. A.

scorpio>

M. A.

worm

Long, soft bodies

M. A.

Pgina 39

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

snai

earthwor

2. Write the name of the group of arthropods in the correct space.


insects

arachnids

crustaceans

myriapods

Arthropod groups

body divided into 2 parts

body divided into more than 2 parts

8 legs

10 or more legs

6 legs

many legs

arachnid

crustaean

inect

myriapod
11

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Pgina 40

UNIT 4

Vertebrates
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Recognising the characteristics of the main groups of vertebrates


Classifying vertebrates into mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians
Learning that there are various bird groups with distinctive characteristics
Understanding how reptiles are classified
Understanding how fish are classified
Understanding how amphibians are classified
Appreciating the importance of knowing about and protecting animals

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Describing quantity: most; some; many; a few; others


Describing location: inside; on; on the front of; on the sides; underwater
Explaining how actions occur: They swim by moving Using their wings
Describing general and particular characteristics: All birds Each bird species
Providing additional information: food which the bird eats
Expressing purpose: They come to the surface to breathe use their fins to swim.
Describing progression: As young amphibians grow, they change

Contents
CONCEPTS

Physical appearance and


structure of vertebrate groups
Reproduction, habitats, how
they breathe, and main
characteristics of vertebrate
groups

PROCEDURES

Describe the vertebrate groups


Classify vertebrates into groups
Compare types of vertebrates
Associate physical aspects of
the vertebrate groups with the
habitats where they live and
their habits
Observe photographs of
vertebrate animals to obtain
information

ATTITUDES

Appreciate the importance


of knowing about and
protecting animals

Assessment criteria

Recognising the distinctive characteristics which define each of the vertebrate groups
Distinguishing reptiles, amphibians and fish
Classifying vertebrates correctly using different criteria
Associating characteristics of the different vertebrate groups with their way of life
Recognising the variety of marine animals
Associating the physical appearance and structure of certain animals with their
adaptation to life in the sea
Observing photographs of vertebrates to obtain information

40

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Pgina 41

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 4
Extension: Worksheet 4

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 4

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Animal classification
http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/
ScienceIndex.htm
Many interesting science topics are covered including
animal classification. For students and teachers.
Animal photo galleries
http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/PhotoGallery/
default.cfm
Up close with a variety of reptiles, amphibians, birds and
mammals, including primates and giant pandas, at the
Smithsonian Zoological Park. For students and teachers.
Iberian Nature
http://www.iberianature.com/index.html
A guide to the wildlife, geography and nature of Spain.
For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

ITS

M AMMAL !

www.richmondelt.com

41

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Pgina 42

Content objectives: 1, 2, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: carnivores, cetaceans, fur, hair, lungs,


mammals, milk, primates, ungulates, viviparous,
warm-blooded

Vertebrates

Special attention
LOOK

Associating each mammal group with their


general and distinctive characteristics

Look at the photo.


Think about these questions:

Understanding that marine mammals


breathe through lungs

What do these animals


look like?
They have
Do all mammals live
on land?

Hands on

Then read the texts and


answer the questions.

Marine mammals and flotation


Tie an elastic band to one end of a
large stone.
Put the stone in a pail of water. Ask
Ss: When we pull the stone up, will it
feel heavier or lighter? Ss take turns
to pull up the stone.
Ask: Does it feel heavier or lighter in
the water? (lighter) What is pushing it
up? (the water) This is the Archimedes
Principle. How do marine mammals
float? (because of their shape, density
and the upward push of the water)

READ

1. Mammals

2. Mammal groups 16

All mammals have a head, a trunk and limbs.


However, they differ in their limbs and bodies.
Most mammals have legs, some have fins,
and bats have wings. Many mammals
have a body covered with hair or fur.

Primates have five fingers on their hands and feet.


Their eyes are on the front of the head,
not on the sides like many animals.
Human beings, monkeys and gorillas are primates.

Mammals can keep their body temperature


constant when the outside temperature changes.
For this reason, they are called warm-blooded
animals. They breathe air through their lungs.
Mammals are viviparous. The young grow
inside the females body, receiving oxygen
and nutrients. Baby mammals drink their
mothers milk.
Mammals live in different habitats.
Most mammals are terrestrial.
However, some mammals, such as dolphins,
are aquatic. They breathe at the waters surface.

Presentation

Carnivores hunt for food.


They have sharp teeth and feet with claws.
Lions are carnivores.
Ungulates are herbivores.
They have feet with hooves.
Zebras are ungulates.
Cetaceans are marine mammals.
They have no hair.
They swim by moving their tails and flippers.
Whales and dolphins are cetaceans.

Make more questions. Change the underlined words.


Do carnivores have sharp teeth? Are zebras carnivores?
What do you think about fur coats and jackets?

LOOK Ss compare and contrast the animals


in the picture. Which is the biggest?
What do they all have in common?
(a head, a trunk and four limbs/legs.)
READ Ss read 1 and 2 with 32 and 33 .
Write a list of the highlighted words in 1 on
the BB. Ask Ss: Which characteristics do
most mammals have? (They are viviparous,
terrestrial, warm-blooded, breathe through
lungs, and have hair or fur. Baby mammals
drink their mothers milk.)
Ask Ss: Name the mammal groups. What
group do dolphins belong to? What group
has hooves?, etc.
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Wool. Wool is the hair from sheep and


other animals. The animals are not hurt
when the wool is cut.

42

M.A. Do primates have five fingers? Are gorillas primates? Do ungulates


have feet with hooves? Are dolphins ungulates? Open answers.

VERTEBRATES

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Mammal Quiz. Ss read the information about mammals and
mammal groups again and listen to 32 and 33 . Then they close
their books. Divide the class into two groups and read each of the
following questions aloud twice. Ss put up their hand if they know
the answer. The first student to answer correctly wins a point for
their group.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Do all mammals have legs? (no)


Are mammals warm-blooded animals? (yes)
Do whales breathe air through their lungs? (yes)
Do mammals lay eggs? (no)
Do all baby mammals eat solid food? (no)
Are human beings primates? (yes)
Do zebras have feet with claws? (no)
Do dolphins have hair? (no)

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Content objectives: 1, 3, 7.

Pgina 43

Vocabulary: beak, eggs, feathers, incubation, lungs,


warm-blooded, wings

Language objectives: 3, 4, 5.

Birds

Special attention

READ

1. Birds 17
Birds have a head, a trunk, a tail and limbs.
The front limbs are wings,
and the back limbs are legs.
A birds skin is covered with feathers.
Using their wings, most birds can fly.
Birds can keep their body temperature constant
when the outside temperature changes.
For this reason, they are called warm-blooded
animals. They breathe through their lungs.

Female birds lay eggs on land.


Female birds, and sometimes male birds,
keep their eggs warm with their body heat.
This process is called incubation.
When baby birds are born, at least
one parent feeds and cares for them.
All birds are terrestrial, but some
spend a lot of time in water.
Each bird species eats its own type of food
such as seeds, fruit, insects or other birds.
A birds mouth is covered by a hard beak.
The shape of the beak is appropriate
for the type of food which the bird eats.

LOOK
Bird groups 18
A

PERCHING BIRDS

canary
D

FOWL

pheasant

RUNNERS

BIRDS OF PREY

SWIMMING BIRDS

duck
F

WADING BIRDS

Associating bird groups with their


distinctive characteristics

Hands on
Mobile of birds in flight

Draw silhouettes of various birds


in flight on white card. Swallows,
seagulls, eagles, storks and vultures
have distinctive silhouettes.
Cut them out and tie a piece of thread
to each.
Tie them at various lengths on coat
hangers to make a mobile.

Presentation
READ Ask Ss: What distinctive
characteristics do birds have that no other
animals have? (feathers and a beak)
Ss read 1 with

eagle

heron

Describe birds. Birds are vertebrates. Their front limbs are

34 .

LOOK Ask Ss: What group does the


pheasant belong to? What group does
the ostrich belong to?

ostrich

16

VERTEBRATES

wings. Their skin is covered with feathers. They are warmblooded animals. They breathe through lungs.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative.
1. The front limbs of a bird are the wings / legs.
2. The back limbs of a bird are the wings / legs.
3. Most / all birds can fly.
4. Female / male birds lay eggs.
5. Incubation is when parent birds keep their eggs warm / cold
with their body heat.
6. All / some birds are terrestrial.
7. All / some birds spend a lot of time in water.
8. Birds have / do not have the same shape of beak.

Ask Ss: Look at the beak of the canary, the


heron and the duck: which is the shortest?
(the canarys) the longest? (the herons)
the flattest and widest? (the ducks)
Tell Ss that some birds feed by themselves
as soon as they are born. For example,
ducks and chickens are born with feathers;
they walk and follow their mother around.
R Activity Book, page 12.

Answers: 1. wings. 2. legs. 3. Most. 4. Female. 5. warm. 6. All.


7. Some. 8. do not have.

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Content objectives: 1, 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 6.

Vocabulary: alligators, cold-blooded, crawl, lungs,


oviparous, scales, slither, turtles

Reptiles

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Not all reptiles crawl. Some slither, swim,


or walk or run on hind limbs.

CROCODILES

Most reptiles have a head, a trunk, limbs and a tail.


Their body is covered with hard scales.
Most reptiles are terrestrial, but a few are aquatic.
Reptiles cannot keep their body temperature constant
when the outside temperature changes.
They need external heat, such as heat from the Sun.
For this reason, they are called cold-blooded animals.

Hands on
Lizards lie in the sun

Nile crocodile

Place an umbrella in the sun.


Put an outdoor thermometer in the
shade of the umbrella and another
one in the sun. Write down the
temperatures on both thermometers.
Wait several hours then compare
the temperatures on the two
thermometers.
Ask: Which thermometer shows the
higher temperature (the one in
the sun) Why do lizards spend a lot
of time in the sun? (to keep warm)

LIZARDS

2. Reptile groups 20
iguana
C

SNAKES

LOOK AND READ Ask Ss: Name some


reptiles you know. (crocodile, lizard, turtle,
snake) Name the reptile groups.
(crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles)
36

and

37 .

Ask: What is a cold-blooded animal?


(an animal whose body has the same
temperature as its surroundings)
What group does the iguana belong to?
(lizards) What group does the sea turtle
belong to? (turtles)
Ask: What reptile group has a shell? (turtles)
What are the iguanas scales like? (green)
What is a snakes body like? (long with no
limbs) What are a crocodiles legs like?
(short)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
E Activity Book, page 13.

44

Reptiles can be classified into four groups:


Crocodiles and alligators are very large reptiles.
They have four legs, and a body covered with hard scales.
They use their large teeth to capture their prey.
They spend a lot of time in water.
Lizards are small terrestrial reptiles.
They have four very short legs.
They crawl.

Presentation

All reptiles breathe through their lungs.


Aquatic reptiles, such as crocodiles and alligators,
cannot remain underwater for long.
They come to the surface to breathe.
Reptiles are oviparous.
The female reptile lays many eggs.
Most reptiles are carnivorous.

rattlesnake

Present 1 and 2 with

1. Reptiles 19

TURTLES

Most snakes live on land.


They have long bodies with no limbs.
They slither.
Turtles have a shell to protect their body.
They can extend their head, legs and tail
through openings in the shell.
Many turtles are aquatic.
However, they breathe air,
and they lay their eggs on land.
Make more questions. Change the underlined words.
Do reptiles breathe through gills? Are snakes warm-blooded?

sea turtle

M.A. Do snakes have legs? Are turtles aquatic? Do crocodiles


have large teeth?

VERTEBRATES

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Ss read and listen to 36 and 37 . Then, without
looking at their books, they copy and complete the sentences.
They check their answers by listening again to the CD recording.

oviparous / shell / scales / lungs / cold / legs / terrestrial / no


1. Reptiles are covered with hard
2. Most reptiles are but a few are aquatic.
3. Reptiles need external heat so they are blooded.
4. Reptiles breathe through their
5. Reptiles are The female lays eggs.
6. Lizards have four short
7. Snakes have limbs.
8. Turtles have a to protect their bodies.
Answers: 1. scales. 2. terrestrial. 3. cold. 4. lungs. 5. oviparous.
6. legs. 7. no. 8. shell.

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Content objectives: 1, 5, 6, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7.

Pgina 45

Vocabulary: bony fish, cartilaginous fish, eggs,


fins, gills, oviparous, scales, tails

Fish and amphibians

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Fish

BONY FISH

Fish have a head, a trunk and a tail. A fishs body is covered


with thin, shiny scales. Fish live in water, and use their fins to swim.
Fish breathe through gills located on the sides of the head.
They take in oxygen from water.
Fish are oviparous. Female fish lay their eggs in the water.
Baby fish are born from the eggs.

salmon
CARTILAGINOUS FISH

2. Fish groups 21
Fish can be classified into two groups:
Bony fish. They have skeletons made of bones.
Some live in the sea, but others live in rivers and lakes.
Sardines and salmon are bony fish.
Cartilaginous fish. They have skeletons made of cartilage.
They live in the sea. Sharks are cartilaginous fish.

shark
AMPHIBIANS WITHOUT TAILS

3. Amphibians
Amphibians have a head, a trunk and limbs.
Some have tails. They can live on land, but they stay
in, or near, water to keep their skin moist.
Amphibians are oviparous. The female lays eggs in ponds or rivers.
As young amphibians grow, their appearance changes completely.

frog
D

AMPHIBIANS WITH TAILS

Amphibians without tails, such as frogs, have a wide body.


They have long, strong back legs which they use for jumping.
They catch their prey with their long tongue.
Amphibians with tails, such as salamanders, have a long body
and four limbs. All four limbs are approximately the same length.

True or false? Make more sentences about fish and amphibians.


A fishs body is covered with feathers. Fish breathe through gills.
Do you eat fish from fish farms? Do you eat tinned fish? Which is your favourite fish?

18

VERTEBRATES

Meaning of the word moist

Hands on
Scales

Draw the silhouette of a fish on a


piece of paper. Cut out small circles for
the scales and glue them onto the
fish, overlapping rows of circles.
Ask Ss: Do the scales feel rough or
smooth if you pass your hand over the
fish from head to tail? (they feel
smooth) What do the scales feel like
if you do it in the opposite direction
from tail to head? (they feel rough)

4. Amphibian groups 22
Amphibians can be classified into two groups:

salamander

Pronunciation of bony, cartilaginous

M. A. Fish are oviparous. Amphibians are oviparous. Female fish


lay eggs in the water. Female amphibians lay eggs in ponds and rivers.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Vocabulary. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy
them and rearrange the letters of the words in capitals to form
words related to fish and amphibians.
1. A fishs body is covered with thin, shiny S E C A L S.
2. Fish use their N F S I to swim.
3. They breathe through their S L G I L.
4. Female fish lay S G E G in water.
5. Salmon are Y B N O fish.
6. R H S A K S are cartilaginous fish.
7. Amphibians live on land but stay in or near E A T W R.
8. R F G O S use their back legs for jumping.
1

Answers: 1. scales. 2. fins. 3. gills. 4. eggs. 5. bony. 6. sharks.


7. water. 8. frogs.

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Say: Look at the pictures.
Ask: How do fish move? (they swim) What
do they use to swim? (their fins and tails)
Ask Ss to name some amphibians.
Present 1-4 with 38 , 39 , 40 and 41 , Show
photographs of the metamorphosis of a
frog: egg a tadpole with a tail and gills
which looks like a fish tadpoles develop
legs and lungs and lose their tails and gills
when the transformation is complete, the
frogs come out of the water
Explain that amphibians begin their lives in
the water, where the females lay eggs.
Adult amphibians live on land, but depend
on water.
E Activity Book, pages 14, 15.

Health benefits of fish. Fish are


an important part of a healthy diet.
White fish has protein and is low in fat.
Oily fish contains fatty acids which help
control cholesterol.

45

Apply your knowledge


BIRDS

1. Write the name of the bird group.

Linnaeus and the names of living things

fowl

wading birds

perching birds

birds of prey

wadin@ bird
b. Medium-size birds with webbed feet: swimmin@ bird
c. Birds with sharp, hooked beaks and strong claws: bird o pe
d. Small birds with short beaks: erchin@ bird
e. Birds with plump bodies and short beaks: fow
a. Big birds with long, thin legs:

In Linnaeus system, the scientific name of the plant


consists of two Latin words. The first word is the genus and
the second is the species. The genus is like our family name,
and the species is like our first name. For example,
the dog is called Canis familiaris. This name distinguishes
the dog from the wolf, which is called Canis lupus. It also
shows that the dog and wolf belong to the same genus.

Wolf: Canis lupus

swimming birds

Pgina 46

All living things have scientific names. The names


which we use today are based on the system
developed by the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus in 1758.
Linnaeus went to Lapland to study plants. To study them
better, he decided to name and classify plants.
Later, he did the same for animals.

2. Write the bird group.

The advantage of this system is that it is universal.


The common names which we use are different
in every language.

2. Learn some scientific names.


Lion: Panthera leo

Beech: Fagus sylvatica

Rosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis

Brown bear: Ursus arctos

Cork oak: Quercus suber

Tiger: Panthera tigris

Leopard: Panthera pardus

Jaguar: Panthera onca

canary

partridge

heron

erchin@ bir

fow

wadin@ bir

3. In the above list, there are four living things which belong to the same genus
but to a different species. Which ones are they? Explain.

Panter eo, Panter pardiu, Panter tigri, Panter onc.


Th @enu i Panter, an eac anima sec^e ha it ow> na.
4. Write the word dog in different languages. Consult a dictionary.
M. A.

I> Spanis erro; i> Germa> hun; i> Fenc ch^e>


13

12

duck

hawk

swimmin@ bir

bir o pe

20:26

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Worksheet 10. Date

Read and learn


SCIENTIFIC NAMES

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Activity Book

46
Worksheet 11. Date

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Worksheet 12. Date

ANALYSE ANIMAL FOOTPRINTS

1. What is a dichotomous key used for? Read and complete.


We use dichotomous keys to identify and classify living things.
With a dichotomous key, we can find out the group a living thing belongs to.
To use the key, you must answer questions about the characteristics
of an animal. Then follow the direction given after each answer.

a. Where can we find animal tracks? Tick ().


In areas with rocks or stones

In areas with mud or clay

KEY TO IDENTIFY VERTEBRATES

b. What can you find out about an animal by observing its tracks?

Its size

How it walks

If it lives in a pack or herd

DoDo
they
have
scales,
fins,
use
gills
to to
breathe
and
livelive in water?
they
have
scales,
fins,
use
gills
breathe
and
in water?
YES FISH

What it eats

If it has hoofs, claws, etc.


Its colour

Pgina 47

Animal footprints are also called tracks. If we study an animals tracks


and other remains we can learn about these animals. We get information
about their anatomy, their habits, what they eat and how they reproduce.

20:26

1. Read and answer.

Read and learn

CLASSIFICATION KEYS

fis

NO
NO
YES
Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist?
Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist?
YES _____

c. Which animal left each track? Decide and write.

lynx

NO
NO
Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe?
YES _____
Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe?
NO
NOthey have feathers and use lungs to breathe?
Do
YES _____
Do they have feathers and use lungs to breathe?
NO

mouflon

MAMMALS
NO

YES

amphibian

YES

eptie

YES

bird

MAMMALS
bustard

badger
VOCABULARY
Match and write.

lyn

mouflo>

carnivores

bustar

Ungulae
Cetaean
Primae
Carnivoe

bad@e
15

14

cetaceans

primates

ungulates

are herbivores and have feet with hooves.


have no hair and move by moving their tails and flippers.
have five fingers and eyes are on the front of their head.
have sharp teeth and feet with claws.

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Tasks

Worksheet 13. Date

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Pgina 48

UNIT 5

Nutrition
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1. Recognising and locating the main organs in the digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory systems and their functions
2. Describing the processes involved in nutrition, digestion, respiration,
circulation and excretion
3. Developing healthy eating habits and taking care of the whole body

Language objectives
1. Expressing obligation: our diet must be complete
2. Describing stages in a process: First , then
3. Describing what occurs in the process (passive forms): is chewed; is formed;
are absorbed
4. Making comparisons: Our heart works like a pump.
5. Explaining where blood circulates (prepositions of movement): between;
through; away from; throughout

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Nutrition: digestion, blood


circulation, respiration and
excretion
The organs and systems
involved in nutrition
Anatomy and physiology of the
digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory
systems

Interpret anatomical drawings


of the organs in the human
body
Interpret anatomical drawings
of the processes involved in
nutrition
Observe photographs carefully
to obtain information

ATTITUDES

Interest in acquiring healthy


habits regarding food and for
taking care of the body

Assessment criteria
Understanding the processes involved in nutrition
Identifying the organs of the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory
systems
Recognising the anatomy and physiology of the systems involved in nutrition
Interpreting anatomical drawings correctly
Acquiring healthy eating habits
Showing interest in taking care of their own health

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Pgina 49

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 5
Extension: Worksheet 5

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 5

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
The world of nutrition
http://www.nutritionexplorations.org/kids/linksmain.asp
Fun sites and games about nutrition. For students.
The Digestive System
http://www.naspghan.org/sub/For_Children/for_children.
asp#ImageTop
An interactive presentation with pictures and descriptive
text about the digestive organs.
For teachers and students.
The Digestive, Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/health_index.html
Information on body systems with facts and quizzes.
For students and teachers.

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

LEVEL

E AT Y OUR VEGETABLES!

www.richmondelt.com

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Pgina 50

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 1.

Vocabulary: carbohydrates, diet, fats, fibre, minerals,


nutrition, proteins, vitamins, water

Nutrition

Special attention
LOOK

Understanding that we need nutrients and


energy to live

What meal are these


children eating?
What food can you see?

Hands on

Why do you think it is


important to have
a good breakfast?

Labels and nutrients


Collect and read labels from packaged
foods, such as biscuits, butter, can of
tuna, to find out the nutrients they
contain.
Classify the food into carbohydrates,
fats or proteins based on the most
abundant nutrient.

READ

1. Nutrients 23
Nutrients are the substances which our body
needs to survive, grow and repair itself.
Nutrients also give us energy.
Carbohydrates give us energy. There are two
types of carbohydrate. Sugars are in foods
which taste sweet. Starches are in bread,
potatoes and legumes.

Presentation
LOOK Ss look at the photo and answer the
questions. Ask: Do you eat a healthy
breakfast? Why/why not?
READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 42 , 43 ,
44 . Say: Give me an example of food
classified as fat (butter), carbohydrate
(bread) protein (fish).

Ss do the activity at the bottom of the


page.
R Activity Book, page 16.

