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Grain Size Analysis of Ngrayong Sandstone in Madura Island, North

East Java Basin


Paike Htwe1, 2, 3, a, *, Sugeng Sapto Surjono2, Donatus Hendra Amijaya2, Kyuro
Sasaki3
1

Geology Department, Magway University, Magway, Myanmar

Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta,


Indonesia
3

Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University,


Fukuoka, Japan
*

ph.geology.mgu@gmail.com

Keywords: Grain; Ngrayong Formation; Reservoir; Madura Island

Abstract. The study area, Madura Island is located in the North-East Java Basin. The early Middle
Miocene Ngrayong Formation is an important petroleum reservoir in North-East Java Basin. It is
well exposed in the central highland area of Madura Island. The Ngrayong Formation is mainly
composed of sandstones. The purpose of present study is to determine the reservoir quality of
sandstone based on grain size and grain sorting. Generally, Ngrayong Formation consists of four
types of sandstone facies which are thickly bedded medium grained sandstones (Sm), heterolithic
sandstones (Sh), fine grained sandstones (Sf) and grey siltstones (Fc). The thickly bedded medium
grained sandstones have medium, poorly to moderately well sorted sand grains. The heterolithic
sandstones are composed of fine grained, moderately to moderately well sorted sands. The fine
grained sandstones are represented by fine grained, moderately to poorly sorted sandstones. The
grey siltstones contain very fine and poorly sorted grains. Based on the grain size and sorting
characters, good reservoir characteristics are found in thickly bedded sandstones and heterolithic
sandstones facies. Fine grained sandstones have fair reservoir quality and dark grey siltstone facies
is poor for reservoir potential. The thickly bedded sandstones facies and heterolithic sandstones
facies of Ngrayong Formation are viable as targets for hydrocarbon exploration in Madura Island.
Introduction
The North East Java Basin is a classic back-arc basin of Indonesia. The study area, Madura
Island, is situated in Rembang-Madura Zone which is the northern most provinces of North East
Java Basin [1]. It is located between south latitude 06 52 00" and S07 15' 00", east longitude 112
40 00" and 114 15' 00" (Fig 1). The Rembang-Madura sequence was strongly influenced by
Tertiary clastics and carbonates that form large petroleum reservoirs [2].
Geomorphologically, the central Madura area is regarded as hilly topographic terrain forming
continuous ridges of relatively low relief (Fig 1). Many valleys with various sizes dissected the
fringe area of the Island in nearly E-W direction. Structural style of this island follows the tectonic
setting of North East Java Basin.
The Ngrayong Formation is generally exposed along east-west trending in the central anticlinal
part of the study area. A number of good outcrops are situated at the quarries along the flanks of
Madura Anticline, and on the ways connected from the north coast to south coast of Madura.

Figure 1. The location and physiography of Madura Island


Material and methods
The field work was carried out along the exposure surface of Ngrayong Formation in Madura
Island. During the field study, eight sandstone samples were collected from five locations (Fig 2).
Each sample is represented to individual sandstone facies in Madura Island. The data was derived
from the sieving analysis. This analysis was carried on to know the textural characteristics of
siliciclastic rocks. Six U. S. standard sieves (10, 18, 35, 60, 120 and 230) and pan were used for
sieving [3]. The coarsest sieve was placed at the top of fine sieves in which the screen openings
become progressively smaller downwards. A pan is placed beneath the lowest sieve to retain the
finest grains which pass through the entire column. The sample (100g) was put in the uppermost
sieve, after the sieves have been put on a shaker. The sieving analysis data can be got by weighting
on a balance after running shaker about 15 to 20 minutes. After that, the mean value and standard
deviation are calculated from the value of the cumulative curve.
Geological background
The Ngrayong Formation is mainly composed of quartzarenite sandstones in Madura Island, and
shales and sandstones in the Rembang and Randublatung zone. The sandstones are productive in the
onshore East Java Basin [4]. These sandstones are medium- to coarse-grained and moderately to
well sorted and exhibit excellent reservoir properties with porosity greater than 35% and
permeabilitys up to 10 darcys [5]. Ngrayong Formation consists of four types of sandstone facies;
thickly bedded sandstone or cross laminated sandstone (Sm), heterolithic sandstone (Sh), dark grey
siltstones (Fc) and fine grained sandstone (Sf) [6].
The upper boundary of Ngrayong Formation is represented by an erosion surface, with meterscale conglomerate-filled channels which are overlain by the late Middle Miocene Bulu Formation,
a marker bed consisting of massive carbonates rich in larger benthic foraminifera and small patches
of corals, red algae and sandy carbonates. The lower boundary between the Ngrayong Formation
and late Early Miocene Tuban lithologies is generally gradational contact. However, it is locally
represented by a few centimeters of glauconitic and broken and stained skeletal grains, suggesting
sediment starvation and possible drowning [4]. The age of Ngrayong Formation is ranging from

