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Deck

Elevation
24 meters
20 meters
16 meters
12 meters
8 meters
4 meters
0 meters

Deck Elevation Cost Impact


Abutments
Pier
Cable
Anchorages
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No
Standard
No Pier
No

Deck
Elevation
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters

Arch Abutment Cost Impact


Arch
Pier
Cable
Abutments
Anchorages
24 meters
No Pier
No
20 meters
No Pier
No
16 meters
No Pier
No
12 meters
No Pier
No
8 meters
No Pier
No
4 meters
No Pier
No

Deck
Elevation
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters

Deck
Elevation
24 meters
24 meters
24 meters

Pier Cost Impact


Abutments
Pier
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard

24 meters
20 meters
16 meters
12 meters
8 meters
4 meters
0 meters

Cable
Anchorages
No
No
No
No
No
No
No

Cable Anchorages Cost Impact


Abutments
Pier
Cable
Anchorages
Standard
No Pier
None
Standard
No Pier
One
Standard
No Pier
Two

Site Cost
$62,700
$77,400
$88,400
$100,700
$110 ,400
$123,700
$134,000

Site Cost
$89,700
$83,500
$81,800
$80,800
$83,300
$80,200

Site Cost
$104,000
$101,200
$98,400
$95,600
$92,800
$90,000
$87,200

Site Cost
$62,700
$65,700
$68,700

2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.


Principles of Engineering Problem 2.4.1 Structural Design Page 1

Deck Material and Truck Loading Cost Impact


Deck Material
Loading
Site Cost
Medium-Strength
Standard 25kN
$68,700
Medium-Strength
480 kN Permit
$68,700
Loading
Member Material Selection Comparison
High-Strength
Standard
25kN
Material
Cross
Cross
Yield
Modulus
Mass $73,100
Moment
High-Strength
480
kN
Permit
$73,100
Section
Section
Stress
of
Density
of Inertia
Loading
Type
Size
Elasticity
Carbon Solid Bar 160 mm
250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
5.46E-5
Steel
kN per
N per sq per cubic meters^4
sq. meter
meter
meter
HighSolid
160
34500kN 2.00E+8k 7850kg
5.46E-5
Strength
Bar
mm
per sq
N per sq per cubic meters^4
meter
meter
meter
Quenched
Solid
160
485000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
5.46E-5
Bar
mm
kN per sq N per sq per cubic meters^4
meter
meter
meter

Material
Carbon
Steel
Carbon
Steel

Material

Member Cross Section Type Comparison


Cross
Cross
Yield
Modulus
Mass
Section Section
Stress
of
Density
Type
Size
Elasticity
Solid
160
250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
Bar
mm
kN per
N per sq per cubic
sq.
meter
meter
meter
Hollow
160
250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
Tube
mm
kN per
N per sq per cubic
sq.
meter
meter
meter

Carbon
Steel

Cross
Section
Type
Solid
Bar

Carbon
Steel

Solid
Bar

Carbon
Steel

Solid
Bar

Member Cross Section Size Comparison


Cross
Yield
Modulus
Mass
Section
Stress
of
Density
Size
Elasticity
30 mm 250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
kN per
N per sq per cubic
sq.
meter
meter
meter
160 mm 250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
kN per
N per sq per cubic
sq.
meter
meter
meter
360 mm 250000 2.00E+8k 7850kg
kN per
N per sq per cubic

Cost per
Meter
$864.13

$1125.38
$1205.76

Moment
of Inertia

Cost per
Meter

5.46E-5
meters^4

$864.13

1.88E-5
meters^4

$240.55

Moment
of Inertia

Cost per
Meter

6.75E-8
meters^4

$30.38

5.46E-5
meters^4

$864.13

1.40E-3
meters^4

$4374.65

2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.


Principles of Engineering Problem 2.4.1 Structural Design Page 2

Carbon
Steel

Solid
Bar

500 mm

sq.
meter
250000
kN per
sq.
meter

meter

meter

2.00E+8k
N per sq
meter

7850kg
per cubic
meter

5.21E-3
meters^4

$8438.75

Conclusion Questions
1 How does the type and direction of stress applied affect the selection of the
material type and the cross-sectional area?
The more beams you put into the design the cross sectional area increases and
the stress is put unto the weakest beam and so on.
1. How can the forces of compression and tension work together to make a
stronger bridge?
Compressing in areas and tension in others. An example is when a bridge that
has a beam that has too much tension and is about to break, you can put a beam
that compresses and balances out tension and compression.

2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.


Principles of Engineering Problem 2.4.1 Structural Design Page 3