Water. Most of our body is made up of


water, so it is essential. We drink water,
and our body also obtains water from food.
Fibre helps food to move through
the digestive system. It is found in fruits,
vegetables and whole-grains.

Fats also give us energy. We get some fats,


such as butter, from animals. We get other
fats, such as olive oil, from plants.

3. Diet

Proteins help our body to grow


and repair itself. Meat, fish and legumes
are good sources of protein.

The food which someone normally eats over


a period of time is called their diet. For good, healthy
nutrition, our diet must be complete and balanced.

2. Other nutritive substances

A complete diet includes nutrients


from all the food groups.

Vitamins and minerals are essential for our


bodies to function well. Fruits and vegetables

A balanced diet includes the right amount


of each nutrient.

Complete the sentences. We get some fats ...

We get other fats ...

Do you eat a balanced diet? Do you know what anorexia is?


What can you and your classmates do to prevent it?

Ask Ss to identify the different food


groups: meat, fish and eggs; bread, rice,
pasta, cereals and sugars; milk and dairy
products; fruits and vegetables.
Ask Ss: What advice would you give to
someone who wants a healthy diet?
(Eat foods with calcium and fibre; eat
vegetables and fruit every day, eat
very little animal fat )

are good sources, but minerals


and vitamins are also found in other foods.
Milk gives us calcium for our bones.

from animals. from plants. / Anorexia is an eating disorder.


It can cause severe health problems and even death.

NUTRITION

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Vocabulary Revision. Draw on the BB a vocabulary tree. The
trunk word is Food and the branches are Carbohydrates /
Fats / Proteins / Vitamins and Minerals / Fibre. On each branch
the Ss write the corresponding words from page 19.
1

Answers: Carbohydrates: sugars, starches, bread, potatoes,


legumes; Fats: butter, olive oil; Proteins: meat, fish, legumes;
Vitamins and minerals: fruits, vegetables, milk; Fibre: fruits,
vegetables, whole grains.
A balanced lunch. Ss work in pairs and prepare a menu which
they consider to be balanced. Ask Ss for their menus and write
one or two examples on the board, correcting any difficulties if
they arise. Ss should be able to name different varieties of meat,
vegetables, fruit etc. in their menu
2

50

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Language objectives: 2, 3.

20:29

Pgina 51

Vocabulary: absorption, anus, chyme, digestive system,


faeces, large intestine, liver, oesophagus, pancreas,
pharynx, salivary glands, small intestine

The digestive system

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The digestive system


We need to eat. Food gives us the energy
which we require for our daily activities. It also gives
us the substances which we need to grow.
The digestive system converts the food we eat
into nutrients which our body can absorb.
It carries out three important functions:
digestion, absorption and the elimination of waste.

2. Digestion 24
First, food is chewed in the mouth, and mixed
with saliva produced by the salivary glands.
Gradually, a mass of chewed, soft food is formed.
Then, this food moves down the pharynx and the
oesophagus, and passes into the stomach.
Next, it mixes with gastric juices in the stomach.
This produces a thick liquid called chyme.

The stages of digestion

Understanding that the substances we


need from food pass from the small
intestine into the blood

25

Digestion in the mouth


Digestion in the stomach

Pronunciation: pharynx, oesophagus,


stomach, faeces

Digestion in the intestine


Absorption in the intestine

Hands on

Elimination of waste
The digestive
system 26

Saliva and digestion

mouth
pharynx
salivary
glands

oesophagus

Finally, the chyme leaves the stomach


and reaches the small intestine.
It mixes with juices from the intestine,
the pancreas and the liver. All the substances
which we require have now been separated.

3. Absorption
In the small intestine, the substances which
we need are absorbed into the blood.

4. Elimination of waste
The chyle loses its nutritional value
as it passes through the small intestine.
Only undigested substances, like fibre,
remain and move to the large intestine.
The large intestine removes water from these
substances, and forms solid waste called faeces.
This is expelled through the anus.

20

NUTRITION

liver

stomach

pancreas

large
intestine

small
intestine

rectum

anus

small intestine
oesophagus

Say: Hold a piece of bread in your


mouth for about five minutes.
Ask: Does it taste sweet? (yes) Why?
(Enzymes found in the saliva begin to
break down starch into simple sugars
in the mouth. That is why bread tastes
sweet even though most bread does
not contain sugar.)

anus
pharynx
mouth
stomach
large intestine

Follow the path that food takes. Put the organs


of the digestive system in order: mouth

, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach,


small intestine, large intestine, anus

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Sequencing. The Ss copy the sentences from the stages in
digestion onto a piece of paper. They cut the sentences into
strips, then turn them over and mix them up. With a partner, they
look at each sentence again and put them in the correct order.

Vocabulary. Write on the BB the following list of words:


large intestine / mouth / fibre / liver / anus / stomach /
faeces / pancreas / pharynx / oesophagus / salivary glands /
substances absorbed into the blood / chyme / small intestine
2

Write three headings: Digestion; Absorption; Elimination of waste.


Ss classify.

Presentation
Ask Ss: Why do we need to digest food?
(to convert it into substances our body can
absorb) Where does digestion begin? (in
the mouth) Where does the digestion
process end? (in the large intestine)
Point out the various stages in the
digestive process. First digestion, then
absorption, and finally the elimination of
waste.
LOOK AND READ Present 1-4 with
47 , 48 .

45 , 46 ,

Name the organs of the digestive system


and ask Ss to point to them in the drawing.
Ask: What organ is like a long, thin tube?
(the oesophagus) What organ is dark red
and triangular? (the liver) What organ is
below the oesophagus and next to the
liver? (stomach)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.

Answers: Digestion: mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, oesophagus,


stomach, small intestine, chyme, pancreas, liver. Absorption:
substances absorbed into the blood. Elimination of waste: fibre,
large intestine, faeces, anus.

51

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Pgina 52

Vocabulary: air passageways, alveoli, bladder, bronchi,


bronchioles, excretion, exhale, inhale, kidneys, larynx,
lungs, pharynx, respiratory system, sweat glands,
trachea, ureters, urethra, urine

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 2.

Respiration and excretion

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Understanding that oxygen from the air


passes into the blood in the lungs
Understanding what excretion is
and why it is necessary

The respiratory system 28

In addition to nutrients, we need oxygen to live.


We breathe to obtain oxygen from the air.

nose

This function is carried out by the respiratory system.


It is made up of the nose, air passageways (the tubes
which carry air in and out of the body), and the lungs.
First, the air enters through the nose. Then it passes
through the pharynx, the larynx, and the trachea.
Next, it goes through the two main bronchi
and into each lung. In the lungs, the bronchi divide
into smaller bronchioles. There are tiny sacs of air
at the end of the bronchioles called alveoli.

See air from our lungs


Prepare a small tub with about five cm
of water, a large water bottle and a
flexible tube.
Fill the bottle with water. Quickly
invert it and hold it with the mouth
underwater in the tub. Put one
end of the tube into the bottle. Tell
a student to blow through the tube.
Ask: Where do the bubbles come
from? (the air in our lungs) Why does
the water go out of the bottle?
(The air displaces the water.)

In the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes into the blood.
The blood releases carbon dioxide which passes into the alveoli.
It is toxic, and the body expels it.
Two movements, inhalation and exhalation,
cause the air to circulate.
When we inhale, our lungs fill with air.
When we exhale, air leaves the lungs.

pharynx

bronchi

larynx

bronchioles

trachea

lung

lung
The excretory system 29

2. The excretory system


Our body produces waste substances
which go into the blood, and can be dangerous.
Excretion is the elimination of these waste substances.

kidneys

The kidneys are the organs of the excretory system.


These two organs filter the blood and produce urine.
This is made up of water (95 %) and waste substances (5 %).
The urine leaves the kidneys and passes through the ureters,
two tubes which go to the bladder.
The urine accumulates there
until it is expelled through the urethra.

Presentation

bladder

kidney

Ask Ss: What do we call the process that


eliminates waste substances from the
blood? (excretion) What are the main
organs? (the kidneys) Point out that the
excretory system is below the digestive
system. Ask Ss to locate their own kidneys
(in the middle of the back on both sides of
the spinal column).
51

and

52 .

Ss answer the question at the bottom of


the page.
E Activity Book, page 18.

renal
artery

renal
vein

What is a major cause of lung cancer?

bladder
urethra

Smoking. Tobacco contains substances which cause cancer.

ureters

NUTRITION

21

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the two halves of each sentence on the BB.
Ss copy them and join the correct halves.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

First the air


Then it
Next it
In the lungs
Alveoli are
In the alveoli
When we inhale

8. When we exhale

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

air leaves the lungs.


tiny sacs of air.
enters through the nose.
oxygen passes into the blood.
our lungs fill with air.
the bronchi divide into smaller bronchioles.
passes through the pharynx, larynx and
trachea.
h. goes through the two main bronchi into
each lung.

Answers: 1 c. 2 g. 3 h. 4 f. 5 b. 6 d. 7 e. 8 a.

52

kidney

The sweat glands in the skin also help in excretion.


They make sweat.

LOOK AND READ Ask Ss: Why do we need to


breathe? (to obtain oxygen from the air)
What are the two breathing movements we
make? (inhalation and exhalation)

Present 1 and 2 with

1. The respiratory system 27

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Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 4, 5.

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Pgina 53

Vocabulary: aorta, arteries, blood, blood vessels, capillaries,


carotid artery, circulation, circulatory system, femoral artery, heart,
humeral artery, jugular vein, pump, renal vein, veins, vena cava

Blood circulation

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The circulatory system 30

The circulatory
system

Circulation is the movement of blood through


the circulatory system. Circulation carries
nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body,
and collects waste substances,
which can be dangerous.

Understanding that blood is circulating


continually

32

jugular vein

carotid artery

humeral
artery

vena cava

Our heart works like a pump,


and moves blood through the body.
It never stops beating.

aorta

The heartbeat

Arteries are the blood vessels


which carry blood away from the heart.

Bring some long, thin balloons to class


and a pear-type balloon inflator.
Place a balloon on the mouth of the
inflator.
Squeeze the inflator. Ask: What
happens? (The balloon inflates.) Why?
(air enters) What part of the body can
we compare the heart to? (the inflator)
What is pushed along by each heart
beat? (blood)

femoral
artery

Veins are the blood vessels


which carry blood into the heart.
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels
which connect arteries to veins.
They reach every part of our body.

2. Blood circulation 31
Blood circulation

Pulmonary circulation is the movement of


blood between the heart and the lungs.
Blood leaves the heart through
the pulmonary arteries and goes to the lungs.
In the lungs, the blood absorbs oxygen
and releases carbon dioxide. The blood then returns
to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
Systemic circulation is the movement
of blood to the rest of the body.
Blood with oxygen from the lungs
leaves the heart through the aorta.
It distributes nutritive substances
and oxygen throughout the body.
Finally, it returns to the heart
through the vena cava.

22

Hands on

renal vein

Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood


through the circulatory system. There are three
kinds: arteries, veins and capillaries.

There are two circulatory systems:

Distinguishing the two circulatory systems

heart

PULMONARY CIRCULATION

pulmonary
vein

pulmonary
artery
vena
cava

aorta

right side
of the heart

left side of
the heart

SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

NUTRITION

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss
copy them and choose the correct alternative. They then compare
answers in pairs and listen to 55 to check their answers.
1. Digestion / circulation is the movement of blood through the
circulatory system.
2. Our heart / stomach works like a pump.
3. It never stops eating / beating.
4. There are three kinds of food / blood vessels
5. Arteries carry blood into / away from the heart.
6. Veins carry blood away from / into the heart.
7. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. They reach / dont reach
every part of our body.

Answers: 1. circulation. 2. heart. 3. beating. 4. blood.


5. away from. 6. into. 7. reach.

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Point out that arteries and
veins are different colours in the drawings
so we can distinguish them.
Ask Ss to look at the first drawing and ask:
Where is the carotid artery? (in the neck)
Where is the femoral artery? (in the leg)
Where is the jugular vein? (in the neck)
Ask them to look at the lower diagram and
ask: What is the name of the artery which
carries the blood from the heart to all
parts of the body? (aorta) What is the
name of the vein which carries blood from
all parts of the body to the heart? (vena
cava) What carries the blood from the
heart to the lungs? (the pulmonary artery)
Ss read 1 and 2 with

55

and

56 .

R Activity Book, page 17.

Fat and health. Too much fat in your


diet is unhealthy. Deposits of fat can
accumulate in the blood vessels and
block normal blood flow.

53

Tasks

Worksheet 14. Date

MAKE UP A HEALTHY MENU

absorption

2. Write the name


of each organ.

digestion

1. Make up a healthy menu.


Remember the conditions a diet must have to be healthy:

pharynx

A diet should be complete; it should have foods from all the groups.
A diet should be balanced; it should have the right amount of each food type.

small
intestine
The stages of digestion

large
intestine

di@estio>

liver

absorptio>

li
smal inesti>

eliminatio> o was

rice

noodle soup

vegetable soup

chicken with potatoes

yoghurt

banana

lentils

pear

fish with salad

beefsteak with salad

orange

meatballs with vegetables

omelette with tuna and potatoes

stomac
lar@ inesti>

oesophagus

spaghetti

First
course

3. Underline the words related to breathing.


inhalation

exhalation

intestine

expiration

bronchi

lungs

liver

kidney

trachea

oxygen

Second
course

Dessert

custard

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

@etab
sou
chice>
wit
potate

nood
sou

entil

ri

spagett^

ea

wit eatball fsea


fis wit oeet
tun
an
wit
sala
potate @etabe wit sala
oran@

yoghur

banan

custar

4. Order the steps in the excretion process.

2
6
4

The kidneys filter the blood.


Urine is expelled through the urethra.
Urine is carried by the ureters.

Blood goes through the kidneys.

3
5

Urine is formed.

2. Write down what you eat for dinner for a week.

Urine is stored in the bladder.

sala, @etabe, sou, oeet, fis, chice>, fsea,


por, frui, yoghur, custar an ce.

M. A.

VOCABULARY
Match.
Capillaries

are blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins.

Arteries

are blood vessels which carry blood into the heart.

3. Do you think you should change anything in your diet? Explain.

Ye. I thin I shoul ea mo frui an @etabe an I shoul


ea es suga.

M. A.

17

16

Pgina 54

pharyn
esophagu

stomach

elimination of waste

20:29

1. Put the following words in order.

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge


DIGESTION, RESPIRATION,
EXCRETION, CIRCULATION

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Activity Book

54
Worksheet 15. Date

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Worksheet 16. Date

Read and learn


TEETH

Name of the plant

20:29

@eraniu

M. A.

1. Read carefully.
1
2

6
5
4

What are teeth like?


Teeth are part of the skeleton. Like bones, they are alive.
The outside of a tooth is covered with a hard, white
substance called enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance
in our body. Dentin, which is not very hard, is under the
enamel. Pulp is in the centre of the tooth. The pulp is the
living part of the tooth and contains blood vessels and nerve
endings.
The roots are fixed into the jawbone. But we cannot see
them because they are below the gums. The part of the
tooth above the gums is called the crown.
When babies are born, their teeth are inside the jawbone.
The milk teeth, or baby teeth, break through little by little.
At about six years old, milk teeth begin to fall out and
permanent teeth appear.

Project 2

OBSERVE AND DESCRIBE A FUNGUS


Material needed: a ruler and some mushrooms.
1. What size is it?

5. What colour is the stem?

2. What colour is the cap?


3. What shape is the cap?

6. What shape is the stem? Is it cylindrical


or does the thickness change?

4. What colour are the gills?

7. Does the stem have rings?

2. Underline the most important words in the text. Choose three and give their meanings.

Pul i t ent o t toot. Enae i har, whi substan


whic cor t outsi o toot. T crow> i t toot abo t gum.

M. A.

Complete the chart with the information you have gathered:


M. A.
Size

Height
Width
Colour

Cap

Shape
Gills
Colour

Stem

Shape
Ring

3. Name the numbered parts on the tooth drawing.

10 cm.
13 cm.
dar brow>
circula
r dar brow>
ligh brow>
cylindrica
no>

1 enae
2 enti>
3 pul

4 jawbo>
5 gum
6 crow>

4. Think and answer.


What can we do to keep our teeth healthy?

Brus ou et th tie da. Do> ea lo o set.


Visi t entis on ea.

M. A.

19

18

Pgina 55

angioser, florin@ plan


Stem: ge>, sof
Leaves: ge> eave, lo o scalloe
Flowers: brigh e, pin o purp
Fruit: no frui ca> ea
i> man plae, fo examp, i> Afric, Euro,
Grows in:
Sout Aeric, Nort Aeric
Other information: eop gro @erianium i> flo pot
Type of plant:

2/10/06

Project 1

CLASSIFY PLANTS

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Pgina 56

UNIT 6

Matter
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Understanding the properties of matter


Differentiating between pure substances and mixtures
Identifying the general properties of matter
Learning how the properties of matter are measured and the units used
Identifying changes in matter
Differentiating physical changes and chemical changes in matter
Distinguishing the different states of matter and their properties
Identifying changes of state in matter
Understanding why water is important in our diet
Associating certain changes of state with temperature changes

Language objectives
1. Describing mass and unit nouns (uncountable and countable):
Matter is made up of An element is matter
2. Giving examples: like mass and volume; for example; such as plastic
3. Making comparisons: have more mass than others more matter than
a pencil the football's mass is greater the same volume it weighs more
4. Measuring mass and volume: one litre is equal to mass per volume
5. Contrasting facts and conditions: When the temperature increases
If the temperature rises
6. Describing changes: The balloon gets smaller Iron changes into rust
7. Talking about ability: They can be transported Gases can be compressed

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Matter and its main properties


The three states of matter:
solid, liquid and gaseous
Physical and chemical changes
in matter
Changes of state

Observe photographs to obtain


information
Explain events around us
scientifically
Use personal experience to
comprehend the unit contents

ATTITUDES

Appreciation of why water is


important in our diet
Association of certain changes
of state with temperature
changes

Assessment criteria
Defining matter
Understanding the properties of matter
Differentiating between physical and chemical
changes in matter

56

Identifying the properties of solids, liquids


and gases
Identifying changes of state
Explaining events scientifically

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UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 6
Extension: Worksheet 6

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 6

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Matter
http://www.chem4kids.com/index.html
Rader's Chemkids provides a variety of material
about matter, changes in matter and changes of state.
For teachers and students.
Matter and energy
http://bengu-pc2.njit.edu/trp-chem/scism.html
Matter and energy and other fundamentals of chemistry
are explored. For teachers and students.
Solids, liquids, gases
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=64
Properties of solids, liquids and gases and changes
of state are addressed. For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

B ALLOONS

www.richmondelt.com

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Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.

Vocabulary: compound, element, mass, matter,


mixtures, properties, pure substances, volume

Matter

Special attention
LOOK

Understanding the concept of matter


Differentiating between pure substances
and mixtures

Look at the photo.

Identifying the properties of matter

Is there more water


in the river at some times
of the year?

Which things are solid?


Liquid? Gaseous?

Hands on
Composition of drinking water
READ

Ask: Is drinking water a pure


substance or a mixture? (a mixture
of water and minerals)
To prove it, bring in labels from bottled
water and examine their composition.
Ask: What minerals can you see on the
labels? (chloride, calcium, magnesium,
silica, sodium )

1. Matter

33

Everything in the universe is made of matter.


The Sun, rocks, plants, human beings and
manufactured objects are all made of matter.
Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
Atoms are extremely small.
They are invisible to the human eye.
There are approximately one hundred different
types of atoms. When they are combined
in different ways, they make up
all the substances in the world.
An element is matter which consists
of only one type of atom.

Presentation

A compound is matter which consists


of more than one kind of atom.

LOOK Ss look at the photo and answer the


questions.
True or false?
Make more sentences about matter.

READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 58 , 59 , 60 .


Ask: Where can we find matter in the
universe? (everywhere because everything
is made of matter) What are the tiny
particles called that matter is made of?
(atoms)
Ask: What matter can we find in a cup of
coffee with milk and sugar? (milk, sugar,
coffee) Is it a mixture of various
substances? (yes) Can you name other
mixtures? (mayonnaise, soup, soft drinks,
perfume )
Choose various objects or materials and
talk about their characteristic properties.
For example, show a fork. Ask: What colour
is it? (silver) Does it have an odour? (no)
Is it shiny? (yes)
R Activity Book, page 21.

2. Types of matter
Matter can be classified into two groups:
Pure substances are made up of a single type
of element or compound. For example,
gold, iron and salt are pure substances.
Mixtures are made up of several pure substances.
For example, sea water is a mixture
which is formed by water and salt.

3. Properties of matter
We can classify properties into two types:
General properties: All matter has
general properties like mass and volume.
Everything which is made of matter
has mass and takes up space.
Characteristic properties: Properties
like odour, colour, shininess and density
are characteristic. They are different
for each substance.

Human beings are not made of matter.


Sea water is a pure substance.

Both sentences are false. M.A. The human body has mass and
volume. Mayonnaise is a mixture of eggs, oil, salt and lemon juice.

MATTER

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
The Ss decide if they are true or false. If they are false,
they correct them.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.


Atoms are visible to the human eye.
There are about 100 similar types of atoms.
An element is matter which consists of only one type of atom.
Salt is a pure substance.
Sea water is a pure substance.
All matter has mass and volume.

Answers: 1. True. 2. False. They are invisible to the human eye.


3. False. There are about 100 different types of atoms. 4. True.
5. True. 6. False. Sea water is a mixture. 7. True.

58

23

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Content objectives: 3, 4, 9.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.

Pgina 59

Vocabulary: density, kilogram,


mass, volume

The properties of matter

Special attention

READ

Understanding the concept of density

1. Mass 34
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Some objects have more mass than others.
For example, a football has more matter
than a pencil. The footballs mass is greater.
The unit of measure for mass is the kilogram (kg),
or kilo. One kilo is equal to 1,000 (one thousand)
grams (g). 1,000 (one thousand) kilos are
equal to one ton (t).

Hands on
Scales are
used to
measure mass.

Decantation

2. Volume 35
Volume is the amount of space
which an object occupies.

Measuring cups are


used to measure
the volume of a liquid.

For example, a football has more volume than


a pencil. It takes up more space.
The unit of measure for volume is the litre (l).
One litre is equal to 1,000 (one thousand) cubic
centimetres (cm3). 1,000 (one thousand) litres
are equal to one cubic metre (m3).

3. Density 36
Density is mass per volume.
To calculate density, divide the mass
of a substance by its volume:

These two marbles have the same volume.


However, the iron marble weighs more.
Iron has more density than glass.