early Middle Miocene to mid-Middle Miocene [7]. Strontium isotope data indicate that the age of
Ngrayong Formation constrains between 15 and 13 Ma [4].

Figure 2. Geological map of Madura Island (modified after [8] [9] [10])
Background Theory
Grain size is a fundamental attribute of siliciclastic rock. It is one of the important properties of
such rocks. Particle sizes are classed according to Udden-Wentworth scale (Fig 3). A useful
modification of this scale is the logarithmic phi () scale, which allows grain-size data to be
expressed in units of equal value.
The mean size is the arithmetic average value of all the particles sizes in a sample [3]. The actual
arithmetic mean of most sediment samples cannot be determined because of uncountable small
grain in a sample. An approximation of the arithmetic mean can be arrived at by picking selected
percentile values from the cumulative curve and averaging these values. The commonly used values
in this calculation are 16th, 50th, and 84th percentile values (Fig 4). In calculation, the mean value is
the average phi value of the grain size of 16th, 50th, and 84th percentile values. The calculation
formula is as following;
Mean = (16 + 50 + 84) / 3

(1)

The size class of sediments can be easily determined from mean value by correlation with
Udden-Wentworth scale (Fig 3).

Figure 3. The Wentworth grain size classification of clastic sediment [11]

Figure 4. The method for calculating percentile values from the cumulative curve [3]
The sorting of the grain porpulation is a measure of the range of grain sizes presented the
magnitude of the spread or scatter of these sizes around the mean size [3]. The mathematical
expression of sorting is standard deviation. The standard deviation can be calculated from the
following formula;
Standard deviation = [(84 - 16) / 4] + [(95 5) / 6.6]

(2)

Sorting corresponding to various values of standard deviation (Fig 5) is defined as follows [3].

Figure 5. Sorting from inclusive graphic standard deviation [3]


Results and discussion
The granulometry data used in this research was taken from eight sandstone samples which are
CGP1 and GGL1 from thickly bedded medium grained sandstone (Sm), GGL2 and GGL4 from
heterolithic sandstone (Sh), GGL5 from dark grey siltstone (Fc) and SP3, SMN2 and KRK1 from
fine grained sandstone (Sf) [6]. The weight of grain in various size classes can be got by sieving
analysis. The raw sieve weights are first converted to individual weight percent by dividing the
weight in each size class by the total weight. Cumulative weight percent can be calculated by
adding the weight of each succeeding size class to the total of the preceding classes. A grain size
cumulative curve is generated by plotting grain size against cumulative weight percent frequency.
In this study, the cumulative curve was illustrated to know the parameters which must be specified
for determining the value of the mean and sorting. The cumulative curves of eight samples in
Madura Island are shown in figure 6.

Figure 6. The cumulative curve of Ngrayong Sandstones in Madura Island

The mean value and standard deviation of the samples are calculated by using equation (1) and
(2) based on percentage values of cumulative curve. The size class and sorting of the eight
samples are shown in the following tables (Table 1 & 2).
Table (1) The size class and mean value derived from cumulative curve in Madura Island
Facies

Sample

No.

16%

50%

84%

Mean

Size class

Sm

CPG1

1.26

1.96

2.67

1.96

Medium sand

Sm

GGL1

0.58

1.70

2.73

1.67

Medium sand

Sh

GGL2

1.30

2.40

2.91

2.20

Fine sand

Sh

GGL4

2.00

2.49

2.92

2.47

Fine sand

Fm

GGL5

1.90

3.04

4.29

3.08

Very fine sand

Sf

SP3

1.95

2.41

2.98

2.45

Fine sand

Sf

SMN2

2.02

2.61

4.00

2.88

Fine sand

Sf

KRK1

1.31

2.41

3.23

2.32

Fine sand

Table (7.6) The sorting and standard deviation derived from cumulative curve in Madura Island
Sample

No.