Mass

Volume
Each object or substance has its own density:
Water has a density of one kilo per litre of water:
1 kg/l. This means that one litre of water
has a mass of 1 kilo.
Iron has a density of 7.9 kilos per litre of iron:
7.9 kg/l. This means that one litre of iron
has a mass of 7.9 kilos.

Complete the sentences.


Mass:
One kilo grams.
One thousand kilos ton.

Presentation

Volume:
One litre cubic centimetres.
One thousand litres cubic metre.

READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with

How many litres of liquid do you drink in a day?


Make a chart with the different kinds
of liquid, and when you drink them.

24

MATTER

Pour some oil into a container and add


water.
Quickly cover the container and shake
it to mix the liquids.
Let the container stand and ask: What
is going to happen? (After some time,
the liquids will separate.) Which liquid
will be on top? (The oil will be on the
top, and the water will be on the
bottom.) Which is less dense the oil
or the water? (the oil, which is why it
floats)

one thousand - one - one thousand - one

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Vocabulary. Write the words on the BB. Ss match them.
1. Mass
a. mass per volume
2. Unit of measure for mass
b. the kilogram
3. Volume
c. the litre
4. Unit of measure for volume
d. the amount of matter in an
object
5. Density
e. the amount of space which
an object occupies
1

61 , 62 , 63 .

Ss role-play they are in a small shop and


have to ask for different things. They
should pay special attention to units of
measure. For example: I would like a
kilo of rice a litre of milk a hundred
grams of sunflower seeds a quarter
of a kilo of almonds.
Ask: Can we put five litres of water in a
two-litre bottle? (no) Why not? (because
there is too much volume of water)
Ask: How do we measure mass? (with
scales or balances) Give some examples.
(bathroom scales, kitchen scales, food
scales, baby scales)

Answers: 1d. 2b. 3e. 4c. 5a.


2 Numbers. At home the Ss can observe different quantities
of mass and volume, for example, bread, a small bottle of water,
or a packet of biscuits. They note down the results and report
their findings to the class.

Water and health. Water is essential


in our diet. Children should drink at least
one and a half litres of water every day.

59

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Pgina 60

Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 5, 6.

Vocabulary: changes of state, chemical changes, contraction,


expansion, fragmentation, movement, oxidation, physical
changes, putrefaction

Changes in matter

Special attention

READ

Differentiating between physical and


chemical changes in matter

1. Changes in matter
There are two types of change in matter:

Identifying chemical changes in matter

Physical changes: The object or substance changes, but the matter


remains the same. When water freezes, it is still water.
Chemical changes: The original matter changes into a different
substance. When paper burns, it changes into ashes and gases.

Hands on

2. Physical changes 37
A physical change:
ice melts, and becomes water.

Inflate a balloon with a banana

Expansion: When the temperature of an object increases, it gets


bigger. If the temperature rises, mercury expands in a thermometer.

Mash a ripe banana with a fork and


spoon it into a bottle with a small
mouth.
Put a balloon over the mouth of the
bottle and place it in a warm, sunny
place.
Ask: Why does the balloon inflate?
(because it fills with gas) Where does
the gas come from? (from the
putrefaction of the banana)
Putrefaction produces gas.

Contraction: When the temperature of an object decreases,


it gets smaller. If a balloon filled with air is put in a refrigerator,
the air contracts: the balloon gets smaller.
Changes of state: When the temperature rises,
the state changes. If water is heated, it changes into steam.
Fragmentation: The object is divided into small pieces.
If a glass breaks, the pieces are still made of glass.

3. Chemical changes 38

Tetanus. Cuts from rusty objects can


cause tetanus. This illness can be
prevented by vaccinations.

60

Oxidation: One substance changes into another


when it reacts with oxygen. For example, iron changes into rust.

ashes

Combustion: When an object or substance is burned,


it changes into another substance. For example,
when wood burns, it changes into ashes and gases.

A chemical change:
wood burns, and changes
into ashes and gases.

Look at the pictures. Ask: Is ice water?


(Yes, it is water in a solid state) What is
happening to the wood? (It is burning.)
What does fire produce? (light, heat,
smoke) What does the wood change into
when it burns? (ashes and gases)

Cut up an apple or banana and wait


several minutes. The fruit will turn brown.
Ask: What type of change in matter has
occurred? (chemical; fruit reacts with the
oxygen in the air during oxidation)

smoke

Putrefaction: This occurs when a living thing decomposes.


For example, when an apple decays, its appearance,
colour, smell and taste change.

Presentation

READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 64 , 65 , 66 .


Ask: Are these physical changes or
chemical changes? a match burns (C)
butter melts (P) a basketball goes through
the hoop (P) we grate a carrot (P) food
decays (C)

Movement: The object changes position,


but the matter remains the same.

Chemical industries use chemical reactions to manufacture


substances. Some substances, such as plastic, are artificial.
Plastic is made from petroleum.

Physical change or chemical change? Decide and make more sentences.


A glass breaks into pieces. ( change)

Iron changes into rust. ( change)

M.A. physical, chemical. M.A. Wood burns and changes into


ashes and gases. (C). If water is heated, it changes into a gas. (P).

MATTER

25

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Write the following headings on the BB and ask Ss to copy them.
Physical changes: Movement, Expansion, Contraction, Changes
of state, Fragmentation
Chemical changes: Oxidation, Combustion, Putrefaction
Write the following list on the BB and tell Ss to classify them.
an apple decays / water changes into steam / wood changes into
ashes and gases / an object changes position / iron changes into
rust / mercury expands in a thermometer / a glass breaks
Answers: Movement an object changes position; Expansion
mercury expands in a thermometer; Changes of state water
changes into steam; Fragmentation a glass breaks; Oxidation
iron changes into rust; Combustion wood changes into ashes
and gases; Putrefaction an apple decays.
1

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Content objectives: 7, 8, 10.


Language objectives: 5, 6, 7.

Pgina 61

Vocabulary: boiling, change of state, condensation,


evaporation, fluid, gas, liquid, melting, solid,
solidification, sublimation

Changes of state

Special attention

READ

Understanding the permanence of matter


when there is a change of state

1. The three states of matter 39


The states of matter are solid, liquid and gaseous.
Each state has different properties.

Hands on

Solids have a fixed volume and shape. For example,


if we put a ball in a bag, the shape of the ball stays the same.
Liquids have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape.
Liquids take the shape of their container. For example,
if we pour water into a glass, the water takes the shape of the glass.
Gases do not have a fixed volume or a fixed shape.
For example, if a balloon bursts, the air escapes and expands
into the room. It acquires the volume and shape of the room.

Making stalactites
If we move a solid, it still has
the same volume and shape.

Liquids and gases are fluid. They flow through openings


in solid bodies. They can be transported through pipes.

2. Changes of state 40
Matter can change from one state to another.
This change of state sometimes occurs
when the temperature changes.
Melting: A solid changes into a liquid.
For example, snow melts when it is warm.
Solidification: A liquid changes into a solid.
For example, water changes into ice when it is very cold.

Liquids maintain their volume,


but change their shape.

Boiling: A liquid changes into a gas.


For example, water boils when it is very hot:
one hundred degrees centigrade (100C).
Evaporation: A liquid changes into a gas.
For example, water in a pond evaporates.
Condensation: A gas changes into a liquid.
For example, water vapour in the air forms
condensation on car windows when it is very cold.

Presentation

Sublimation: A solid changes into a gas.


For example, solid air fresheners change
into a gas when they mix with air.

Condensation and solidification sometimes make


it dangerous to drive. What happens?

26

MATTER

Fill two jars with warm water. Add


magnesium sulphate until no more will
dissolve.
Tie a paper clip to each end of a string
and put the ends in the jars. Put a
plate between the two jars with the
string hanging over it. Wait several
days.
The solution will wet the string.
In the centre, drops will begin to fall.
Gradually, a column of salt will form
and continue to grow.

Gases can be compressed.


There is a lot of oxygen in this tank.

M. A. When it is cold outside, water vapour condenses inside the car


windows and we cannot see very well. Also water freezes on the roads
and makes them slippery.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Distribute photocopies of page 62.
SS listen to 68 to complete the missing words.
1. a solid changes into a liquid.
2. a liquid changes into a solid.
3. a liquid changes into a gas.
4. a liquid changes into a gas.
5. a gas changes into a liquid.
6. a solid changes into a gas.

Answers: 1. melting. 2. solidification. 3. boiling. 4. evaporation.


5. condensation. 6. sublimination.

Draw attention to the upper illustration.


Ask: What happens to the ball? (It changes
place.) Does it change in any other way?
(no)
Tell Ss to imagine they untie the knot in an
inflated balloon. Ask: What happens to the
balloon? (it deflates) Where does the air
from the balloon go? (into the room) (Air is
a gas and tends to occupy all available
space.)
Pour the water from a jar into containers
with different shapes. Point out that water
takes the shape of each container. Ask.
Does liquid have a fixed shape? (no) What
shape does the liquid take? (the same as
the container).
READ Present 1 and 2 with

67

and

68 .

R and E Activity Book, pages 20, 22-24.

Slippery roads. More accidents


happen in bad weather. When roads are
wet or icy, good drivers drive carefully.

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Pgina 62

1. Listen and complete the missing words.


1.

a solid changes into a liquid.

2.

a liquid changes into a solid.

3.

a liquid changes into a gas.

4.

a liquid changes into a gas.

5.

a gas changes into a liquid.

6.

a solid changes into a gas.

Answers: 1. melting. 2. solidification. 3. boiling. 4. evaporation. 5. condensation. 6. sublimination.

62

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

OIL

1. Complete the word map about matter.


Matter

soli

Oil is a thick, black liquid which is extracted from


inside the Earth. It is formed from the remains
of living things which lived millions of years ago.

liqui

can be found in three states

Crude oil is not very useful when it comes out of the


ground. It is a mixture of many different substances.
These substances are separated at a refinery
by a process called fractional distillation.
This process involves physical and chemical changes.
We obtain useful products including petrol,
gas-oil, tar and butane gas.

ga
mas

Today oil is a vital raw material of great economic


importance. After the refining process, it is used
as petrol and fuel for heating and transport.
It is also used to make plastic, medicines, detergents,
paint and lubricant oils.

has two kinds of properties

volu
can go through two types of change

physica

such as

M. A.

moen

2. What does fractional distillation mean? Tick the correct answer.

 A process for separating substances in a mixture.


The sum of fractions.

oxidatio>

A type of factory.

cemica

3. Write two of the main ideas in the text. M. A.

Oi i thic blac liqui fore fro t emain o livin@


thing million o ear ago. I i vita ra maeria o gea
economi importan.

such as

combustio>
putefactio>

VOCABULARY
Match.

4. Answer the question.

mass

What will happen if our oil supply runs out?

W wil no ha etro an fe fo eatin@ an transpor.


W wil no ab t ma plasti, paint, edici>e o eer@ent.
21

20

the ratio of the mass to the volume of an object

volume

the amount of matter in an object

density

the amount of space which an object occupies

Pgina 63

Oil

20:28

1. Read carefully.

ORGANISE INFORMATION
ON WORD MAPS

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 17. Date

Read and learn

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Activity Book

Worksheet 18. Date

63

Worksheet 19. Date

MATTER: CHANGES OF STATE

oil

1. Give examples of changes of state.


honey


alcohol

milk

What experiment can you do to test your answer?


M. A.

I ca> ho lon@ i tae fo dro o eac liqui to fal.

2. Name two properties of the solid that makes up each of these objects. M. A.

har
durab

2. Complete the word map. Write the name of the changes of state in each space.

eltin@

stron@
fexib

solidificatio>

metal wire

gold coin

har
transluen

smoot
waerproo

conensatio>
LIQUIDS

rubber
boots

sapphire (precious stone)

GASES

evaporatio>

3. Compare the properties


of raw clay and baked clay.

3. Answer.

raw clay
M. A.

sublimatio>

SOLIDS

sof

a. Is the ice cream in the photo in a solid, liquid


or gaseous state?

baked clay

har

I i i> soli sta.


b. What change of state is produced when ice
cream melts?

I i cale eltin@.

What causes the change in the properties of this solid?


M. A.

I dr^e; i loe it wae.


23

22

Pgina 64

sno elt
From gas into liquid: wae vapou i> t ai form conensatio> o> ca window
From liquid into solid: wae chan@e into i
From liquid into gas: wae i> pon evaporae
From solid into liquid:

20:28

1. Which of these liquids do you think is the thickest? Tick.


water

Apply your knowledge

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

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Activity Book

64
Worksheet 20. Date

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Notes:
APPLY KNOWLEDGE TO DAILY LIFE

Pgina 65

a. What happens when we put ice cubes


in a full glass of water?

 The glass overflows.


Nothing happens.

Becau t volu o t
wae inceae.

Why? M. A.

b. Imagine you have three inflated balloons in your hand.


You have inflated two by blowing. The other is full of helium gas.
If you let the balloons go, what will happen?
The one with helium will rise. The others will fall to the ground.
All of them will rise.
Why? M. A.

Becau eliu ga i lighe tha> ai.

c. You are having noodle soup. How do you separate the liquid from the noodles with a strainer?
M. A.

I pou t sou throug t strai>e. Onl t liqui pase.

What property of liquids are you observing? Explain.


M. A.

24

20:28

1. Apply what you have learned to daily life. Tick () and explain.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 21. Date

Liquid do no ha fie sha.

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Pgina 66

UNIT 7

The atmosphere
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Understanding the composition of the atmosphere


Understanding the purpose of the atmosphere
Identifying weather phenomena
Learning the distribution and characteristics of the hydrosphere
Explaining the circulation of water and changes of state during the water cycle
Learning the characteristics and components of the geosphere
Identifying changes on the Earths surface due to natural causes
Protecting nature
Saving water

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Defining and describing: The atmosphere is the air which Waves are Erosion is
Classifying: The principal weather phenomena are Rocks can be classified into
Describing location: the lowest layer It is found in
Giving examples: such as rain; for example, the sea's waves
Describing process: Liquid water evaporates When a volcano erupts
Describing conditions: As we travel higher If it is very cold Igneous rocks are formed
when water cools

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

The atmosphere: composition


and layers
Precipitation and wind
The hydrosphere
The water cycle
The layers of the geosphere:
crust, mantle and core
Components of the crust: rocks
and minerals
Changes in the Earths crust:
volcanoes, earthquakes,
weathering

Explain the stages of the water


cycle
Identify the movement of
water in the oceans
Recognise the effects of
weathering
Put the stages of weathering in
the correct order: erosion,
transport and sedimentation
Interpret photographs,
drawings and diagrams to
extract information

ATTITUDES

Show interest in protecting


nature
Understand the importance of
saving water

Assessment criteria
Knowing the Earth is made up of the atmosphere,
the hydrosphere and the geosphere
Knowing the purpose of the atmosphere
Explaining the water cycle

66

Associating volcanoes, earthquakes and


weathering with changes on the Earths surface
Interpreting photographs, drawings
and diagrams

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Pgina 67

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 7
Extension: Worksheet 7

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 7

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Geography
http://www.geography4kids.com/
The atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the Earth's
structure are explained using diagrams.
For students and teachers.
Weather
http://www.weatherwizkids.com/index.htm
The fascinating world of weather and weather
phenomena, including experiments.
For students and teachers.
Rocks
http://sln.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/index.html
Discover how rocks are formed.
For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

L IVING
ON THE
M OON

www.richmondelt.com

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Pgina 68

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: air, atmosphere, carbon dioxide,


layer, nitrogen, outer space, oxygen, ozone,
precipitation, stratosphere, troposphere, water
vapour

The atmosphere

Special attention
LOOK

Understanding that the atmosphere filters


the Suns rays

Look at this photo of the Earth.


What do clouds look like
from space?

Understanding that the atmosphere is


made up of various layers

Can we see the atmosphere?

Hands on
Movement of the air
READ

Draw a spiral six cm in diameter on a


square of onion paper and cut it out.
Glue or tape the end of a thread to the
centre of the paper spiral.
Hold the spiral over a lamp by the
thread about ten cm from the light bulb.
Ask: Why does the spiral spin?
(The light bulb heats the air. The hot
air rises and the cold air falls, forming
currents which make the spiral move.)

1. What is the atmosphere? 41


The atmosphere is the air which surrounds
the Earth.
Air is a mixture of gases. It is mainly nitrogen
and oxygen. There are also small quantities
of carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapour.
The atmosphere is essential to life on Earth:
It has the oxygen which all living things breathe.
It also has carbon dioxide which plants
need for photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide and other gases are like
a blanket which retains the Earths heat.
Ozone filters harmful ultraviolet rays.

As we travel higher, the gases become less dense.


In outer space there is no atmosphere.

3. Weather phenomena
The principal weather phenomena
are precipitation and wind.
Precipitation is water, such as rain,
snow or hail, which falls from
the atmosphere to the Earth.
Wind is the movement of air, and has different
names depending on how strongly it blows.
Breezes are gentle winds.
Hurricanes are violent winds.

2. The layers of the atmosphere 42

Presentation
LOOK Focus attention on the photo and
questions. Clouds look like white masses
from space. We cannot see the
atmosphere because it is made up
of gases.
READ Use a mirror to reflect the Suns
rays. Ask: What happens when the rays
reach the mirror? (they bounce off) Explain
that the atmosphere also reflects the
Suns rays and protects us from harmful
radiation.
Draw a tall, thin rectangle. At the top, write
outer space. At the bottom write Earths
surface. Divide the rectangle into two parts
and write troposhere in the bottom part
and stratosphere in the top part.
Ask: Where do plants and animals live?
(troposphere) Where is the ozone layer?
(stratosphere) Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with
69 , 70 and 71 and then do the activity at
the bottom of the page.

68

The troposphere is the lowest layer.


Most gases are in this layer.
Plants and animals live in the troposphere.

What is happening to the ozone layer?

The stratosphere is the next layer.


There is a thin layer of ozone
in the upper stratosphere. This is called
the ozone layer.

The air which surrounds the Earth contains


five gases:
The atmosphere has three layers:

Complete the sentences.

M.A. Certain gases are destroying the ozone layer. / nitrogen,


oxygen, carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapour / the troposphere,
the stratosphere and the ozone layer

THE ATMOSPHERE

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and ask
Ss to say if they are true or false. They correct the false
sentences.
1

1. The main gases in the air are nitrogen and oxygen.


2. The atmosphere has large quantities of carbon dioxide,
ozone and water vapour.
3. The atmosphere is not essential to life on earth.
4. All living things breathe oxygen.
5. Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
6. Oxygen filters harmful ultraviolet rays.
Answers: 1. True. 2. False (small quantities).
3. False (is essential). 4. True. 5. True.
6. False (ozone filters).

27

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Content objectives: 4, 5, 9.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 5, 6.

Pgina 69

Vocabulary: hydrosphere, ocean currents, tides,


water cycle, waves

The hydrosphere

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The hydrosphere
All the water on Earth makes up the hydrosphere.
Water is usually a liquid, but it can also be a solid
or a gas.
Water in liquid form covers most of the Earths
surface. It is found in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.
Water in solid form (snow and ice) is found in the
polar regions. It is also found on mountains.
Water vapour, a gas, is found in the atmosphere.
Water can be a liquid or a solid, such as ice or snow.
Water vapour is in the atmosphere.

1. Liquid water in the sea, rivers and lakes


evaporates because of heat from the Sun.
It becomes water vapour.
precipitation

condensation

evaporation

clouds and
water vapour

2. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops


of water. The water drops form clouds.
3. Water falls from clouds as rain: precipitation.
If it is very cold, water solidifies and falls as snow.
4. Water flows over the land and filters into it.
It forms rivers and lakes.
Some water returns to the sea or evaporates.
The water cycle starts again.

3. The movement of water


Waves are the rise and fall of the waters surface.
They are caused by wind.
river
ocean

Tides are the rise and fall of the sea level


twice a day. They are caused by the gravitational
pull of the Moon and Sun.
Ocean currents are the movement of large
masses of ocean water in the same direction.

Why is it important to save water? What do you do to save water?

28

THE ATMOSPHERE

M. A. Water is scarce in many parts of the Earth. To save water:


turn off the tap when you clean your teeth, take showers and
not baths

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension (reordering). Write the following sentences
about the water cycle on the BB. Ss write the sentences
in the correct order in their notebooks. They check by listening
again to 73 .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Hands on
Raindrops

2. The water cycle 43


The water cycle is the constant circulation of water
between the sea, the atmosphere and land.

The water cycle

Understanding that the water cycle is


continuous and takes place all over the
Earth

Water filters into the land, returns to the sea or evaporates.


It becomes water vapour.
Water falls from clouds as rain or snow.
Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water.
The water cycle starts again.
Liquid water evaporates because of heat from the sun.
The water drops form clouds.

Take a clear, plastic lid and eyedropper.


With the concave surface of the lid
facing up, squeeze a few drops of
water onto the inside of the lid.
Then, turn the lid over quickly.
Ask: What happens if you collect the
drops of water in one place with a
pencil point? (they form bigger drops,
then fall) Demonstrate using a pencil.
Explain that in the water cycle drops of
water collect in cloud. Raindrops form
and fall to the ground.

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Ask: What kinds of water
are there in the photo? (liquid the ocean;
solid ice; water vapour) Ask: How much
of the Earth is covered by water? (about
three quarters) Explain that most of the
water is in the oceans and seas.
Ss read 1 with

72 .

Write on the BB the changes of state in the


water cycle. Ss read 2 with 73 . Ask: What
is evaporation? solidification?
condensation?
Ask: What does the beach look like at high
tide? (Water covers most of the beach.)
What does it look like at low tide? (The
water recedes and the beach looks bigger.)
Ss read 3 with 74 , and answer the
questions at the bottom of the page.
R Activity Book, page 25.

Answers: 6 2 4 7 3 1 5.

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Pgina 70

Content objectives: 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: core, crust, geosphere, igneous


rocks, magma, mantle, metamorphic rocks,
minerals, sedimentary rocks

The geosphere

Special attention

READ

Distinguishing types of rocks

1. The geosphere 44

Parts of the geosphere

Distinguishing between outer, middle and


inner

crust

mantle

The geosphere is made up of three layers:


The crust is the Earths outer layer.
It is made up of solid materials.
The mantle is the Earths middle layer.
It is extremely hot. In some parts,
there is magma (red-hot liquid rock).

Hands on

The core is the Earths inner layer.


It is also extremely hot. It is divided into
the liquid outer core and the solid inner core.

The shape of the Earth

2. Rocks and minerals

Put a stone in a plastic bottle top and


then fill the top with oil. Put the bottle
top in a glass and pour alcohol into the
glass until it is 1 cm above the bottle
top. Pour water slowly down the side of
the glass. The oil leaves the bottle top
in the form of a bubble. Turn the
bubble gently without breaking it.
If it rises to the top of the glass,
add more alcohol letting it slide down
the side of the glass.
Ask: What shape is the bubble? (like
a rugby ball, not a sphere) The Earth is
not a perfect sphere but is flattened at
the poles.

Rocks are natural materials which make up


the Earths crust.

core

Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are pure.


We cannot break them down into other substances.

crystal

There are hundreds of minerals, such as diamonds


and other precious stones. We can identify each
mineral by its density, colour, hardness and shine.

3. Types of rock 45
There are several crystals
in this rock.

bituminous coal
(a sedimentary rock)

Rocks can be classified into three types depending


on how they are formed:
Sedimentary rocks are formed from pieces
of other rocks or pieces of living things.
Coal and gypsum are sedimentary rocks.
Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and
solidifies. Granite and basalt are igneous rocks.

basalt
(an igneous rock)

slate
(a metamorphic rock)

Metamorphic rocks are formed when heat


or pressure changes the original rocks.
Marble and slate are metamorphic rocks.

True or false? Make more sentences.


The crust is the inner layer of the geosphere. Rocks are made up of minerals.

Presentation
READ Look at the drawing of the Earth.
Point out that the geosphere is the solid
part of the Earth. Ss read 1 with 75 . Ask:
Which is the outer layer of the geosphere?
(the crust) Which is the inner layer?
(the core) Which layer is between the crust
and the core? (the mantle)
Explain that the crust is made up of solid
materials. Ask: Are rocks natural
materials? (yes) Are minerals natural
materials? (yes) What are rocks made of?
(minerals) Ss read 2 and 3 with 76 and
77 and do the activity at the bottom
of the page.
R Activity Book, page 27, exercise 1.

70

Where can you see granite and marble in your community?

The mantle is the Earths inner layer / M. A.


mountains, quarries, stairs, walls, kitchens, sculptures

THE ATMOSPHERE

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and
underline the different options. Ask Ss to write down
the correct option in each sentence.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The geosphere is made up of three / four layers.


The crust is the Earths outer / inner layer.
The mantle, or middle layer, is very cold / hot.
The core is the Earths outer / inner layer.
Magma is red-hot solid / liquid rock.

Answers: 1. three. 2. outer. 3. hot. 4. inner. 5. liquid.

29

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Content objectives: 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Pgina 71

Vocabulary: chimney, cone, crater, earthquakes, erosion,


lava, magma, sedimentation, transport, volcanoes,
weathering

Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Volcanoes 46

The parts
of a volcano 47

Volcanoes form in places where there is magma,


red-hot liquid rock, just under the surface.
When a volcano erupts, internal forces push
the magma up through a central pipe,
the volcanic chimney. It emerges through
a circular opening called a crater.
Magma is called lava when it reaches
the surface.

volcanic
cone

crater
chimney

lava
magma

Layers of lava and ash cool and solidify


around the crater, and form a volcanic cone.

Hands on
Volcanic eruptions

mantle

2. Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by movements of the
Earths crust. They can destroy buildings and
bridges, divert rivers, and cause avalanches.
Earthquakes on the ocean floor produce
enormous, destructive waves called tsunamis.

3. Weathering
The action of wind and water is called weathering:
Erosion is the removal of soil and rocks
by wind and water.
For example, the seas waves gradually
erode a cliff.

Associate volcanoes, earthquakes and


weathering with their effects on the Earths
crust

Many islands were formed by underwater volcanic


eruptions.

Half fill a plastic bottle with sodium


bicarbonate and place on a tray.
Put sand around the bottle.
Mix vinegar and food colouring and
pour it into the bottle. Observe the
eruption. The bubbles that are created
are filled with carbon dioxide gas which
pushes the vinegar to the surface.
Ask: How is our experiment similar
to a volcanic eruption? (Pressure from
gases pushes materials to surface.)

Transport is the movement of eroded material.


For example, rivers, seas and the wind carry sand.
Sedimentation is the accumulation
of eroded material from other places.

Presentation

For example, mud settles at the bottom of a river.

Describe what happens when a volcano


erupts.
Internal forces push the magma
Rivers can carry mud or sand.

30

THE ATMOSPHERE

M. A. up through the volcanic chimney. Magma emerges


through the crater.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Comprehension. Write these half sentences on
the BB. Ask Ss to match them and write the complete sentences.
1. Volcanoes form in places
a. eroded material
2. Earthquakes are caused by
b. is called weathering
3. Earthquakes on the ocean floor
c. produce enormous
waves called tsunamis
4. The action of wind and water
d. where there is magma
5. Erosion is the removal of
e. of eroded material
from other places
6. Transport is the movement of
f. movements of the
Earths crust
7. Sedimentation
g. soil and rocks by
is the accumulation
wind and weather

LOOK AND READ Present 1 and 2 with


and 79 . Ask: Where does the magma
go? (up through the chimney)
What emerges through the crater?
(lava, gases, pieces of rock)

78

Explain that earthquakes and volcanic


eruptions change the Earths surface.
Focus on photo 2 and ask: What do you
see along the river banks? (rocks) Where
do they come from? (the flow of the river
moves them and leaves them in flat areas)
The action of the wind and water
continually affect the Earths surface.
Ss read 3 with 80 .
E Activity Book, page 26.
R Activity Book, page 27, exercise 2.

Natural disasters. Volcanoes and


earthquakes can harm people and other
living things. It is very difficult to predict
when they will occur.

Answers: 1 d. 2 f. 3 c. 4 b. 5 g. 6 a. 7 e.

71

Worksheet 22. Date

Apply your knowledge

20:31

1. Read carefully.

THE WATER CYCLE


1. Label the diagram.

Volcanic landscapes

1
2
3
4
5

Te a f^eld o lav.
b. How are badlands formed? Lav turn t groun into dr, ston landscae.
c. What are calderas? Te a r lar@ craer.
d. Where can we find calderas? W ca> fin te o> Te>eri an L Palm.

river
2

evaporation

2. Answer the questions.


a. What are badlands?

ocean

condensation

clouds and water vapor

During eruptions, red-hot material is ejected.


This is called lava when it reaches the Earths surface.
Lava moves down, destroying everything in its path.
It turns the ground into a dry, stony landscape
where very little vegetation can grow.
The Canary Islands are a good example of volcanic
landscapes. On the islands of Lanzarote and Hierro,
we find volcanic cones. These are cone-shaped mountains
built up by volcanic eruptions. There are also very large
craters called calderas on Tenerife and La Palma.
Other volcanic formations on the Canary Islands
are fields of lava called badlands. A good example
is the Fire Mountains on the island of Lanzarote.

precipitation

Pgina 72

A volcanic eruption is when magma rises through


cracks in the Earths surface. Eruptions can rapidly
change the landscape for kilometres around.

conensatio>
pecipitatio>
evaporatio>
Cloud an wae vapou
ri
oea>

3
4

VOCABULARY
3. Look for information. Write down the name of each area on the Iberian Peninsula
with volcanic formations.

Te a volcani formation i> Cabo Gat i> Aleri, i> t


Errigoit^ formatio> i> t Pye>e, an, o cour, o> t Canar Island
an i> t Azoe.

M. A.

26

Match.
sunlight

plants need this for photosynthesis

carbon dioxide

it filters harmful ultraviolet rays

ozone

it is like a blanket which retains the Earths heat

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VOLCANIC FORMATIONS

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Activity Book

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Worksheet 23. Date

25

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Worksheet 24. Date

Apply your knowledge


ROCKS, WEATHERING

20:31

1. Name the type of rock.


coal

marble

sla

grani

coa

marb

2. Complete each sentence.

win an wae.

a. Erosion is the removal of rocks by


volcanic activity
b. Transport is the
movement
c. Sedimentation is the
destruction

granite

Pgina 73

slate

wind and water

moen

of eroded material.

eruption

accumulatio>

of eroded material.

accumulation

27

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Pgina 74

UNIT 8

The landscape
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Understanding the concept of landscape


Using the term altitude correctly
Learning the main inland landforms
Learning the main coastal landforms
Understanding information about the mountains and plains of Spain
Understanding information about Spanish coasts and their main landforms
Appreciating the importance of the landscape

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Defining and describing landscape: Plains are A cape is land which


Classifying: Mountain landscapes are made up of There are two types of coast ...
Describing features (adjectives): high; low; flat; raised; long; sandy
Comparing: lower than the highest peaks
Describing location: near the coast to the north in the south by the sea

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Main inland landforms:


mountains, plains, plateaus and
valleys
The mountains, plains,
plateaus and valleys of Spain
Main coastal landforms:
archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs,
coast, estuary, gulf, high coast,
island, low-lying coast, marsh,
peninsula
Spanish coasts

Observe photographs and


drawings to obtain information
about the landscape and
landforms
Locate the main landforms in
Spain on maps
Use a map to learn about
Spanish coasts
Interpret different types of
maps

ATTITUDES

Appreciate, respect, protect


and preserve natural
landscapes

Assessment criteria

74

Distinguishing the main coastal and inland landforms


Using maps to learn about landscape
Knowing about the Spanish landscape and its main landforms
Observing photographs and drawings to obtain information about the landscape
Appreciating the importance of the landscape

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Pgina 75

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 8
Extension: Worksheet 8

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 8

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Landforms
http://www.edu.pe.ca.southernkings/landforms.htm
A picture-filled website made by students of the Faces
of the Earth. In addition to landforms, processes like
weathering and erosion, as well as the rock cycle are
also covered.
Endangered species and landscapes
http://www.arkive.org/
Enter Arkive to visit the Globally Endangered Chapter
or visit the Planet Arkive to learn about landscapes
and habitats. For teachers and students.
Geography
http://www.iberianature.com/index.html
A guide to wildlife, geography and climate of Spain.
For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

M AKING

M OUNTAINS

www.richmondelt.com

75

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Pgina 76

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary: coastal plains, depression,


landscape, mountain chain, mountain
range, plains, plateau, valley

The landscape

Special attention
LOOK

Using the new vocabulary correctly


Distinguishing between long and large

Look at the photo.

Hands on

Is everything natural,
or are some things
man-made?

What can you see


in the landscape?

Landscape features
Ask: What natural features can you
see in the landscape around your
town? (trees, grass, plains, mountains,
rivers, lakes, waterfalls)
Ask: Which things are man-made?
(roads, pavements, buildings, bridges,
walls )
Write suggestions on the BB in two
lists.

READ

1. The landscape

3. Plains 49

All the different features of the Earths


surface make up the landscape.
There are high mountains in some areas.
There is low flat land in other areas.

Plains are large areas of flat land


with no hills or slopes.
A plateau is a plain at a high altitude.
Depressions are plains which are lower
than the surrounding land.

There are mountain landscapes,


flat landscapes and coastal landscapes.

Coastal plains are flat land near the coast.

2. Mountains 48
Mountain landscapes are made up
of mountains and valleys.

Presentation

Mountains are raised parts of the Earths


surface. Hills have a lower altitude
than mountains. (Altitude is the height
of something above sea level,
or the Earths surface.)

LOOK Ask Ss to look at the photo and


compare natural and man-made features.
Ask: Are trees/mountains natural
features? (yes) Are houses/roads
man-made? (yes)
READ Explain the difference between
height and altitude. Altitude is the height of
something above sea level. Height is the
vertical measurement of something.
Ask Ss: Which has a higher altitude
a hill or a mountain? (a mountain)
a hill or a valley? (a hill)
Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with 82 , 83 , 84 .
They do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
E Activity Book, page 29.

True or false? Make more sentences


about landscape features.

Several mountains grouped together are called


a mountain range. A long line of mountain
ranges is called a mountain chain.

Mountains are low areas.


Mountains are raised parts of the Earths surface.

Valleys are low areas between mountains.


Rivers are often found in valleys.

Which mountains are closest


to your home? What is their altitude?

M. A. Valleys are low areas between mountains.


A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. Coastal plains
are flat land near the coast.

THE LANDSCAPE

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1

Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB.

Ask Ss to copy the sentences and complete them with the correct
word.

flat

chain

features

plateau

altitude

1. Valleys and mountains are of the landscape.


2. Hills have a lower than mountains.
3. A mountain is a long line of mountain ranges.
Excursions and rubbish. When we go
on excursions, we should always throw our
rubbish in the bins or take it home. This
way we protect nature and help prevent
fires.

76

4. Valleys are areas between mountains.


5. Plains are large areas of land.
6. A is a plain at a high altitude.
Answers: 1. features. 2. altitude. 3. chain. 4. low. 5. flat.
6. plateau.

low

31

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Pgina 77

Vocabulary: Betic Chain, Central Mountain


Chain, Central Plateau, Iberian Peninsula,
mountains, plains, Pyrenees

Content objectives: 5, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Mountains and plains in Spain

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Interpret a relief map

Mountains and plains in Spain


Bay of Biscay

AI

Pico
del Moro
Almanzor
2,592

EN
MOR
RA
ER
SI

TA
OUN
AM

SI

ON

IN

BET

RA N

IN
TA

CH

MO
TAL
AS
CO

Tra m

un

ta

na

Ra

ng

Hands on

Balearic
Islands

GE

N
AI
CH
I C Mulhacn
3,478

Medite

GU

Canary Islands

ANDORRA

rra

ne

an

Se

Relief maps

metres

Kilometres

ATLANTIC OCEAN

PLATEAU

ON
ESSI

AD
AL
Q

DEPR
VIR
UI

127

CH

CA
TA
LA

DE

IN

RA

NT

IA

CE

SCALE

Aneto
3,404

ER

P O
R T
U G
A L

CENTRAL

OCEAN

IB

MO

A TL A N T I C

N
O
L E NT
U

an M o u nt a i n C h a i n

IN

Ca nt ab ri

Adverbial phrases: to the north,


in the south etc.

F R A N C E

Ga
Moun licia
tai n
n
Ra
ng

N
W

2,000
1,000
500
0

Ceuta
Melilla

Teide
3,718

MOROCCO

Peak

The Teide, on the Canary Islands,


is the highest mountain in Spain.

1. Mountains and plains in Spain


The Iberian peninsula has many different landscapes.
The map shows the mountains and plains.

The Iberian peninsula has narrow coastal plains.

Central Spain is dominated by a large plateau,


called the Central Plateau.
This is divided into two parts
by the Central Mountain Chain.

The Ebro depression is in the north.

There are two extensive depressions:


The Guadalquivir depression is in the south.

Presentation

There are mountains to the north,


east and south of the Central Plateau:
The Pyrenees is a mountain chain
to the north of the Central Plateau.
The Betic Chain is a mountain chain
to the south of the Central Plateau.
The highest peaks on the peninsula
are in these chains.

Complete the sentences.


The highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula
are in
The two extensive depressions on the Iberian
peninsula are

32

THE LANDSCAPE

the Pyrenees and the Betic Chain The Ebro


depression and the Guadalquivir depression.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Show a simple relief map of the area


where you live. Ask: How can you
distinguish the plains? the
mountains? (by their colour and
with the map key)
Ask: How do we know where north is?
(the compass symbol) Where is it?
Ask: Which is the highest mountain
in Spain? Where is it?

Quiz. Ask the questions. Ss raise their hands if they can answer.

Which countries make up the Iberian peninsula?


What is the highest mountain in Spain? Where is it?
Where are the Pyrenees?
Which mountains divide the Central Plateau into two parts?
Where are the highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula?
Where is the Betic mountain chain?
Where is the Ebro depression?
Where is the Guadalquivir depression?

LOOK AND READ Focus on the map. Ask:


What colours do you see on the map?
What do these colours indicate?
(different altitudes)
Ask: What do you see in the upper left
corner? (a compass) What is it for?
(to show north, south, east and west)
Ask: What is the name of the mountain
chain which separates the Iberian
peninsula from France? (Pyrenees) Is the
Betic Chain in the south of the Iberian
peninsula? (yes) Which is further north,
the Ebro depression or the Guadalquivir
depression? (Ebro depression)
Ask: What is the highest mountain
in Spain? (the Teide) Where is it?
(in the Canary Islands)
Ss read 1 and do the activity.

Answers: 1. Spain and Portugal. 2. Teide, Canary Islands.


3. Between Spain and France. 4. Central Mountain Chain.
5. Pyrenees, Betic Chain. 6. To the south of the Central Plateau.
7. In the north. 8. In the south.

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Pgina 78

Content objectives: 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.

Vocabulary: archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs,


coast, coastlines, estuary, gulf, island,
landforms, marsh, peninsula

The coast

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Distinguish coastal landforms

1. The coast 50

Vocabulary for types of coastline

A coastline 52

The coast is the place where the land


meets the sea.
There are two types of coast:

Hands on

estuary

Low-lying coasts are plains by the sea.


They often have sandy beaches.

marsh

High coasts are mountains


or high areas by the sea.
They often have rocky cliffs.

Coastal relief map


Ask: Where is the nearest coast to
where you live?
Show Ss a map of the coastline where
you live or the nearest coastal area.
Point out different landforms and ask
Ss to say the names.
Ask: What is the name of this cape?
What is the name of this beach?
What is the name of the gulf between
and ?

2. Types of coastline 51
Coastlines have different shapes.
A cape is land which extends
into the sea.
A gulf is a place where the sea extends
into the land.
A peninsula is land which is almost
completely surrounded by water.

cape

An island is land which is completely


surrounded by water.

archipelago

An archipelago is a group of islands.


An estuary is the part of a river
which opens into the sea.

island

A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river.


cliff

Presentation

beach

LOOK AND READ Focus on the drawing. Say


the names of the landforms in jumbled
order and ask Ss to point to them.

gulf
Make more sentences to describe
coastal landforms. Change the underlined words.
A cape is land which extends into the sea.
An archipelago is a group of islands.

Ask: How are beaches and cliffs the same?


(they are by the sea) How are they
different? (beaches are flat and have sand;
cliffs are high and rocky)
Use coastal landforms to play a guessing
game. It is completely surrounded by water.
(island) It is a group of islands.
(archipelago) It is the part of a river which
opens into the sea. (estuary) It is a place
where the sea extends into the land. (gulf)
Ss read 1 and 2 with
they do the activity.

85

and

86 .

Then

R Activity Book, page 28.

Water pollution. Rivers flow into the


sea. If rivers become contaminated, this
water will reach the sea and harm the
living things near our coasts too.

peninsula

M.A. A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river.


A peninsula is land which is almost completely surrounded by
water.

THE LANDSCAPE

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write these sentence halves on the BB and
ask Ss to match them.

1.
2.
3.
4.

The coast is the place


A cape is land which
A gulf is a place
A peninsula is land which

a.
b.
c.
d.

5. An island is land

e.

6. An archipelago is

f.

7. An estuary is the part of a river


8. A marsh is wet land

g.
h.

which opens into the sea


extends into the sea
where the land meets the sea
which is completely
surrounded by water
where the sea extends
into the land
is almost completely
surrounded by water
a group of islands
near the mouth of a river

Answers: 1 c. 2 b. 3 e. 4 f. 5 d. 6 g. 7 a. 8 h.

78

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Pgina 79

Vocabulary: Atlantic coast, Balearic


Islands, Canary Islands, Cantabrian
coast, Mediterranean coast

Content objectives: 6, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.

Spanish coasts

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Interpreting maps

1. Spanish coasts
Spain has more than 6,000 kilometres
of coastline in the peninsula.
There are five types of coast.

The Mediterranean coast is low-lying


and sandy. There are many
long beaches.

The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs,


estuaries and gulfs.

The coastline in the Canary Islands


varies greatly.

The Atlantic coast is very varied.


In the northwest, it is high and rocky.
There are many estuaries.
In the south, it is low-lying and sandy.

In the Balearic Islands, high coasts


alternate with long beaches.

Cantabria

Atlantic

Estaca de Bares Point

Canary Islands

Cape
Peas

Cape
Ajo

Cape
Matxitxako

F R A N C E

Cape Fisterra

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

Mediterranean

Gulf of
Valencia

Gulf
of Cadiz
Tarifa Point

Cape
Gata

Med

iter

ran

Balearic Islands

Presentation

142

Cantabrian coast
Mediterranean coast
Atlantic coast

Describe each one. The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs.

THE LANDSCAPE

Hand out photocopies of a map of


Spain and lengths of yarn in three
colours: red, green, orange.
Ask Ss to glue the yarn on the coasts
according to the map in the book.
Ss write Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic
Ocean and the name of each type of
coastal area on the map. Ask: What
coastal area do the Canary Islands
belong to? (Atlantic) And the Balearic
Islands? (Mediterranean)

Complete the sentence. Spain has five different types of coastal areas:

34

Spanish coasts

Kilometres

Melilla

ATLANTIC OCEAN

ea

Se

SCALE

Ceuta

Canary Islands

Cape
Creus
Gulf
of
Roses

Balearic
Islands

Cape
La Nao
Cape
Palos

N
W

P O
R T
U G
A L

ANDORRA

Hands on

Cantabrian coast, Atlantic coast, Mediterranean coast, Canary


Islands coast, Balearic Islands coast/ The Atlantic coast is very
varied. The Mediterranean coast is low-lying and sandy

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Quiz. Books closed. Read out these questions and ask Ss
to raise their hands if they know the answer.
1. How long is the Spanish coastline?
2. How many types of coast are there?
3. What is the coast in the north called?
4. Which coast is very varied?
5. Which coast is low-lying and sandy?
6. Which islands have coastlines?

Answers: 1. about 6.000 kilometres. 2. five. 3. Cantabrian and


Atlantic. 4. Atlantic / Canaries. 5. Mediterranean. 6. Canary
Islands, Balearic Islands.

LOOK AND READ Focus on the map. Ask:


What do you notice about the coast of
Spain? (a lot of coast with different seas)
Ask Ss to look at the photos in pairs and
to ask each other questions: In which
photo/s can you see a high cliff?
(Atlantic) a sandy beach?
(Mediterranean, Balearic Islands)
rocks on the beach? (Canary Islands)
Help Ss organise a tree diagram. Title:
Spanish coasts. Level 1: Cantabrian coast /
Atlantic coast / Mediterranean coast. Level
2: Iberian Peninsula / Iberian Peninsula,
Canary Islands coast / Iberian Peninsula,
Balearic Islands coast.
Ss read 1 and do the activity.
R and E Activity Book, pages 30, 31.

Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.


The Mediterranean is almost enclosed
and is surrounded by populated countries.
This causes a serious pollution problem.