5%

16% 50% 84% 95% deviation

Sm

CPG1

0.95

1.26

1.96

2.67

3.01

0.66

Sm

GGL1

0.10

0.58

1.70

2.73

4.09

1.14

Sh

GGL2

0.40

1.30

2.40

2.91

4.12

0.97

Sh

GGL4

1.37

2.00

2.49

2.92

3.91

0.61

Fm

GGL5

0.96

1.90

3.04

4.29

4.78

1.17

Poorly sorted

Sf

SP3

0.42

1.95

2.41

2.98

4.29

0.84

Sf

SMN2

1.16

2.02

2.61

4.00

4.75

1.04

Moderately
sorted
Poorly sorted

Sf

KRK1

0.49

1.31

2.41

3.23

4.22

1.05

Poorly sorted

Facies

Standard

Sorting
Moderately
well sorted
Poorly sorted
Moderately
sorted
Moderately
well sorted

Based on sieving data, the mean value of CPG1 and GGL1 samples are 1.96 and 1.67. These
values are medium sand size class of Wentworth. The grains of these samples are poorly to
moderately well sorted according to standard deviation. The medium size, moderately well sorted
sand grains can create suitable pore space for good porosity and permeability [3], [11]. These two
samples represented to thickly bedded sandstone facies in Madura Island. So, the thickly bedded
sandstones composed of poorly to moderately well sorted, medium sand grains have good reservoir
quality.

GGL2 and GGL4 samples which collected from heterolithic sandstone have over 2 of mean
value (2.20 and 2.47) and 0.5-1 standard deviation. These sandstones are moderately to moderately
well sorted, fine grain sandstone [3], [11]. Heterolithic sandstone has suitable sorting grain to be
good peterophysic properties though it consists of fine grain sands. Consequently, good reservoir
characteristic are found in the heterolithic sandstone facies. The mean value of GGL5 sample that
represented to dark grey siltstone of Madura Island is 3.08. The standard deviation is only 1.17. It is
generally composed of poorly sorted, very fine grain sediments. The fine grain sediments cannot
good porosity because of tightest or closed packing. Porosity can be reduced considerably because
smaller or irregularly shaped grains can be inserted in between the larger grains, thereby reducing
the amount of pore space [12]. The very fine and poorly sorted grain composition will disturb to be
developing fair characteristic for reservoir [3], [11]. The grain size and sorting of dark grey siltstone
provides only poor reservoir quality.
SP3, SMN2 and KRK1 samples were carried out from the fine grained sandstone (Sf). The mean
values of these samples (2.45, 2.88 and 2.32) pointed to be fine grained sandstone. The samples,
SMN2 and KRK1 have poorly sorted grained because of 1.04 and 1.05 standard deviation. But, SP3
sample composed of moderately sorted grains. The fine and poorly sorted grains cannot provide
good porosity and permeability [3], [11]. The reservoir potential of SMN2 and KRK1 sandstones is
no more than fair characteristic. However, SP3 sandstone has good reservoir characteristic because
of moderately sorting.
Conclusion
The grained size analysis was conducted on four types of Ngrayong sandstone which are thickly
bedded sandstone (Sm), heterolithic sandstone (Sh), dark grey siltstone (Fc) and fine grained
sandstone (Sf). The thickly bedded sandstone is mainly composed of medium grained, poorly- to
moderately- well sorted, sand grains. Heterolithic sandstone consists of fine grained, moderately- to
moderately well- sorted sands. Fine grained sandstone contains poorly sorted fine grains. Dark grey
siltstone is combined with very fined and poorly sorted grains. Thickly bedded sandstone and
heterolithic sandstone provide good potential reservoir. Fine grained sandstone has only fair
reservoir characteristics. But, poor reservoir characteristics are found in dark grey siltstone.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to be grateful to the AUN/SEED-Net (ASEAN University Network
Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development Network) program and JICA (Japanese
International Cooperation Agency) for financial support
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