79

Worksheet 25. Date

Apply your knowledge


LANDSCAPES

20:30

1. Read carefully.

1. Read the definition and write the word.

Oceanic landscapes

a. Land which is almost completely surrounded by water:

The ocean floor, just like the Earths surface,


has different landscapes. There are mountain
ranges, flat lands and deep oceanic trenches.

b. Large area of flat land with no hills or slopes:

eninsul

Pgina 80

plai>

chai>
d. A low area between mountains: vale
e. The wet land near the mouth of a river: elt
f. Where the sea extends into the land: estuar
c. Several mountains grouped together:

Underwater mountain ranges are known as


oceanic ridges. Some are over 3,000 metres
high and more than 2,000 kilometres long.
The longest mountain range extends from
the Arctic almost to Antarctica. In some cases,
underwater mountain peaks reach the surface
and form islands in the middle of the ocean.

2. Now classify these landscapes into coastal or inland.

Oceanic trenches are long, narrow and very


deep depressions. The most important ones are
found in the Pacific Ocean. The deepest ocean
trench is the Challenger Deep in the Pacific
Ocean. It is almost 11,000 metres deep.

2. Explain the difference between an oceanic ridge and a mountain.

A> oeani rid@ i a> unerwae mountai> ran@.


A mountai> i foun abo wae.
coasta

inlan

3. Complete the following text about the principal landscapes in your Autonomous Community.
M. A.In my Autonomous Community, there are different landscapes including

VOCABULARY

oceanic ridge

deep, long, narrow depression on the ocean floor

oceanic trench

the highest point of a mountain

peak

flat land which is lower than the surrounding land

depression

an underwater mountain range

mountai>

chain, rir, plain an valey.


There are high areas, for example Navaerrad an t Guadarram
mountain.
There are flat areas, for example t eadow o Aranje.

Match.

29

28

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UNDERWATER LANDSCAPES

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Worksheet 26. Date

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Tasks

Worksheet 27. Date

INTERPRET A MAP

a. Which mountain chain is the farthest north?

e
S

i an M ou nta i n Ch a i n

IN

N
O
L E NT
U
MO

c. Where are the highest mountains?

RA
AIN

NG

SI

O
LM
TA
AS
CO

ON

AI

2. Look at the elevation and complete.

Tr a m

a
nt

na

Ra

ng

N
AI
CH
C
I
Mulhacn
ET
3,478

an
err
Medit

ea

dar brow>

Different colours represent different altitudes.The colour

ge>

is used for the highest areas. The colour

is used

for the lowest areas. The most important rivers flow through areas indicated by the colour

Balearic
Islands

ES

Cantabria> mountai> chai>.


Tramuntan ran@.
Canar island/Bti chai>.
Ebro/Guadalquivi epession.

ION
ESS

d. Where are the lowest areas of land?

N
T

CH

CA
TA
LA
N

N
AI

T
T
T
T

ge> o ligh brow>


0
ea

. These areas are between

1,000

and

metres

in height. The highest mountain peak is located in an area indicated by the colour

ge

GU

AD
AL
Q

PLATEAU

UNT

DEP
VIR
UI

IN

MO
ENA

P O
R T
U G
A L

N
AI

Pico
del Moro
Almanzor
2,592

DE

N
H

CH

AL

IA

MOR

R
NT

ER

RA

S
E
ANDORRA

IB

CE

ER

b. Which mountain range is the farthest east?

Aneto
3,404

CENTRAL

SI

Ca n ta br

3. Find where you live on the map and answer. Find additional information and write the names.
ATLANTIC

Ceuta

Ye, i d.
b. Does it have any plains? M. A. Ye, i d.
c. Does it have any depressions? M. A. No, i ds>.
d. Is there a coast? M. A. No, te is>.
a. Does it have any mountains? M. A.

Melilla

OCEAN

A L G E R I A
M O R O C C O

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary

Islands

metres

2,000
1,000
500
0

Teide
3,718

SCALE

254

4. Which of these landforms are found near where you live? M. A.


plain

valley


Peak

Kilometres

31

30

island

marsh

cape

estuary

mountain

hill


Pgina 81

Ga
Moun licia
tai n
n
Ra
ng

1. Look at the map on page 31 and answer.

20:30

Bay of Biscay

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Pgina 82

UNIT 9

Rivers
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1. Defining rivers, reservoirs, lakes and watersheds and identifying the watersheds
of Spain
2. Distinguishing weather and climate
3. Recognising the Earths climatic zones and understanding their characteristics
4. Describing and locating the main types of Spanish climate
5. Associating climate with type of landscape
6. Associating climate with the living things in the different zones
7. Associating destructive and protective human actions with their effects on
nature
6. Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Defining: A river is Reservoirs are Climate is Fauna is


Describing (adjectives): greater; irregular; hot; cool; mild
Classifying: There are three watersheds There are different types of climate
Expressing purpose: to irrigate fields; for urban consumption
Describing quantity: a lot; more than half; less water; abundant; many species
Describing time: in the summer; all year round; a few months of the year

Contents
CONCEPTS

Rivers and watersheds


Lakes and reservoirs
Climate, the Earths climate
zones, the climate of Spain
Vegetation and fauna
Protecting nature

PROCEDURES

Observe drawings and photos


to learn about rivers, climate
and landscape
Locate the Earths climate
zones on a globe

ATTITUDES

Appreciating the importance of


learning about and protecting
nature
Appreciating and respecting
vegetation and fauna in the
place where we live

Assessment criteria

82

Knowing what rivers and watersheds are


Distinguishing the Earths climate zones
Knowing the different types of climate in Spain
Associating climate with the type of landscape
Associating climate with the living things in each zone
Observing drawings and photographs to learn about rivers, climate and landscape
Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature

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Pgina 83

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 9
Extension: Worksheet 9

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 9

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Rivers and coasts
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/riversandcoasts/
index.shtml
Animated drawings about rivers and coasts.
For students.
River features
http://www.kented.org.uk/ngfl/subjects/geography/
rivers/River Articles/rivart.htm
Different river features. Also offers teacher planning
and worksheets. Useful for students and teachers.
Dams
http://www.simscience.org/cracks/beginning/
dams1.html
All about dams. For teachers and students.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

FOLLOW A

RIVER

www.richmondelt.com

83

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Pgina 84

Content objectives: 1.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Vocabulary: course, flow, lakes, reservoirs, river,


watershed

Rivers

Special attention
READ

Understanding the concept of watershed


Look at the photo
of a reservoir.

Adjectives and expressions of quantity

How do you think


this water is used?

Hands on

Think of other places


where we find water.

Transport of materials
Build a mountain out of sand on
a tray.
Prepare to pour water over the
mountain so it goes down one side.
Ask: What will happen when the water
moves down the mountain? (It will
carry sand with it to the bottom.)
Make another mountain of sand
and place some little stones near
the surface. Ask: What will happen
this time when the water moves down
the side? (It will mostly carry the little
stones.) Why? (because they are larger)

LOOK AND READ

R Activity Book, page 32.

84

Watersheds are areas where all


the rivers flow into the same sea.
There are three watersheds in Spain.

The course is the route which a river takes.

The Cantabrian watershed has short, rapid rivers.


Their flow is abundant and regular.

2. Lakes and reservoirs 54


Water can also be found in lakes and reservoirs.
Lakes are large bodies of water
surrounded by land.
Reservoirs are artificial lakes.
Water from reservoirs is used
to irrigate fields, and for urban consumption.
Canals and irrigation channels
transport water away from reservoirs.
Reservoirs are also used to produce energy.

LOOK Focus on the photo. Ask: Is there a


lot of water? (yes) What holds the water
back? (a dam) Explain that reservoirs store
water for use in homes as drinking water,
in agriculture, in industry, and to produce
electricity.

Ss read 3 with 90 . Write a word map on


the BB. Title: WATERSHEDS OF SPAIN Level
1: Cantabrian watershed - Mediterranean
watershed - Atlantic watershed.
Level 2: Characteristics of the rivers.
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.

3. The watersheds of Spain

A river is a body of moving water.


It starts high in the mountains.
It flows into a sea, a lake or another river.
The flow is the amount of water which a river
carries. The flow is greater when it rains,
or if snow melts in the mountains.

Presentation

READ Present 1 and 2 with 88 and 89 .


Ask: Can we produce electricity with the
water in a reservoir? (yes) How?
(Hydroelectric plants capture the force of
falling water to produce electrical energy.)

1. A rivers course and flow 53

The Mediterranean watershed covers about


one third of Spain. Except for the Ebro,
the rivers are short, and their flow is irregular.
They sometimes overflow when it rains a lot.
They are sometimes dry in the summer.
The Atlantic watershed covers more than
half of Spain. The flow of these rivers
is abundant and fairly regular, but they carry
less water in the summer.

Make more sentences.


Change the underlined words.
In the Cantabrian watershed, the river flow
is abundant and regular.

M.A. In the Mediterranean watershed, the river flow is irregular.


In the Atlantic watershed, the river flow is abundant and fairly
regular.

RIVERS

35

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Comprehension: definitions Books closed. Write these sentence
halves on the BB. Ask Ss to match the halves and write complete
sentences.
1

1. A river is
2.
3.
4.
5.

The course is
The flow is
Lakes are
Reservoirs are

a. large bodies of water surrounded


by land
b. the route which a river takes
c. artificial lakes
d. a body of moving water
e. the amount of water which a river
carries

Answers: 1 d. 2 b. 3 e. 4 a. 5 c.

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Content objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6.

Pgina 85

Vocabulary: climate, continental climate, polar


zone, temperate zone, tropical zone, weather

Climate

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Climate

World climatic zones


North Pole

tropical

polar
Northern
Hemisphere

Eq

ua

Southern
Hemisphere

tor

Climate is not the same as weather.


Weather can change in just a few minutes.
Climate is a regions characteristic temperature,
wind and precipitation over a very long time.

2. The Earths climate 55


The distance of an area from the equator
determines how much heat it gets from the Sun.

polar

Tropical zone: It is very hot all year round


near the equator.
Temperate zone: There are warm summers
and cool winters. In some regions,
it is rainy all year round. In other regions,
it is dry and sunny in the summer.
Polar zone: It is very cold all year round
at the North and South Poles.

3. Climate in Spain
There are different types of climate in Spain.

Atlantic climate

Mediterranean climate

The Atlantic climate: This is the mild climate


on the Cantabrian coast and in Galicia.
Rainfall is abundant all year round.
The Mediterranean climate: This is the climate
near the Mediterranean. Summers are hot,
and winters are mild. Rainfall is light.
The subtropical climate: This is the climate
in the Canary Islands. It is hot all year round.
Rainfall is limited to a few months of the year.
The continental climate: This is the climate
of central Spain. Summers are hot
and winters are cold. Rainfall is irregular.

What zone do you live in? What kind


of climate do you have where you live?
Subtropical climate

36

Hands on

temperate

temperate
South Pole

Identifying the characteristics of the


different types of climate in Spain

Continental climate

RIVERS

A globe

Show the class a globe. Ask: What


shape is the Earth? (a sphere which
is slightly flattened at the poles)
Find the equator. What countries
does the equator pass through?
(Ecuador, Brazil, Congo, Kenya )
Find the temperate zone and the
tropical zone. Say: Name four countries
in the temperate zone. (Spain,
France, Germany, Great Britain )
in the tropical zone. (Costa Rica,
Venezuela, Ethiopia )

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Focus on the photos. Ask
Ss to compare landscapes. Ask: What is
the landscape like in the Atlantic climate?
(wet, a lot of vegetation ) And in the
continental climate? (dry, few trees, low
vegetation )
Ss read 1 and 2 and 3 with

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 True or false? Write these questions on the BB and ask Ss
to say if they are true or false. They should correct the false
sentences.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Weather and climate are the same thing.


Weather can change very quickly.
Different regions have different temperatures.
It is very cold near the equator.
In the temperate zone, there are warm summers
and cool winters.
6. It is very warm in the Polar zone.

91 , 92 , 93 .

Draw a map of Spain on the BB. Ask.


Where is there a subtropical climate?
(Canary Islands) A Mediterranean climate?
(near the Mediterranean Sea) An Atlantic
climate? (Galicia and Cantabrian coast)
A continental climate? (central Spain)
Ss discuss the questions at the bottom of
the page.
R Activity Book, page 33.
E Activity Book, page 34.

Answers: 1. False. They are different. 2. True. 3. True.


4. False. It is very hot. 5. True. 6. False. It is very cold.

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Pgina 86

Content objectives: 5, 6, 7, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 5.

Vocabulary: fauna, flora, habitats, National Park,


natural preserves, vegetation

Vegetation and fauna

Special attention

READ

Understanding that the growth of cities etc.,


are things which affect flora and fauna

1. Vegetation and fauna


Plant and animal life depend on the climate.
Each climate has its own flora and fauna.
Flora is all the plant life or vegetation in an area.
Fauna is all the animal life in an area.

Hands on

In rainy areas, such as tropical rainforests,


there is abundant vegetation and fauna.
In very dry areas, such as deserts,
there is little vegetation or fauna.

Our National Parks


Ask: How does the government protect
our flora and fauna? (for example,
by creating National Parks)
Use an atlas to show where different
National Parks are located.
Ask: Is X in the north? Is Y on an
island? Is Z near the sea?

2. Natural preserves 56
There is abundant vegetation in tropical rainforests.

Flora and fauna are affected by many things.


The growth of cities, pollution and
the exploitation of our natural resources
all affect animal and plant habitats.
Many animal and plant species disappear,
or are in danger of extinction.
Governments and regional authorities
create special areas where the environment
is protected.
In Europe, four important National Parks
are the Teide in Spain, Snowdonia
in the United Kingdom, Vanoise in France
and Harz in Germany.

Presentation

There is little vegetation in deserts.

READ Focus on the photos. Ask:


Where can you find waterfalls? (tropical
rainforests) A lot of sand? (deserts)
Mountains with snow? (Snowdonia NP)
Present 1 and 2 with

94

and

95 .

Explain that National Parks have rules and


regulations to protect nature. Elicit some
examples: bans on cars, hunting, taking
plants, entering after visiting hours
Ask Ss to form groups to make posters
about National Parks. They can include
photos and information on the following:
What is the Parks name? Where is it?
What kind of vegetation/fauna is found
there? What is the landscape/climate like?
Ss do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
R Activity Book, page 35.

Note: Project 4 (Activity Book, page 37),


should be carried out with a glass bottle.

Species extinction. It is estimated that


around one tenth of all species on Earth
could disappear by the year 2010. Many
extinctions will be caused by humans.

86

Complete the sentences.


Many animal and plant habitats
are in danger because of
Do you know any plant or animal species
in danger of extinction?
Snowdonia National Park, United Kingdom

M. A. the growth of cities, pollution, the exploitation of natural


resources, hunting / Iberian lynx, blue whale, white
rhinoceros

RIVERS

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Books closed. Write these sentences on the
BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option. They then listen to
95 to check their answers.

1. The growth of cities / countries affects animal and plant


habitats.
2. Many species disappear or are in danger of pollution /
extinction.
3. Governments create special areas / species where the
environment is protected.
4. Two important National Parks are the Teide in Spain and
Snowdonia in Germany / the United Kingdom.
Answers: 1. cities. 2. extinction. 3. areas. 4. the United Kingdom.

37

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Pgina 87

1. Write the correct form of the jumbled adjective.


1. The Cantabrian watershed has short DAPIR rivers.
2. Their flow is abundant and ARLEGUR.
3. The Mediterranean watershed has TROSH rivers.
4. Their flow is GRELARIRU.
5. The Atlantic watershed has rivers with an NUDBATNA flow.
Answers: 1. rapid. 2. regular. 3. short. 4. irregular. 5. abundant.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct word.


rainy

plant

climate

dry

fauna

animal

1. Plant and animal life depend on the

2. Each climate has its own flora and


3. Flora is all the
4. Fauna is all the

6. In very

life or vegetation in an area.


life in an area.
areas, there is abundant vegetation and fauna.
areas, there is little vegetation or fauna.
Answers: 1. climate. 2. fauna. 3. plant. 4. animal. 5. rainy. 6. dry.

5. In

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

87

Worksheet 28. Date

Apply your knowledge


WATER

20:34

1. Find the climates of Spain in the wordsearch.

1. Match.
B

M E D

Pgina 88

A S D F G H J K L Q W E R
P O K A T L A N T

C X C

T E R R A N E A N

M N B V C X Z P O S U Y T
Z S U B T R O P
S C O N T

C A L Q

N E N T A L M
river

reservoir

lake

2. Complete the paragraph. Use words from Activity 1.


The

conti>enta clima

2. Read and tick () the true sentences.

is the climate in central Spain. Summers are hot

Medierra>ea> clima near the Mediterranean.


Atlanti clima
Summers are not, but winters are mild. The
and winters are cold.There is a

a. A river is a body of moving water.


b. The course is the amount of water which a river carries.

is in Galicia and in Cantabria. It rains all year round. The Canary Islands has
a

subtropica clima

. It is hot all year round.

Match and write.


tropical zone

polar zone

c. The flow of a river is smaller when it rains.

d. A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land.

e. A reservoir is an artificial lake.

VOCABULARY

tropica zo>
pola zo>
emera zo>

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge


CLIMATE AND WEATHER

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Activity Book

88
Worksheet 29. Date

f. Reservoirs are never used to produce energy.

g. Watersheds are areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea.

h. The Atlantic watershed is the smallest one in Spain.

temperate zone
3. Name the most important river in your Autonomous Community.
Explain its principal characteristics.

: near the equator. It is hot all year round.

T
Ri i t mos importan ri i>
. I ha it
sour i> t
mountai> ran@. I>
i form t
eervoi, o> o t mos importan wae suppl^e fo t egio>.
I flow into t
Ri.

: far from the equator. It is cold all year round.


: between the other two zones. It is warm in the summer
and cool in the winter.

33

32

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Worksheet 30. Date

Read and learn

INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH

DESERTS

20:34

1. Read carefully.

1. Read carefully.

Weather in the desert

Climate graphs give us information about climates. They help us compare the climates
in two different areas.

Deserts are areas with very


little rain. Very few plants and
animals can survive in a desert.
Deserts have a very dry climate.
Rain is scarce and usually irregular.
Months or years can go by without
rain and then torrential rains fall.
Because of the dry climate, rivers
in deserts only have water
when it rains.

The red line shows the monthly temperatures. We can see if it is a warm or a cold climate.

2. Look at the climate graphs. Complete the following activities.


Then you are ready to do project 3 on page 36.
a. Read the data cards.

There is always a big difference


between day and night
temperatures in deserts. During
the day, temperatures are very high.
At night it is very cold, and
temperatures fall below 0.

b. Write Mountain or Desert below each climogram.


DATA: DESERT

DATA: MOUNTAIN

Temperatures: very high all year


round. Over 20 for six months.

Temperatures: very cold in winter and


moderate in summer.

Precipitation: very little rain all year


round.

Precipitation: heavy rains all year


round, although in summer it rains less.

2. Circle the words in the text which you do not understand.


Look up the meanings in a dictionary and write them down.
M. A.

Temperature in C

40
30
20
10
0
10

Precipitation in l/m2
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

F M A M J J A S O N D
months

mountai>

Temperature in C

40
30
20
10
0

F M A M J J
months

Precipitation in l/m2
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
A S O N D

survi = li
scar = r litt
torentia = r stron@

3. Think and explain.


Some people who live in the desert are nomads. They have no fixed home,
and move from place to place. Why?
M. A.

eer
35

34

Becau te >e to loo fo foo an wae.

Pgina 89

Climate graphs

The blue bars tell us the monthly precipitation. We can see if a climate is rainy or dry.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 31. Date

89

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Notes:

90

Use this information to construct a climate graph.

20:34

Temperature is in degrees centigrade (C).


Precipitation is in millimetres (mm).
F

13

15

18

20

24

26

25

19

10

D
7

Precipitation

50

54

70

78

83

60

30

15

90

86

88

69

1. Complete the temperature.


Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line
to connect the points from all twelve months.
2. Complete the precipitation.
Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height
on the graph.
T (C)

P (mm)

50

100

40

80

30

60

20

40

10

20

36

Pgina 90

J
Temperature

2/10/06

Project 3

MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH

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Notes:

2/10/06

Project 4

INVESTIGATE CHANGES IN MATTER

2 Put some bicarbonate


into a balloon.

5 The baloon inflates


more and more
as time passes.

Pgina 91

4 The balloon inflates


when the vinegar
and bicarbonate mix.

20:34

1 Pour vinegar
into a bottle.

balloon

bicarbonate

3 Place the mouth of the balloon over


the mouth of the bottle.

Now think and answer these questions.


a. What happens inside the balloon?
M. A.

T vi>ega an bicarbona mi an for ga.

b. Why does the volume of the balloon increase?

Becau t ga expand.
c. Where did the gas that is now in the balloon come from?

Fro t cemica eactio> ete> vi>ega an bicarbona.


d. What type of change has occurred inside the bottle?
What type of change has occurred inside the balloon?

Insi t bott: cemical chan@. Insi t balloo>: physica chan@


37

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Pgina 92

UNIT 10

Population
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Understanding the concept of population


Distinguishing between urban and rural population
Associating population changes with the number of people who are born and die
Understanding the concept of population density
Understanding what migration is, the causes and types
Distinguishing emigrants and immigrants
Understanding the characteristics of the population of Spain
Appreciating the role of immigrants in society

Language objectives
1. Providing additional information (relative clauses): People who live in cities places where
2. Explaining methods: Density is measured by dividing can be classified by gender
3. Making comparisons: more densely populated; better opportunities; is low compared to;
like other European populations; is getting older
4. Expressing quantity: some; others; many.
5. Expressing purpose: to live in another place; to find work; to escape
6. Describing part of a continuing process: The number is increasing is getting older
7. Stating facts (present passive): is not evenly distributed are densely populated

Contents
CONCEPTS

Population: concept, census,


density, rural, urban, growth
Migration: causes, types,
emigrants, immigrants
The population of Spain:
number of inhabitants,
immigrants, density,
distribution, getting older

PROCEDURES

Interpret a population bar


graph
Study photographs to learn
about population

ATTITUDES

Appreciation of the role of


immigrants in society
Appreciation of senior citizens
and their contribution to
society

Assessment criteria

92

Understanding concepts associated with population: density, growth, urban and rural
Understanding what migration is, the causes and types
Identifying the characteristics of the population of Spain
Interpreting a bar graph about population
Studying photographs to learn about population
Appreciating the role of immigrants in society

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20:32

Pgina 93

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 10
Extension: Worksheet 10

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 10

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Population
http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/
index.html
Internet geography with sections on population
and migration. For teachers.
Population comparisons
http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/
infonation3/basic.asp
View and compare country population, economic,
health, technology and environmental data.
For teachers and students.
Population statistics
http://www.nationmaster.com/country/sp/Age_distribution
Spain population pyramids for 1995-2005
and predictions. For students and teachers.

LEVEL

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

N EW

L ANGUAGE ,
F RIENDS

N EW

www.richmondelt.com

93

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Pgina 94

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: adults, age, census, density, gender,


inhabitants, natural increase, population, rural, senior
citizens, urban, young people

Population

Special attention

LOOK

Understanding the term population density


Do you live in a place
with many inhabitants?

Hands on

Do you know people


who come from
a different place?

School census
Ask: How many students do you think
are in the school? Are there more boys
than girls? How many students of
different nationalities are there in the
school?
Create a questionnaire to find out
the answers to the above questions.
Distribute it to all the classes at
school.
Ss do the mathematical calculations
to obtain the answers for the whole
school.

READ

1. Population

3. Population distribution

The population of an area is the number of people


who live there. It can be classified into two types.

People like to live in places where there


are job opportunities, a healthy climate
and good services. Many people live on
the coasts and plains in temperate zones.

Urban populations are people who live in cities.


Rural populations are people
who live in villages and towns.
A census measures the size of a population.

2. Natural increase 57
Natural increase is the difference between
the number of people who are born and
the number of people who die in the same year.
The number of inhabitants in a place
changes continually.

Presentation

There is a positive natural increase


when more people are born than die.
The population grows.
There is a negative natural increase
when more people die than are born.
The population decreases.

LOOK Ss look at the photo. Ask: Are there


many people? Is everybody alike? How are
they different? Discuss the questions
together.
READ Ask: What is the difference between
rural populations and urban populations?
(Rural populations live in villages or towns
and urban populations live in cities.)
Present 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 with 96 , 97 , 98 ,
99 .
Explain that population censuses are taken
every ten years to find out the number
of inhabitants in a country and other
information such as age, gender, place
of birth, etc.
Do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Respect. Everybody deserves respect


and dignity. We are all important. For
communities to function well, people of all
ages, genders and races must take part.

94

Population density is measured by dividing


the total number of inhabitants by the
surface area of the place where they live.
Some countries and regions are more densely
populated than others. In Australia there are
huge, dry areas with no inhabitants, and there
are only 2 inhabitants per square kilometre.

4. Population groups
Population can be classified by gender
into male and female inhabitants,
and by age into three main groups:
Young people under the age of 18
Adults between the ages of 18 and 64
Senior citizens over the age of 65

Do a census of your class. What is the population?


Classify your classmates by gender and age.

38

POPULATION

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Word order. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss rewrite the sentences and check with 98 .
1

1. there are good job opportunities / a healthy climate / people /


and good services / like to live / in places where
2. on / people / coasts / live / many / the
3. are / some countries and regions / than others / more
densely populated
4. per square km / there are / in Australia / only 2 inhabitants
Answers: 1. People like to live in places where there are good job
opportunities, a healthy climate and good services. 2. Many
people live on the coasts. 3. Some countries and regions are
more densely populated than others. 4. In Australia there are only
2 inhabitants per square kilometre.

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20:32

Content objectives: 5, 6, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5.

Pgina 95

Vocabulary: emigrants, immigrants, international


migration, internal migration

Migration

Special attention

READ

1. Migration

Distinguishing immigrants and emigrants

58

Many people leave their homes to live in another place.


This movement of population is called migration.
There are two main reasons:

Hands on

Natural causes, for example floods, droughts


and earthquakes, can cause migration.

Many people emigrate


to find better jobs.

Social factors, for example wars or political


and religious problems, can also cause migration.
Also, people sometimes leave home to find work.

Role-play

2. Internal migration
Internal migration is produced within the same country.
For example, there are often migrations from rural areas
to cities. There are two main reasons:
The number of jobs in rural areas decreases.
Young people find better opportunities to study,
work and live in cities.

Young people often go


to another country to study.

3. International migration
Migration from one country to another is called international migration.
People who leave a country are called emigrants.
When they arrive in the other country, they are called immigrants.
People emigrate for many reasons. Some leave to find work,
or to join relatives in another country. Others leave to escape
from war and persecution in their own country.
In the past, many emigrants left Europe and went to other
countries, such as the United States, to find better jobs.
Today, many immigrants come to the European Union from Africa,
Latin America and other European countries to find better jobs.

Senior citizens sometimes emigrate


to live in a warmer climate.

Today, many young European adults also emigrate


to study or work in a different country.

Presentation

True or false? Make more sentences about migration.


Droughts are a social factor which can cause migration. People who leave a country are called emigrants.

M. A. Many people emigrate to find better jobs. Internal


migration is produced within the same country. Young people
often go to another country to study.

POPULATION

39

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the sentence halves on the BB.
Ss copy them and draw a line to join the halves.

1. The movement of
population is called
2. Earthquakes are
3. Finding work is
4. Internal migration is
5. International migration is
6. Emigrants are
7. Immigrants are

Ask Ss: Where do immigrants in Spain


come from? Why do they come?
Some Ss play the parts of immigrants
and the rest are the citizens of their
new community. Citizens ask questions
to get to know the immigrants: What is
your home country? Why did you come
here? Do you like it here?
The immigrants invent answers.
Ss think about how they would like
to be treated if they were immigrants.
Ask Ss from other countries to
describe their experiences.

a. produced within the same


country
b. migration
c. people who leave a country
d. migration from one country
to another
e. a natural cause of migration
f. people who arrive in another
country
g. a social factor of migration

READ Ss look at the photographs. Ask:


What are some of the reasons people
emigrate? (to study, find work/better jobs,
climate) Can you think of other reasons?
(wars, drought, better living conditions)
Present Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 100 ,
101 , 102 .
Write a chart on the BB with the title
MIGRATION and the subtitles Internal and
External. Ask Ss to write examples of each.
Ask: What are some of the advantages of
living in a town or village? (peace and
quiet, clean air, contact with nature, safety)
And in a city? (more opportunities for
culture, shopping, work, leisure, health
services)
Ask: What are some of the disadvantages
of living in the country? (few shops, no
hospitals) And in a city? (pollution, noise)
R Activity Book, page 38.
E Activity Book, page 39.

Answers: 1 b. 2 e. 3 g. 4 a. 5 d. 6 c. 7 f.

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Pgina 96

Content objectives: 7.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 3, 4, 6, 7.

densely, density, immigrants, inhabitants, sparsely

The population of Spain

Special attention

LOOK AND READ

Interpreting bar graphs

1. Population characteristics

Spanish population since 1900

Hands on

Today the population of Spain is approximately


43 million inhabitants.
In 1900 it was 18 million inhabitants.
(See the chart.)

Number of inhabitants in millions

Present 1 with

15
10
5

04

01

20

20

81

91

19

19

60

70

19

50

19

19

30

40

19

20

19

10

Like other European populations,


the Spanish population is getting older.
This means that the adult and senior
population is growing more quickly
than the population of young people.
Some regions are densely populated.

Presentation
LOOK AND READ Ss look at the graph on
page 40. Ask: What does the horizontal
axis show? (years) What does the vertical
axis show? (number of inhabitants in
millions) What is the meaning of the bars
height? (millions of inhabitants in that
year) What was the population in 1910?
(20 million inhabitants) And in 2004?
(43 million)

20

19

The population is not evenly distributed.


The coast and the Autonomous Community
of Madrid are densely populated.
In contrast, other inland areas
are sparsely populated.
In many Autonomous Communities,
a high proportion of the population
is found in the provincial capital.

25

00

Population density is low compared


to population density in other European
countries, such as Germany, Belgium
or France. It is 86 inhabitants per km2.

30

19

Create a bar graph with the data


collected in the class census.
(See Student Book, page 38).
On the vertical axis write: the numbers
from zero to the maximum number of
students.
On the horizontal axis write: girls, boys.
Make two bars: one for the number of
girls (b 1), the other for the number
of boys (b 2).

35

19

Bar graph

The number of immigrants is increasing.


There are now about three million immigrants.
Some come to work in Spain.
Others, such as senior citizens,
come to retire here.

45
40

Complete the sentences to describe


the population of Spain.
The population of Spain is approximately
The number of immigrants is
The population density is
The population is not evenly
The Spanish population is getting
Are there immigrants in your community?
Where do they come from?
Some regions are sparsely populated.

40

POPULATION

43 million inhabitants / increasing /


low / distributed / older.

103 .

Ask: What regions of Spain are densely


populated? (the coast and the Autonomous
Community of Madrid) What regions of
Spain are sparsely populated? (some
inland areas such as Extremadura)

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative in each
sentence.

SS do the activity at the bottom of the


page.

1. In Spain the number of emigrants / immigrants is increasing.

R Activity Book, page 40.

3. Population density in Spain is low / high compared to other


European countries.

2. Senior citizens come to work / retire here.

4. The population is / is not evenly distributed.


5. The Spanish population is getting younger / older.
Senior citizens. Have a discussion in
class about the importance of senior
citizens, their contribution to society and
their needs.

96

Answers: 1. immigrants. 2. retire. 3. low. 4. is not. 5. older.

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Pgina 97

1. Answer the questions.


1. What are urban populations?

2. What are rural populations?

3. What measures the size of a population?

4. What is a positive natural increase?

5. What is a negative natural increase?

Answers: 1. the people who live in cities. 2. the people who live in villages and towns. 3. a census.
4. when more people are born than die. 5. when more people die than are born.

2. Complete the sentences with the missing numbers.


1. Today the population of Spain is approximately

million inhabitants.

2. In 1960 it was about

million.

3. There are now about

million immigrants.

4. Population density is

inhabitants per square km.


Answers: 1 43. 2 30. 3 three. 4 86.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

97

Worksheet 32. Date

CITIES

POPULATION

1. Circle the correct word.

The growth of cities

a. When people born in another country come to live in our country, the change
in population is due to natural increase / migration.
b. If more people are born than die, the change is due to natural increase / migration.
c. When people who live in villages move to cities, the population change is due to
natural increase / migration.
2. Explain what the population is like in your Autonomous Community.

Today, cities have almost nothing in common


with the first settlements. They are large urban
areas with tall buildings, leisure facilities,
and varied means of transport.

Man eop fro ote countr^e co to li an wor i> Madri


inceasin@ t populatio> o t communit.

M. A.

Two factors have influenced the growth of cities.


One is the increase in population, thanks
to medical advances and better health and food
habits. The other is the opportunity they give
people to work and the services they provide.
This produces migration from rural areas.

3. Look at the photo and answer.


a. Is this a rural or urban population?
Give your reasons.
M. A.

2. Find the most important words in each paragraph.


M. A.

Te a e houe an i i
surroune b mountain an hill.

b. What means of transport do you think


there are?

fishin@, agricultu, listoc farmin@, urba> aea, growt, migratio>

M. A.

car, taxi an train

3. Is there a relationship between the increase in population and the growth of cities?
Explain.
M. A.

Ye. We> te i a> incea i> populatio>, t nume o eop


livin@ i> cit^e also grow.

VOCABULARY
Complete the sentences.
population density

ensu
populatio>
ensit

4. Do more people live today in villages or in cities? Why?


M. A.

I> cit^e, cau te a mo jo opportunit^e an ervie i> cit^e


tha> i> villa@e.
39

38

a census

: measures the size of a population.


: is measured by dividing the number of inhabitants
by the surface area of a place.

Pgina 98

The first cities appeared between 6,000


and 7,000 years ago in different parts
of the world: the Middle East, India
and China. They were small settlements.
Most of the population was employed
in fishing, agriculture or livestock farming.

20:32

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

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Activity Book

98
Worksheet 33. Date

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Notes:
CALCULATE POPULATION DENSITY

Country

Population

Area (km2)

8,100,000

83,900

Belgium

10,200,000

30,500

Denmark

5,300,000

43,100

82,000,000

356,900

Finland

5,150,000

337,100

France

59,000,000

544,000

Greece

10,500,000

132,000

Ireland

3,740,000

70,300

57,600,000

301,300

Federal Republic of Germany

Italy
Luxemburg

430,000

2,600

Netherlands

15,750,000

41,200

Poland

38,500,000

312,700

Portugal

10,000,000

92,400

Spain

43,000,000

506,000

8,850,000

411,000

59,400,000

244,100

Sweden
United Kingdom

Population density

96.5
334.4
122.9
229.7
15.2
108.4
79.5
53.2
191.1
165.3
382.2
123.1
108.2
84.9
21.5
243.3

2. Now answer these questions.


a. Which countries have a population density of less than 50 inhabitants per square kilometre?

Se> an Finlan
b. Which countries have a population density of between 50 and 150 inhabitants
per square kilometre?

Austri, Denmar, Fran, Ge, Ielan, Polan, Portuga, an Spai>


c. Which countries have a population density of between 150 and 400 inhabitants
per square kilometre?

Belgiu, Fe. Republi o German, Ital, Luembur@, Neterland,


Unie Kingdo
40

Pgina 99

Austria

20:32

1. Work with a partner. Look at the data, and calculate the population density of the following
European countries:

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Tasks

Worksheet 34. Date

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Pgina 100

UNIT 11

The economy
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1. Understanding the concept of active population
2. Identifying the various types of economic activity i.e the agricultural,
industrial and service sectors
3. Identifying the work people do in each economic sector
4. Understanding how the active population in Spain is distributed by economic sector
5. Describing the activities in the primary sector and secondary sector in Spain
6. Understanding the main types of industries
7. Describing the types of activities in the public and private service sectors in Spain
8. Understanding the importance of the transport system in Spain
9. Appreciating the importance of tourism as part of the service sector in Spain
10. Appreciating that all the jobs people do are important

Language objectives
1. Stating facts (passive forms): Natural resources are obtained are
transformed are raised.
2. Describing ability: The money enables these people People who cannot work
3. Making comparisons: less than 5 %; the most important crop; the most important
industries
4. Expressing purpose: aim to make money to provide a service

Contents
CONCEPTS

The active population


The economic sectors: primary,
secondary and service sectors
The activities in the three
economic sectors
Distribution by sectors of the
active population in Spain

PROCEDURES

Distinguish crop and livestock


production from the
transformation of these
products in the agro-food
industry
Associate a dominant service
sector with a societys
prosperity

ATTITUDES

Appreciate the work people


do in all the economic sectors
Appreciate that tourism
is important for Spain

Assessment criteria

100

Distinguishing the three economic sectors


Distinguishing between obtaining products and their transformation
Describing the activities in each economic sector in Spain
Appreciating the work people do in all economic sectors and what they provide
to society

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Pgina 101

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 11
Extension: Worksheet 11

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 11

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Jobs
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/kids/archive/
theme_jobs.html
Matching games and other activities about jobs.
For students and teachers.
Agriculture in Europe and Spain
http://www.ceja.educagri.fr/en/pays/espa.htm
Agricultural and livestock production in the past and
present. For teachers and students.
Careers and jobs
http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/careers/careers.asp
Interviews by Kidsnewsroom with people in a variety
of jobs. For teachers and students.

LEVEL

Employment structures
http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/
topics/empstruct.html
Employment structure and how jobs are classified with
examples of pie charts. For teachers and students.

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

ON

THE

FARM

www.richmondelt.com

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Pgina 102

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 10.


Language objectives: 1, 2.

Vocabulary: active, consumer, inactive, manufacturing,


primary, private services, public services, secondary,
service

The economy

Special attention
LOOK

Understanding the concept of service as


used in the field of economics

Look at the photo.


What is this womans job?

Difference between manufacturing and


consumer industries

Does she make things


or provide a service?

Hands on
Jobs
READ

Ask: What job do you want to have


when you are older? Write all the jobs
on the BB.
Ask: How many different jobs have we
written on the BB? Which job was
chosen most?
Ss classify the jobs by sectors. Ask:
Which of these jobs are in the primary
sector, secondary sector, service
sector?

1. Work

3. The secondary sector 60

Work refers to the many productive activities


which people do, usually for money. The money
enables these people, and their families, to buy
food and clothing and enjoy leisure activities.

Natural resources are transformed into


manufactured products in the secondary sector.

The active population includes people


who work and receive money for their work.
It also includes unemployed people
who are looking for work.
The inactive population includes people
who cannot work, for example, some severely
disabled people. It also includes people
who work but receive no money,
for example children, retired people,
and people with family responsibilities.
Work can be in the primary, secondary
or service sectors.

Presentation

Manufacturing industries transform raw


materials into manufactured products,
such as tools and machines.
Consumer industries manufacture products
such as frozen vegetables.

4. The service sector 61


Transport, schools, tourism and other
businesses that provide services are in the service
sector (also called the tertiary sector).
Private services, such as cinemas,
are privately controlled.
Public services, such as public transport, are
controlled by the state or by the local government.

2. The primary sector 59

LOOK Ask Ss to look at the photo. Ask:


What is the womans job? What does she
do in her job? Would you like to do her job?
Why/Why not?
READ Present 1-4 with

Natural resources are obtained in the primary


sector. Agriculture, fishing, mining and forestry
are in the primary sector.

What examples of private services


and public services are there
in your town?

THE ECONOMY

104 - 107 .

Draw on the BB a chart with the title THE


ECONOMIC SECTORS. Write the following
sub-headings: Primary sector / Secondary
sector / Service sector. Under each subheading write the corresponding industries:
Agriculture Mining Livestock farming
Fishing / Manufacturing industries
Consumer industries / Private services
Public services. Ask Ss to write examples
of each.
Ss answer the question at the bottom of
the page.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Listening. Write the sentences on the BB. Ss listen again
to 104 - 107 and decide if they are true or false.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The active population only includes people who work.


The inactive population includes people who cannot work.
Natural resources are obtained in the secondary sector.
Agriculture is in the primary sector.
Consumer industries manufacture as tools and machines.
The service sector is also called the tertiary sector.

Answers: 1 F. 2 T. 3 F. 4 T. 5 F. 6 T.
Speaking In pairs Ss each think of a job. In turns they guess
each others job by asking yes/no questions. For example:
Do you work in the service sector? Do you work with people?
Do you wear a uniform?
Do you work in a factory?
2

102

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Content objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.


Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.

Pgina 103

Vocabulary: active population, agriculture,


construction, fishing, forestry, industry,
livestock farming, mining

The primary and secondary sectors in Spain

Special attention

READ

1. The active population

Understanding percentages

62

The total active population in Spain is approximately


20 million people. There are 18 million employed
people and 2 million unemployed people.
The active population can be classified
by economic sector:
Less than 5 %, about one million people,
work in the primary sector.
About 30 %, around 6 million people,
work in the secondary sector.
About 60 %, around 12 million people,
work in the service sector.

2. The primary sector


In Spain, the principal primary sector activities
are agriculture, livestock farming and fishing.
There is agriculture on the plains.
The most important crops are:
wheat and barley
olives and grapes
potatoes, vegetables and fruit

There is livestock farming. Sheep


and poultry are raised on the plains.
Cattle are raised in mountain areas
to obtain beef, milk and leather.
Fishing is an important industry on the coast.
Other primary sector activities are mining
and forestry.

Collective nouns: crops, livestock, cattle,


poultry

Hands on

3. The secondary sector

Making a pie chart

Many industries are near big cities.


Industries often invest in new technology.

Draw a circle and divide it into three


parts.
Make each sector a different colour
and write: Primary sector (less than
5 %), Secondary sector (around 30 %),
Service sector (around 60 %)
Ask: Which sector has the most
workers? (the service sector)
Which sector has the least workers?
(the primary sector)

The most important industries are the metal,


chemical, food, telecommunications,
textile and car industries.
The construction industry is also very important.
There are many new houses and roads.

Presentation
Agriculture is in the primary sector.

Manufacturing industries are in the secondary sector.

Complete the sentences and name three activities for each sector.
Less than %, about millon people, work in the primary sector in Spain.
About %, around million people, work in the secondary sector in Spain.

42

THE ECONOMY

M.A. 5one / 30 6

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Students copy them and try to complete them in pairs.
They then listen to 108 to check their answers.

1.
2.
3.
4.

The total active population is approximately million people.


There are million people employed.
There are million people unemployed.
Less than %, about million people work in the primary
sector.
5. About %, around million people work in the secondary
sector.
6. About %, around million people work in the service
sector.

Answers: 1 20. 2 18. 3 2. 4 5 one. 5 30 6.


6 60 12.

Ask Ss to look at the two pictures at the


bottom of page 42 and compare them. Ask:
What is being produced? (In the first, plants,
maybe crops for food; in the second, cars)
READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 108 , 109 ,
110 . Ask: Which of the following
activities are in the primary sector?
1. working in the fields. 2. fumigating
crops. 3. driving lorries. 4. packaging
shirts. 5. picking strawberries. 6. milking
cows. 7. building houses. (1, 2, 5, 6)
Ask: Name some products obtained from
livestock farming. (wool, meat, milk)
Ask: Why are industries near big cities?
(transport is easier; more workers) How
can factories manufacture many products
in a short time? (using machines)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.
R Activity Book, page 41.
Prosperity. Prosperous countries
usually have many services, such as
hospitals, cinemas, banks, restaurants.

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Pgina 104

Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10.


Language objectives: 1, 3, 4

Vocabulary: airport, motorways, private sector,


public sector, railway, roads, suburban trains,
tourism, transport, underground

The service sector in Spain

Special attention

READ

Identifying jobs in the service sector

1. The service sector 63

Pronunciation of foreign

There are many activities in this sector.


In general, there are two types of objective:

Hands on

In the private sector, banks, insurance companies,


the entertainment industry, restaurants and shops
aim to make money.
In the public sector, hospitals and schools aim to provide
a service. Many services are offered by the government.

Nearby services
Ss use a map of the area near their
school and mark the locations of the
services offered.
Invent a code and write it on the BB.
For example: SH shop, K kiosk,
P park, Ph Pharmacy, H hospital,
ST stationery shop, S school,
F fire station
Ask: What other services do we need in
our area? Where would you put them?

2. Transport
Education is in the service sector.

All of Spain is connected by roads,


including many motorways.
Major cities and towns are also connected by railway.
Suburban trains connect cities with the surrounding areas.
Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao
have underground transport systems.
There are airports in most major cities.

3. Tourism
Tourism is one of the most important service activities in Spain.
It provides work for many people and makes a lot of money.
Motorways connect large cities.

Presentation
Ss look at the three photos on page 43.
Ask: Which services do the photos show?
(education, transport, tourism)
READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with

Ask: What are some positive aspects of


tourism? (Examples economic benefits; it
creates jobs such as cooks, waiters, tour
guides; traditional activities, such as
basket-making, embroidery, sweet-making,
etc. continue because tourists buy these
things; our heritage, such as the
natural parks and monuments are cared
for and appreciated.)
Ss do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
R Activity Book, pages 42, 43.
Road safety. Roads must be kept in
good condition to avoid accidents.
Examples of road maintenance services:
fix holes, pave roads, paint lines, put up
road signs

104

Every year millions of foreign tourists come to Spain.


There are also many Spanish tourists.
They visit museums, and relax on beaches
or in the mountains.

True or false? Make more sentences about the service


sector in Spain.
Banks and insurance companies are part of the service sector.
Tourism is not one of the most important service activities in Spain.

111 , 112 , 113 .

Ss discuss transport in their area. Ask:


Are there buses, taxis, trains, motorways?
Are the roads in good condition?

Transport is very important for trade and tourism.

Tourism is an important industry in


Spain.

Why is it important to use public transport?

M.A. Tourism provides work for many people. There are


airports in most major cities. / To reduce the amount of traffic
on the roads.

THE ECONOMY

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss decide if the sentences are true or false and then listen to
to check their answers.

1. Tourism is one of the most important service activities


in Spain.
2. Tourism provides work for many.
3. Tourism makes little money.
4. Every year thousands of foreign tourists come to Spain.
5. There are also many Spanish tourists.
6. Tourists dont visit museums.
Answers: 1 true. 2 true. 3 false. 4 false. 5 true.
6 false.

113

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Pgina 105

1. Write the answers to these questions.


1. What is the aim of activities in the private sector?

2. What is the aim of activities in the public sector?

3. What organisation offers many of the services in the public sector?

4. Which cities in Spain have underground transport systems?

5. Where are there airports?

Answers: 1. to make money. 2. to provide a service. 3. the government. 4. Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao.
5. In most major cities.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

105

Worksheet 35. Date

WORK

1. Look at the photos and name the jobs.

1 fare

20:34

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

An industry from Roman times

Spains Atlantic coast was an ideal place for


these industries. There was a lot of fish, salt
extraction was easy, and the fresh water
needed to clean the fish was also available.

farmer

miner

shop assistant

engineer

taxi driver

builder

Pgina 106

When the Romans occupied the Iberian


Peninsula, one of the most important industries
was the production of salted fish and fish sauce.

mi>e

2 buile

2 engi>e

The fish sauce which the Romans liked most


was garum. Garum was a paste made by
mixing parts of fish, such as tuna and
anchovies, with salt and herbs. The paste
was left in the Sun until it was ready.
The garum was then transported by ship to
Rome in large, pointed bottles called amphorae.
It was very popular, and the Romans used
it in many dishes.
2. Complete the index card.

3 sho assistan 3 tax^ dri

2. Now classify each job in the correct economic sector. Write the number.
1. Primary sector: agriculture, livestock farming, fishing, mining, forestry

ROMAN SALTED-FISH INDUSTRY

2. Secondary sector: manufacturing: metal, chemical, food, telecommunications,


textile, car, construction

a. What three characteristics did a place need for this type of industry?

3. Service sector: transport, schools, tourism, banks, entertainment, restaurants,


shops, hospitals

Lot o fis, pla to @e sal an fes wae to cea> t fis.

VOCABULARY
b. What two products were produced?

Sale fis an fis sau.


c. How were these products transported to Rome?

B shi i> lar@, poine botte cale amphor.

42

Match and write.


service

primar
ervi
econdar

primary

2/10/06

Read and learn

INDUSTRY IN ANTIQUITY

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Activity Book

106
Worksheet 36. Date

secondary

: sector where natural resources are obtained


: sector which provides services (transport, tourism)
: sector where natural resources are transformed into manufactured
products

41

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Notes:

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 37. Date

HOW IS A PRODUCT MANUFACTURED?

20:34

1. Choose a product manufactured in your Autonomous Community. Complete the word map.

Pgina 107

M. A.
A PRODUCT FROM MY AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY

een

raw materials

industrial process

manufactured product

from

stages

packaging/bottling

transport

liesto>
calciu
aluminiu
iro>
cla o san

mixin@
grindin@
eatin@
coolin@

pae bag

railwa
truc

2. Tick ().
a. Where would you locate your industry?
In a densely populated area with a good communication network.

In a sparsely populated area with a poor communication network.
b. What types of transport do you need to distribute the product?
air

sea

land

c. What is the product used for?


For direct consumption.
As a raw material for other industries.

43

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Pgina 108

UNIT 12

Prehistory and Antiquity


UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Understanding the main periods of Prehistory and their characteristics


Learning how people lived in Prehistory
Recognising the tribes which inhabited the Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times: Iberians and Celts
Recognising the ancient civilisations which established colonies on the Iberian peninsula
in pre-Roman times: the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Carthaginians
Identifying Roman ruins in Hispania.
Understanding the meaning of Romanisation and its principal legacies
Appreciating ancient ruins and paintings from the past
Appreciating the Roman legacy in Spain

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Past tenses to talk about historical events: began; moved; made; had
Stating facts in the past (passive forms): were used; was inhabited; were divided
Describing how things were made: by hitting
Describing location: on the Iberian peninsula; in the east of the peninsula; on the Mediterranean coast
Expressing time: at first; later; for 600 years; after

Contents
CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

Prehistory: periods, utensils,


works of art
Tribes in pre-Roman times:
Iberians and Celts
The arrival of the Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians on
the Iberian peninsula
Romanisation and its legacies

Interpret historical maps about


the cities of the Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians
Interpret maps about Roman
Hispania
Observe photographs to learn
about the past
Study ancient monuments to
learn about their significance
Ancient architecture and
clothing

Assessment criteria

108

Understanding how early men and women lived


Understanding the basic divisions and chronology of Prehistory
Understanding about the earliest inhabitants on the Iberian peninsula
Identifying the typical characteristics of the historical periods studied
Describing some artistic and cultural expressions of Roman times
Appreciating why we study the past

ATTITUDES

Appreciate ancient ruins and


other works of art as a way of
learning about the past
Appreciate the Roman legacy
in Spain and its influence on
our life

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Pgina 109

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 12
Extension: Worksheet 12

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 12

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Atapuerca
http://www.atapuerca.com/
This official site contains a wealth of information about
the archaeological sites, early humans, as well as
survival games. For students and teachers.
The Stone Age
http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/flint/menu.html
The world of Late Stone Age hunter gatherers.
For students and teachers.
Primitive caves
http://www.creswell-crags.org.uk/virtuallytheiceage/
Activities/Explore/Cave.htm
Explore a primitive cave from 50,000 years ago.
Useful for students.
Bal

The Roman Empire

Black

GALLIA

A T L A N T I C

Sea

10

O C E A N

I TA L I A

ASIA

6
8
7

11

SYRIA

12 J U D A E A

H I S PA N I A

13

n e a
r a
n
e r
i t
14

AFRICA

S e a

Hadrians Wall

baths

theatre

aqueduct

temple

Appian Way

statue

road

10

sarcophagus

11

theatre

12

aqueduct

13

theatre

sarcophagus

14

temple

Roman Empire

* Not yet available in English

Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Dictionaries
Flashcards
Posters

Se

GERMANIA

B R I TA N N I A

tic

North
Sea

Boundaries

109

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19:10

Pgina 110

Content objectives: 1, 2, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: cave painting, craftsmen, Metal Ages,


Neolithic, Palaeolithic, Prehistory, Stone Age

Prehistory and Antiquity

Special attention
LOOK

Understanding that the invention of writing


marked the end of Prehistory

How do we know
what happened
many thousands
of years ago?

Hands on
Discovering cave paintings
Ask Ss to imagine they have entered a
cave and discover some cave
paintings.
Ask: Is the cave big?
Is there water in the cave?
Where are the cave paintings?
What colours are the paintings?
What animals are represented?
What did you feel when you discovered
the paintings?
What are you going to do
about your discovery?

READ

Ask: How did people live in the Palaeolithic


period? (They moved from place to place.
They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering
wild plants.) How did they live in the
Neolithic period? (They lived in one place
and grew crops and kept animals.)
R Activity Book, page 44, exercise 1.

Prehistory is the long period before the invention


of writing. It can be divided into the Stone Age
and the Metal Ages.

In the Palaeolithic period, craftsmen made tools


and weapons by hitting one stone against another.

In the early Stone Age, called the Palaeolithic


period, people moved from place to place.
They lived by hunting, fishing
and gathering wild plants.
Later, in the Neolithic period, people lived
permanently in one place. They were farmers,
had crops, learned to cultivate plants
and had domestic animals.
The Metal Ages began about seven
thousand years ago. Metal tools were used.
The wheel and the plough were invented.
The first cities were built.

LOOK Discuss the question together.


(Archaeological remains can tell us a lot
about the distant past) Ask: What do you
think the people are looking for? (bones,
pieces of ceramic, tools ...) What is in
the second photo? (a painting of a deer)
Where do you think it was painted?
(in a cave)
114 , 115 , 116 .

2. The first craftsmen 65

The Stone Age began two and a half million


years ago. Stone tools were used.

Presentation

READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with

1. Prehistory 64

44

In the Neolithic period, craftsmen made


polished stone tools and weapons.
They also made pots and cloth.
In the Metal Ages, craftsmen made metal tools,
weapons and jewellery.

3. The first artists

Cave paintings, for example in the Altamira Cave


in Cantabria, are magnificent works of art.
They were painted on cave walls and ceilings.
Early artists often painted animals
like bison and deer.

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Past tense. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them but write the verb in the past form.
They listen to 114 before checking their answers in the textbook.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The Stone Age begins 2 and a half million years ago.


Stone tools are used.
In the Palaeolithic period, people move from place to place.
In the Neolithic period, people live permanently in one place.
They are farmers and have crops and domestic animals.
The Metal Ages begin about 7,000 years ago.
Metal tools are used.
The wheel and plough are invented.

Answers: 1. began. 2. were. 3. moved. 4. lived.


5. were had. 6. began. 7. were. 8. were.

110

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Pgina 111

Vocabulary: Carthaginians, Celts, colonies,


Greeks, Iberians, Phoenicians, pre-Roman times,
settlements

Content objectives: 3, 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 4.

The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times

Special attention

READ

Understanding time and the historical


sequence of events

1. Pre-Roman times 67
In pre-Roman times, the peninsula was inhabited
by Iberian and Celtic tribes. Later, Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians sailed across
the Mediterranean Sea to the peninsula,
and established colonies.

Hands on

2. The Iberians and the Celts 68

The Lady of Elche

Iberians and Celts lived together


on the Iberian peninsula.
The Iberians lived in the east and south of the
peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with
rectangular houses. The Iberians were divided into
tribes. They were herders, farmers, traders and
craftsmen. Some of their works of art, such
as the famous Lady of Elche, have been preserved.
The Celts lived in the centre and north of the
peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with
round houses. The Celts were also divided
into tribes. They were herders, farmers
and expert metalworkers.

The Lady of Elche: an Iberian masterpiece

Ancient civilisations: colonies on the coast


Ba y

N
W

of

Biscay

3. Colonies 69

Rosas

AN

Ampurias

Mainake Adra

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands

Cartagena
an
ne
Baria
rra

Malaga Almunecar M e d

Presentation

Many ancient civilisations established colonies


on the Iberian peninsula.

OCE
ATLAN

T IC

Sagunto
Denia
Ibiza
Akra Leuke Alonis

Cadiz

ite

Phoenician Colonies
Greek Colonies
Carthaginian Colonies

The Phoenicians came from Asia, and settled


on the southern coast. They founded the cities
of Cadiz and Almunecar.

READ Write on the BB: Carthaginians,


Phoenicians, Greeks. Ask Ss to number
them according to the order of their arrival
on the Iberian Peninsula. (3, 1, 2)

The Greeks came from Greece, and settled


on the Mediterranean coast. They founded
the cities of Denia and Ampurias.
The Carthaginians came from North Africa,
and also settled on the Mediterranean coast.
They founded the city of Cartagena.

Where did they live? Make sentences.


The Iberians lived in the east. The Greeks

M.A. settled on the Mediterranean coast.


The Celts lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
The Carthaginians settled on the Mediterranean coast.

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

45

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Sentence completion. Write the following vocabulary and
gapped sentences on the BB. Ss write in the missing word
and then listen to 118 to check their answers.

tribes / metalworkers / east / round / rectangular / Celts / farmers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ask Ss to look closely at the photo.


Ask: What can you see? (the face,
headdress, necklace, clothing )
Ss make their own personal version
of the figure. Tell them they can use
crayons, paints, markers and decorate
it with sequins, rice, legumes, little bits
of paper

The Iberians lived in the and south of the peninsula.


They lived in walled settlements with houses.
They were divided into
They were herders, traders and craftsmen.
The lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
They lived in walled settlements with houses.
They were herders, farmers and expert

Answers: 1. east. 2. rectangular. 3. tribes. 4. farmers. 5. Celts.


6. round. 7. metalworkers.

Write two columns. Left column:


Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians.
Right column: Ampurias, Cartagena,
Cadiz, Denia, Almuecar. Ss match each
civilisation with the cities they founded.
(Phoenicians Cadiz, Almuecar;
Greeks Denia, Ampurias;
Carthaginians Cartagena)
Tell Ss to look at the map. Ask: What
colour are the Carthaginian colonies?
(blue) Which ones are shown on the map?
(Cartagena, Ibiza)
Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with

117 , 118 , 119 .

SS do the activity at the bottom of the


page.
R Activity Book, pages 44, exercise 2,
and 45.

The Lady of Elches return home. In


2006, this national treasure was returned
to the place it was discovered: Elche.

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Pgina 112

Vocabulary: amphitheatres, aqueducts, circuses,


forum, Hispania, Latin, public bath houses, roads,
Roman times, temples, theatres

Content objectives: 5, 6, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 4, 5.

Roman Hispania

Special attention

READ

Understanding that Spain was part of the


Roman Empire

70

The Roman provinces of the the Iberian peninsula

More than two thousand years ago, the Romans


defeated the Carthaginians and conquered
the Iberian peninsula. The peninsula became part
of the Roman Empire. The Romans called it Hispania.

Making puzzles
Collect pictures of well-known Roman
monuments or ruins.
Glue them onto coloured card and cut
them into several pieces.
Hand out puzzles so Ss can put them
together.

At first, the conquered tribes did not participate


in Roman government. Later, they adopted Roman
customs and spoke Latin, the language
of the Romans. Many people from Hispania,
such as the philosopher Seneca,
became important figures in the Roman Empire.
The emperors Trajan and Hadrian were also from
Hispania.
Hispania was Roman for 600 years.
However, after about 400 A.D. the Roman Empire
weakened. Visigothic invaders entered
the peninsula from northern Europe.

2. Roman cities

Bay
Lugo

of

Biscay

TARRACONENSIS

GALLAETIA

ATLANTIC OCEA
N

Hands on

Zaragoza
Tarragona

LUSITANIA
Lisboa

CARTAGINENSIS

Sagunto

Merida
BAETICA

Hispalis

Mediterranean
Sea

N
E

W
S

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands

Roman cities

71

The Romans founded many cities in their empire.


In Hispania, important Roman cities included
Tarraco (now Tarragona) and Sagunto in the east,
and Hispalis in the south.

Presentation
Ask: What have we inherited from the
Romans? (Latin, Roman law, bridges,
aqueducts )
READ Ss look at the map. Ask: How many
Roman provinces were there in Hispania?
(five) How are they represented on the
map? (in five different colours)
What Roman cities are on the map?
(Lugo, Zaragoza, Tarragona, Sagunto,
Hispalis, Merida, Lisboa)
Ss look at the photograph. Ask: What were
Roman theatres like? Where did the
audience sit? (on stone steps) How was
the seating arranged? (in a semicircle)
Where did the actors stand? (on the stage)
What can you see at the back of the
stage? (columns)
Ss read 1 , 2 , 3 with

1. Roman times

120 , 121 , 122 .

E Activity Book, pages 46, 47.

Roman cities were modelled on Rome, the imperial


capital. They all had two main streets and a forum.
The forum was a large public square where
important events were celebrated. Roman cities
were connected by excellent stone roads.

3. Roman architecture
The Romans built many different types
of monuments.
Temples were used for religious purposes.
Theatres, amphitheatres and circuses
were used for entertainment.
Aqueducts transported water to the cities.

The Roman theatre in Merida

Describe Roman cities and their monuments.


Roman cities were modelled on Rome.
They all had two
Are there any Roman ruins near where you live?

Public bath houses used hot water.


46

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

M.A. main streets and a forum. Roman cities were


connected by stone roads. Aqueducts transported water to the cities.

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the two halves of the following sentences
on the BB. Ss match them and write out the whole sentences.

1. More than 2000 years ago


the Romans
2. The Romans called it
3. The conquered tribes
4. Seneca was
5. Hispania was
6. The Visigoth invaders
entered the peninsula
7. Roman cities had
8. A forum was
9. Aqueducts transported

a. Roman for 600 years.


b. water to the cities.
c. conquered the Iberian
peninsula.
d. a philosopher.
e. Hispania.
f. a large public square.
g. spoke Latin.
h. from Northern Europe.
i. two main streets and
a forum.

Answers: 1 c. 2 e. 3 g. 4 d. 5 a. 6 h. 7 i. 8 f. 9 b.

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Pgina 113

1. Reorganise the letters of each word that is spelt incorrectly.


1. In the Palaeolithic period craftsmen made OLOTS
by hitting one stone against another.
2. In the Neolithic period craftsmen made polished stone NOPEWAS
.
3. They also made SPOT

4. They also made THOCL

5. In the Metal Ages craftsmen made metal RELELJEWY

Answers: 1. tools. 2. weapons. 3. pots. 4. cloth. 5. jewellery.

2. Underline the correct word.


1. The Phoenicians came from ASIA / GREECE.
2. They settled on the EASTERN / SOUTHERN coast.
3. The Greeks settled on the SOUTHERN / MEDITERRANEAN coast.
4. They founded the city of DENIA / CADIZ.
5. The Carthaginians came from ASIA / NORTH AFRICA.
Answers: 1. Asia. 2. southern. 3. Mediterranean. 4. Denia. 5. North Africa.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

113

Worksheet 38. Date

ANCIENT HISTORY

PREHISTORY

20:37

1. Complete the word map.

Apply your knowledge

1. Match and write the period.


Palaeolithic period

Metal Ages

The Greeks

The Carthaginians

came from

came from

came from

Asi

Ge

Nort Afric

settled on the

settled on the

settled on the

souter> coas

Medierra>ea> coas

Medierra>ea> coas

c. People moved from place to place. They hunted and fished.

founded the city / cities of

founded the city / cities of

founded the city / cities of

d. People were farmers. They had domestic animals.

Cadi
Almu>eca

Deni
Ampuria

Carta@en

Neolithic period
a. Craftsmen made polished stone tools, pots and cloth.

Neolithi erio
b. People used metal tools. The wheel was invented.

Meta A@e
Paleolithi erio
Neolithi erio
e. Craftsmen made metal weapons and jewelry.

Meta A@e
f. Craftsmen made tools by hitting one stone against another.

Paleolithi erio

aqueducts

television studios

amphitheatres

universities

theme parks

stone roads

airports

theatres

railway stations

temples

circuses

public bath houses

2. Match and write Iberians or Celts.


a. They lived in the east and south of the peninsula.
b. They lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
c. They lived in rectangular houses.
d. They lived in round houses.
e. The Lady of Elche is one of their most famous works of art.
45

44

Irian
Celt
Irian
Celt
Irian

Pgina 114

The Phoenicians

2. Circle the structures built by the Romans.

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge

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Activity Book

114
Worksheet 39. Date

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

Worksheet 40. Date

Read and learn

MEASURE HISTORICAL TIME

ROMAN CIRCUS GAMES


1. Read carefully.

Gladiators and charioteers

Dates can be expressed as BC or AD. The birth of Christ, more


than 2,000 years ago, is used to make the first big division in historical
time. Events that happened before the birth of Christ use the
letters BC (before Christ) after the date. For example,
the prehistoric paintings in the Caves of Altamira
are from the year 15,000 BC.

Circus games were the Romans most popular form of


entertainment. Games were held regularly, and lasted
for many days. The events were advertised on signs
and proclaimed throughout the city. People came from
all over the Roman Empire to watch the games. Sometimes
they slept outdoors waiting for the games to begin.
The gladiators fights and chariot races were
the most popular circus games.
Most of the gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war,
or criminals, but some were volunteers. All gladiators went
to training schools to learn special fighting techniques.
Many gladiators died in the fights. The president
of the games decided if a gladiator lived or died.

A period of one hundred years is called a century.


The year 1492 was in the fifteenth century.

2. Order the historical events in chronological order.


711 AD: Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula.
753 BC (approximately): Rome was founded.
1492: Columbus expedition reached America.
1200 BC (approximately): the Phoenician
alphabet was invented.

Chariot races were held in the circuses. There were


four different chariot teams which had different colours.
The chariots were pulled by four horses and driven by the
charioteer. The races were very dangerous. Chariots crashed,
and men and horses were injured and killed.

T Phnicia> alpha wa inne.


b. Ro wa foune.
c. Muslim invae t Ieria> Peninsul.
d. Columbu eace Aeric.
a.

Some gladiators and chariot drivers became rich and famous.

2. Tick the correct answer.


a. Where did gladiators learn their techniques?
At home

3. Write the century these dates are in.

thir entur

b. 536:

sixt entur

c. 1359:

In training schools


In wars

b. How many horses pulled chariots?

fourent entur

Two

Three

Four


4. Answer the questions.


3. Imagine you live in ancient Rome and you are going to see the circus games.
Describe your day.

1997
b. What century were you born in? tnt^et entur
c. What century are we in now? tnt-firs entur
a. What year were you born in? M. A.

M. A. I wa u earl an go to t circu earl too. I go wit m


paent an watc t chario rae. I enjo t rae lo.
47

46

Pgina 115

Measuring time

Events taking place after the birth of Christ


are identified with the letters AD after
the date, but most of the time we do not
use anything. For example, we could write
that the Crown of Castile was formed
in 1230 or 1230 AD. Both forms are correct.

a. 211:

20:37

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 41. Date

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UNIT 13

The Middle Ages


UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1. Identifying the different people who invaded the
Iberian peninsula after the Roman Empire and
placing them in the correct periods of time.
2. Identifying and describing the characteristics
of the Visigothic kingdom
3. Identifying and describing the characteristics
of Al Andalus
4. Identifying the location of the Christian kingdoms
5. Learning what the Christian Reconquest was

6. Understanding the expansion of the Christian


kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula
7. Understanding events in Spain after 1492
8. Identifying the characteristics of the Spanish
Empire
9. Understanding the nature of an absolute
monarchy
10. Recognising the cultural importance
of the Golden Age

Language objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Talking about the past: adopted; spoke; became


Making impersonal statements (past passive): were created; was formed
Time sequence: first, later, next, finally
Expressing purpose: to unify their new kingdom; to practise their religion
Making comparisons: their highest authority; the most important
Describing simultaneous events: Meanwhile,
Expressing contrast: in contrast; however

Contents
CONCEPTS

The invasion of Germanic


tribes: Vandals, Suevi, Visigoths
The Visigoths and Muslims:
arrival in Hispania, customs,
way of life, religion, law
The Christian kingdoms and
the Christian Reconquest:
significance, events, dates
The Catholic Monarchs
The territories of the Spanish
Empire
The Golden Age: important
artists and works of art

PROCEDURES

Putting historical events in


order: historical sequence and
simultaneous development
Identifying buildings from
different historical periods
Interpreting historical maps

ATTITUDES

Show appreciation and respect


for historic buildings and
interest in preserving them
Show interest in learning about
the past

Assessment criteria
Sequencing historical events in Spain after the fall
of the Roman Empire
Describing characteristics of the Visigothic
kingdom and of Al Andalus

116

Identifying the Christian kingdoms on the


peninsula.
Describing characteristics of the Spanish
Empire.

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Pgina 117

UNIT 0

RESOURCES
Resource folder
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension


Reinforcement: Worksheet 13
Extension: Worksheet 13

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

Developing intelligence worksheets


Working with recent immigrants

Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 13

Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
The Middle Ages
http://www.themiddleages.net/
Middle Ages art and lifestyle, weapons, and famous
medieval people. For teachers.
Romans
http://www.brims.co.uk/romans/index.html
All about the Romans, especially in Britain.
For students and teachers.
Columbus
http://www.columbusnavigation.com/
The Columbus Navigation homepage examines many
different areas including the history, voyages and ships
of Christopher Columbus. For teachers and students.
The history of chocolate
http://www.fieldmuseum.org/Chocolate/history.html
All about chocolate. For teachers.

Other resources

Richmond World Facts


Richmond Dictionaries
Flashcards
Posters

* Not yet available in English

117

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Pgina 118

Content objectives: 1, 2.

Vocabulary: Christianity, Germanic tribes,


metalworkers, Roman law, Vandals, Visigoths

Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.

The Middle Ages

Special attention
LOOK

Sequencing historical events


Who lived in the Iberian
peninsula in the centuries
after the Roman Empire?
The Visigoths, the ...

Hands on
Looking up information
Ask: What do you know about St
Isidore of Seville? (He was a key figure
in the Visigothic period in Spain)
Write on the BB: Why was he famous?
What was his most important work?
Ask: Where can you find this
information? (encyclopaedias, history
books, Internet) Explain how to
investigate: first, look up information
and read it; then, extract the main
ideas; next, organise the ideas;
finally, write the report.

A Visigothic church

READ

1. The invasion of Germanic tribes 72


Under the Roman Empire, Hispania adopted
Roman customs and laws. Its inhabitants
spoke Latin. They became Christians.
In 409 A.D., the Vandals and other Germanic
tribes invaded Hispania.
Later, the Visigoths established a kingdom
on the Iberian peninsula.

First, the Visigoths crossed the Pyrenees


into Hispania, and settled in the centre
of the peninsula. Toledo became their capital.

Ask: What do you know about the


Visigoths? Elicit ideas. Present 1 and 2
with 123 and 124 .

Describe the invasion of the Visigoths.


First, the Visigoths

READ

Write on the BB: Visigoths, Romans,


Vandals. Ask Ss to number them in the
order they arrived on the Iberian peninsula.
(3, 1, 2)
Ask: What was the capital of the Visigothic
kingdom? (Toledo) Describe how they lived.
(In villages; they were farmers and
metalworkers.) How did they unify their
kingdom? (They changed their language,
religion and laws ) Why did the Visigothic
kingdom end? (The Muslims invaded and
conquered the peninsula.)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.

The Visigothic kingdom ended


after the Muslim invasion in 711 A.D.

Later, they conquered the territories occupied


by other Germanic tribes, such as the Suevs.

LOOK Say: Describe the church in the


photo. (Its small, made of stone, with long,
narrow windows.)

The Visigoths changed their language, religion


and laws to unify their new kingdom.
They adopted the Hispano-Roman culture
and converted to Christianity.
They based their laws on Roman law.
The Visigoths lived in villages.
They did not build cities like the Romans.
Instead, they used the land for agriculture,
livestock farming and pastures.
They were expert metalworkers.

2. The Visigoths 73

Presentation

Finally, they extended Visigothic rule


over the entire peninsula.

Later,

Finally,

M.A crossed the Pyrenees Later, they conquered the territories


Finally, they extended Visigothic rule

THE MIDDLE AGES

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


True or False? Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and say if they are true or false.
If they are false they re-write them correctly.
1

1. Under the Roman Empire the inhabitants of Hispania


spoke Latin.
2. The Visigoths crossed the sea into Hispania.
3. Madrid became their capital.
4. The Visigoths lived in villages.
5. They used the land for agriculture.
6. They were expert farmers.
Answers: 1 true. 2 false. They crossed the Pyrenees into
Hispania. 3 false. Toledo became their capital. 4 true.
5 true. 6 false. They were expert metalworkers.

118

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Content objectives: 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Pgina 119

Vocabulary: Al Andalus, caliph, Christianity,


Christian kingdoms, Christians, Islam,
mosques, Muslims, palaces

Al Andalus

Special attention

READ
The Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula
Oviedo

Battle of
Covadonga

N
OCEA

Zaragoza

ATLANTIC

Toledo
Merida
Mediterranean
Cordoba
Battle of
Guadalete

Ceuta
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands

74

In 711 A.D., a small army of Muslims from northern


Africa invaded Visigothic Spain. In seven years,
they conquered most of the peninsula
and the Balearic Islands. Under the Muslims,
Hispania was called Al Andalus.

Battle of
Roncesvalles

Astorga

1. Muslims and Christians

Sea

Independent Christian
territories
Main Muslim
expeditions
Main battles

The Muslims brought their customs, laws and


religion to Al Andalus. Their highest authority
was the caliph, and their religion was Islam.
Many Muslims lived in cities, and worked
as merchants and craftsmen.
Christians continued to live in the north
of the peninsula. Their highest authority was
the king, and their religion was Christianity.
Most Christians lived in the countryside,
and were farmers.

2. Al Andalus 75
For almost eight hundred years, the centre
and south of the peninsula were Muslim.
The Muslims built cities, protected by walls,
on hills. They built palaces, such as the Aljaferia
in Zaragoza.They also built mosques,
such as the Great Mosque of Cordoba,
to practise their religion.
The Aljaferia palace in Zaragoza

The most important Muslim city was Cordoba,


the capital of Al Andalus. The great philosopher
Averroes was born there.

3. The Christian kingdoms


After the Muslim conquest, small, independent
Christian kingdoms grew on the Cantabrian coast,
and in the Pyrenees. The first was the Kingdom
of Asturias, which later became the Kingdom of Leon.
Next, the Kingdoms of Aragon, Navarre,
and the Catalonian Counties were created.
Finally, the Kingdom of Castile was formed.
The Great Mosque of Cordoba

48

THE MIDDLE AGES

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Ss copy and complete the sentences below
with the correct word, then check by listening to 125 .

Islam / Caliph / Africa / north / Hispania / king / seven


1. In 711 a small army of Muslims from northern invaded
Visigothic Spain.
2. In years the Muslims conquered most of the peninsula and
the Balearic Islands.
3. Under the Muslims was called Al Andalus.
4. Their highest authority was the
5. Their religion was
6. Christians continued to live in the of the peninsula.
7. Their highest authority was the

Sequencing historical events

Hands on
Words of Arabic origin

Ask: What do you know about Al


Andalus?
Explain that many Spanish words are
Arabic in origin. Ask if Ss know any.
Write a list on the BB: almohada
(pillow), alcalde (mayor), alcachofa
(artichoke), zanahoria (carrot), azafrn
(saffron), aduana (customs), almacn
(warehouse), alcoba (bedroom),
azulejo (glazed tile)

Presentation
READ Focus on the photos. Ask: What can
you see? (columns and arches) Compare
the arches: Which building has red and
white arches? (the Great Mosque of
Cordoba) Which has more elaborate
arches? (the Aljafera in Zaragoza)
Ask: Where did the Muslims come from?
(northern Africa) Present 1 and 2 with 125
and 126 .
Ask: Where did the Muslim invasion begin
in Spain? (in the south) What was the
capital of Al Andalus? (Cordoba) What was
the highest Muslim authority called?
(caliph) Describe how the Muslims lived in
Al Andalus. (Many lived in cities and were
merchants and craftsmen.) What did the
Muslims bring to Al Andalus? (customs,
laws and religion) What types of buildings
did they build in Spain? (mosques and
palaces)
Ss read 3 .
R and E Activity Book, pages 48, 49.

Answers: 1. Africa. 2. seven. 3. Hispania. 4. caliph. 5. Islam.


6. north. 7. king.

119

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Pgina 120

Vocabulary: Catholic Monarchs, Christian


Reconquest, Christian kingdoms, Gothic style,
taifas

Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7.

The Christian kingdoms

Special attention

READ

Sequencing historical events

The Iberian peninsula in the fifteenth century


Bay

Hands on

of

Around the year 1000, Al Andalus weakened.


Finally, it broke up into small independent
kingdoms called taifas.

OCE

AN

NAVARRE

AL
RT

C A S T I L E

PO

ATLANTIC

Ask: Where can you see stained glass


windows? (in churches and cathedrals)
Ss cut rectangles out of black card.
They draw simple figures: stars,
circles, diamonds and cut them out.
They glue or tape coloured cellophane
over the holes then turn the card over
to admire their stained glass
windows.

Meanwhile, the Christian kingdoms expanded,


and formed alliances. Their populations grew,
and their cities became prosperous.

ARAGON
UG

Create a stained glass window

Mediterranean

KINGDOM OF
GRANADA

Sea

Christian territory
Muslim territory

R and E Activity Book, pages 50-52.

Around 1230, the Christian territory


was divided into several large kingdoms.

The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom


of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca,
and the Catalonian Counties.
The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom
of Castile and the Kingdom of Leon.
Later, it included all Andalusia,
except for the Kingdom of Granada.
Portugal was an independent kingdom.
In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I
of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married
and united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon.

3. The Kingdom of Granada


The Kingdom of Granada was the last taifa kingdom.
Its territory included Granada, Malaga and Almeria.
It was weakened by internal disputes, and was
finally conquered by the Catholic Monarchs.

Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 127 , 128 , 129 . Ask:


What happened around the year 1000?
(Al Andalus broke up into small
independent kingdoms, called taifas.
The Christian kingdoms expanded
and formed alliances.)

Focus on the photo of Burgos Cathedral


and talk about the characteristics of Gothic
cathedrals.

Burgos Cathedral was built in the Gothic style.


Gothic architecture is characterised by great height,
pointed arches and large windows.

THE MIDDLE AGES

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


Comprehension. Books closed. Write the following sentences
on the BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1

1.
2.
3.
4.

Al Andalus weakened around the year 100 / 1000.


Al Andalus broke up into small / large independent kingdoms.
The Muslim kingdoms were called cities / taifas.
The Christian kingdoms became bigger / smaller and more
prosperous.
5. The taifas were weak and lost / won many battles.
6. The Christian reconquest was started / completed in 1492.
7. The Catholic Monarchs conquered the last Muslim kingdom,
Valencia / Granada.
Answers: 1. 1000. 2. small. 3. taifas. 4. bigger. 5. lost.
6. completed. 7. Granada.

120

76

The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre


and part of La Rioja.

READ Focus on the map. Ask: Which was


larger in the 15th century, the Christian or
the Muslim territories? (the Christian
territories)

How and when was the Christian


Reconquest completed? (In 1492, when
the Catholic Monarchs conquered the
Kingdom of Granada.)

In contrast, the taifas, weakened by their lack


of unity, lost many battles. The Christian
Reconquest was completed in 1492,
when the Catholic Monarchs conquered Granada.

2. The Christian kingdoms


ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands

Presentation

Ask: How was the Christian territory divided


around 1230? (Kingdom of Navarra, Crown
of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Portugal)

1. The Christian reconquest

Biscay

49

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Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10.

Pgina 121

Vocabulary: absolute monarchy, Catholic


Monarchs, Golden Age, Spanish Empire

Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 7.

Spain after 1492

Special attention

READ

Sequencing historical events

The Spanish Empire

Understanding that historical events can


occur at the same time
N OR TH
EUROPE

A MER I C A

Hands on

A S I A

ATLANTIC

P A CI F IC

OCEAN

O CE A N

AFRICA

PACIF IC
OCEANIA

S OU TH

OCE AN

INDIAN

A MER I C A

OCEAN

The Spanish Empire

1 Spain after 1492

77

However, by the end of the 19th century, most


of these possessions no longer belonged to Spain.

Columbus expedition reached America in 1492.


In the same year, Ferdinand and Isabella,
the Catholic Monarchs, unified the kingdoms
of Spain. They began the conquest of America,
and Spain became the centre of a great empire.
Their successors, Charles I and Philip II, acquired
many new possessions in the 16th century.
In the 18th century, the kings established
an absolute monarchy. In this form of government,
the monarchs actions are not controlled by law.
The local laws of the old kingdoms were abolished,
except in Navarre and the Basque Country.

3. Writers and artists


In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain
produced many great works of literature and art.
This period is called the Golden Age.
In literature, Miguel de Cervantes wrote
Don Quijote de La Mancha. There were great poets,
such as Francisco de Quevedo and Luis de
Gongora. Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderon
de la Barca wrote many famous plays.
In painting, Diego Velazquez became the most
important artist of his time.

2. The territories of the Spanish empire


Between the 16th and the 19th centuries, Spain
had possessions in almost every part of the world.
Spanish armies conquered the Canary Islands,
much of the Americas, the Philippines in Asia,
and several small territories in North Africa. The kingsiiiii
also inherited territories in central and southern Europe.
50

THE MIDDLE AGES

Make new questions. Change the date.


What happened in 1492? What happened
in the 16 th century ?

M.A. the 18th century? between the 16th and the 19th
centuries?

CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT


1 Comprehension. Write the dates and events on the BB and ask
Ss to match them.

1. In 1492
2. In the 16th century
3. In the 18th century
4. Between the 16th
and 19th centuries
5. By the end
of the 19th century
6. The 16th and
17th centuries

a. Spain had possessions in almost


every part of the world.
b. the kings established an absolute
monarchy.
c. Columbus reached America.
d. was the Golden Age of Spanish
literature and art.
e. Charles 1 and Philip II acquired
many possessions for the empire.
f. Spain had lost most of its empire.

Las Meninas

Show Ss a copy of Las Meninas


(Maids of Honour) by Diego Velazquez.
Ask: What do you know about this
painting?
Ask: Do you think the painting is large
or small? Why? Describe the room /
the people. Who do you think they are?
Describe their clothes. What name
would you give this painting?

Presentation
READ Explain to Ss that some historical
events on this page occurred at the same
time as other events on the previous page.
Ask: What happened in Spain in 1492?
(The Catholic Monarchs completed the
Christian Reconquest and unified the
kingdoms of Spain.) (Columbuss
expedition reached America.)
Focus on the map. Ask: What can you see?
(continents and oceans) On which
continents did Spain have territories?
(America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania)
Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with 130 , 131 , 132 and
do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Chocolate. Cacao seeds were brought


to Europe by Columbus. At first, it was
only used as a drink. Later, they mixed the
powder with sugar, milk and other things
to make chocolate.

Answers: 1 c. 2 e. 3 b. 4 a. 5 f. 6 d.

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Pgina 122

1. Reorder the letters to make a correct word.


1. The Muslims built ASAPLEC.
2. The Muslims built SUMEOSQ.
3. They built SICETI on hills.
4. They occupied the centre and south of the peninsula for GETIH
hundred years.
5. The philosopher Averroes was born in ORCODBA.
Answers: 1. palaces. 2. mosques. 3. cities. 4. eight. 5. Cordoba.

2. Complete the sentences.


1. The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre and part of La

2. The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca and
the

Counties.

3. The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of
. Later, it included all Andalusia, except for the
Kingdom of

4. Portugal was an independent kingdom. In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs,


Isabella 1 of Castile and

of Aragon, married and

united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon.


Answers: 1. Rioja. 2. Catalonian. 3. Leon, Granada. 4. Ferdinand II.

122

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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Read and learn

Worksheet 42. Date

MOSQUES

Apply your knowledge


BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES

1. Does the event correspond to the Christian civilisation or the Islamic civilisation?
Write Christian or Islamic.
a. They arrived on the Iberian Peninsula in 711.

Muslims pray five times a day. On Fridays,


they meet in mosques for community
prayer. The muezzin is responsible for
calling Muslims to pray. He calls them
from a minaret, the mosque tower.

b. Their religion was Islam.


c. They created kingdoms in the north of Spain.
d. They lived in the countryside.

Inside the mosque, believers kneel and


pray towards the wall which faces in the
direction of Mecca. Mecca is the most
sacred Muslim city.

e. They built palaces and mosques.


f. They lived in cities.

As well as being a place of prayer,


mosques are used as meeting places
and even schools. Mosques have a large
courtyard at the entrance, a prayer hall
inside, and one or more minarets,
depending on their size.

Islami
Islami
Christia>
Christia>
Islami
Islami

Pgina 123

The place where Muslims pray

2. Name three Christian kingdoms at the beginning of the Middle Ages.


a.
b.

During the Middle Ages, Muslims built


many mosques on the Iberian Peninsula.
The most important one is in Cordoba,
the capital of Al-Andalus.

c.

Arago>
Casti
Navar

3. What parts of a medieval castle can you see in the photo. Tick ().
2. Complete the sentences.

prae an a etin@ plae an school.


b. The muezzin is responsible for callin@ Muslim to pra.
a. Mosques are used for

battlements

courtyard
tower


VOCABULARY

water

Circle the words related to mosques.


minaret

courtyard

bridge

university

wall

school

bridge

49

48

20:37

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Worksheet 43. Date

123

Worksheet 44. Date

THE MIDDLE AGES

20:37

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

1. Complete the word map.

Johann Gutenberg, inventor of the printing press

CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS

Finally he completed his invention, and around


the year 1450, he formed a partnership with a German
merchant who lent him the money for his printing
business. He began to print his first books.

Kingdom of Navarre

Crown of Aragon

Crown of Castile

Territories included

Territories included

Territories included

Navar
L Rioj

Arago>, Vaenci
Majorc an
Cataloni

Castil, Leo>,
Andalusi exep
fo Granad

At that time, books were hand-written by scribes.


Gutenberg designed the letters of his printing press
to imitate the original manuscripts.
The Gutenberg Bible is usually considered to be
the first printed book in the Western world.
Thanks to the invention of the printing press, news
such as the discovery of America spread rapidly
throughout Europe.
2. Answer.
2. Think and answer.

a. Which was the last Muslim kingdom?

After the invention of the printing press, the price of books dropped.
Why do you think this happened?

b. When was it conquered?

Becau i wa no >eessar to wri book b han anymo.


T printin@ pes ma book mo ceapl. Usin@ scri wa exensi.

c. Who conquered it?

M. A.

Granad
1492
t Catholi Monarch

VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY

Match.

Match.

caliph

a great philosopher

a document written by hand

Gothic style

small, independent kingdoms

manuscript

a person who copies manuscripts

Averroes

the highest authority of the Muslims

scribe

a person who makes things of gold

taifas

It is characterised by great height, pointed arches and large windows.

goldsmith

51

50

Pgina 124

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz


around the year 1400. He was trained as a goldsmith,
but he was always interested in printing,
and he experimented with printing machines.

2/10/06

Read and learn

THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS

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Activity Book

124
Worksheet 45. Date

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Notes:
IDENTIFY MEDIEVAL BUILDINGS

20:38

1. Identify the buildings in the photos as Christian or Muslim.


B

Christia>

Pgina 125

Musli

2. Answer the question.


What differences are there between the two buildings?
M. A.

T Christia> buildin@ wa ue a hou an fo proectio>. I i fortes


T Musli buildin@ i ue fo prae. I ha minae.

3. Choose a medieval building in your Autonomous Community.


Complete the index card.
BUILDING
Manzanae e Rea Cast
Date built: etee> 1475 an 1478
Who built it: t Marqui o Santillan, Inigo Lope
What it was used for in the past: t famil esien
What it is used for today: tourist ca> visi t cast. Cultura ent a
el e.
52

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 46. Date

125

3. Write the names of Roman cities.

20:38

2. Stick them on the map.

2/10/06

1. Cut out the Roman provinces.

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Activity Book

Notes:

126

THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

Pgina 126

54

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Pgina 127

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Can a r y Is la n ds

Project 5

55

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127

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Pgina 128

Essential Science, Science, Geography and History, for Year 5 of Primary Education is a collective work,
conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision
of JOS LUIS ALZU GOI, JOS TOMAS HENAO and MICHELE C. GUERRINI
Contributing authors: Cristina Zarzuelo, Jane Kilner and Lesley Thompson
English language editors: Martin Minchom, Cathy Myers, Sheila Klaiber, Nancy Konvalinka, Nikki Strutt
English language specialist: Jeannette West
Art director: Jos Crespo
Design coordinator: Rosa Marn
Design Team:
Cover: Martn Len-Barreto
Interior: Rosa Barriga
Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera
Design development: Ral de Andrs, Jos Luis Garca and Javier Tejeda
Technical director: ngel Garca Encinar
Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena
Layout: Fernando Calonge and Miguel . Mora-Gil
Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodrguez
Photographs: C. Jimnez; F. Ontan; GARCA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J. Jaime; J. Lucas;
M. G. Vicente; S. Enrquez/Our thanks to the electrical appliances shop EXPERT;
HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; STOCKBYTE; MATTON-BILD;
SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

Richmond Publishing
4 Kings Street Cloisters
Albion Place
London W6 0QT
United Kingdom
2006 by Santillana Educacin, S. L./Richmond Publishing
Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid
Richmond Publishing is an imprint
of Santillana Educacin, S. L.
PRINTED IN SPAIN
Printed in Spain

ISBN: 84-294-0963-7
CP: 857415
D.L.:
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.