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In the previous chapter, you learned about

the events that surrounded the onset of


World War II. In this section, you will
discover how the United States mobilized
for the war.

Chapter Photo

During World War II, U.S. General George


C. Marshall believed that the jeep was
Americas greatest contribution to modern
warfare. The jeep was first developed as
a small durable military vehicle with room
to mount a machine gun. The four-wheel
drive function on the jeep made it possible
for the vehicle to drive off the road through
ice, mud, and other obstacles.

I. Converting the Economy


A. The United Statess industrial output
during World War II was twice as
productive as Germany and five times
that of Japan. This turned the tide in favor
of an Allied victory. Part of the success of
the United States was the result of the
government mobilizing the economy
before the U.S. entered the war.

B. Roosevelt and his advisers believed the


best way to rapidly mobilize the economy
was to give industry an incentive to move
quickly. The government signed cost-plus
contracts agreeing to pay a company
whatever the manufacturing cost, plus a
guaranteed percentage of the costs as
profit.

C. The Reconstruction Finance


Corporation (RFC), the government
agency which had been set up during the
Depression, made loans to companies to
help them with the cost of converting to
war production.

II.American Industry Gets the


Job Done
A. After the Japanese attack on Pearl
Harbor, almost all major American industries and
200,000 companies converted to war production.
B. The automobile factories turned to the production of
trucks, jeeps, and tanks. They also built artillery, rifles,
mines, helmets, pontoon bridges, cooking pots, and
other military supplies, producing nearly one-third of the
military equipment that was manufactured during the
war. Henry Ford created an assembly line for B-24
bombers.

C. Roosevelt created the War Production


Board (WPB) to set priorities and
production goals and to control the
distribution of raw materials and supplies.

III. Building an Army


A. In order to win the war, it was vital that the
United States build up its armed forces.
B. The Selective Service and Training Act
was a plan for the first peacetime draft in
American history.

C. At the beginning of the war, the United


States military was completely
segregated. African Americans were
organized into their own military units with
white officers in command.

D. An African American newspaper, the


Pittsburgh Courier, launched the Double
V campaign stating that African
Americans should join the war because a
win would be a double victory over racism
abroad and at home. Roosevelt, knowing
that the African American vote had helped
him win, ordered the U.S. military to
recruit and send African Americans into
combat.

E. The army air force created the 99th


Pursuit Squadron, an African American
unit. The African American pilots became
known as the Tuskegee Airmen. They
played an important role in the Battle of
Anzio in Italy.

F. In the army, African Americans also


performed well, receiving various awards
for distinguished service. Segregation
did not end during the war, but led to full
military integration in 1948.

G.Congress established the Womens


Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) in May
1942. This was the first time women were
allowed in the military. By 1943 women
became a part of regular war operations. .

In the previous section, you learned how


the United States mobilized for war. In this
section, you will discover how the war
impacted the daily lives of Americans.

More than 25,000 women applied to


become pilots in the Womens Airforce
Service Pilots (WASPs). Only 1,074
women became pilots in this military
organization. Their jobs included flying
planes from the factories to the airfields,
testing rebuilt aircraft, and hauling gunnery
targets. After the war, women were not
allowed to fly for the military again until
1977.

I. Women and Minorities Gain


Ground
A. Compared to the devastation in
Europe and Asia, World War II had a
positive effect on American society. It put
an end to the Depression. The war led to
the creation of almost 19 million new jobs
and doubled the income of most
American families.

B. Rosie the
Riveter, a character
from a popular song
by the Four
Vagabonds, became
a symbol for the
campaign to hire
women. The
campaign resulted in
2.5 million women
entering the
manufacturing
workforce.

C. In 1942 the federal government


started the Bracero Program, which
arranged for Mexican farmworkers to
come to the United States to help harvest
fruits and vegetables on farms in the
Southwest. More than 200,000 Mexicans
came to help with the harvest and to build
and maintain railroads.

II. A Nation on the Move


A. Roughly 15 million Americans moved
west and south during the war to be
closer to the new jobs available. The
growth of southern California and the
expansion of cities in the Deep South
created a new industrial region called the
Sunbelt.

B. African Americans resumed the Great


Migration, as they left the South and
headed to cities in the North and West for
factory jobs. In these cities, African
Americans were often confronted with
suspicion and intolerance, sometimes
ending with violence.

C. The zoot suit, baggy


pants and an overstuffed,
knee-length jacket with
wide lapels, appeared
unpatriotic to many that
were saving fabric for the
war. The zoot suit was
worn by many Mexican
American teens. When
zoot suiters were
rumored to have attacked
several sailors, 2,500
soldiers and sailors
stormed into Mexican
American neighborhoods
in Los Angeles.

D. This becomes known as the Zoot Suit Riots, and was


an example of the racial and cultural divide in wartime
America. This racial violence, however, did not deter
Mexican Americans from joining the war effort.

E. On February 19, 1942, President


Roosevelt signed an executive order
allowing the War Department to declare
any part of the United States a military
zone and remove anybody from the zone.
Claiming they did not trust their loyalty to
the U.S. and fearing they would aide
Japan, all people of Japanese ancestry
were evacuated to 10 internment camps.

III. Daily Life in Wartime America


A. President Roosevelt, worried about
inflation, established the Office of Price
Administration (OPA) and the Office of
Economic Administration (OES). The OPA
regulated wages and the price of farm
products. The OES regulated all other
prices. The War Labor Board (WLB)
worked to prevent strikes that would
endanger the war effort. American unions
issued a no strike pledge.

B. Rationing, or limiting the availability of


products, occurred as the demand for raw
materials and supplies increased and created
shortages. Each month a book of ration
coupons was given to each household for
processed foods and meats, fats, and oils.

C. Victory gardens were


planted to produce more
food for the war effort.
Scrap drives were
organized to collect spare
rubber, tin, aluminum,
and steel. Americans
exchanged bacon grease
and meat drippings for
extra ration coupons
because fats and oils
were so vital to the
production of explosives.

D. To raise money for the war, the


government raised taxes, covering about
45 percent of the cost of the war. E bonds
were sold to Americans to help pay for the
war. Through the purchase of these
bonds, Americans were loaning money to
the government. The bonds could be
redeemed in the future for the purchase
price plus interest.
E. Most Americans were united in the goal
of winning the war.

In the previous section, you learned about


life on the home front. In this section, you
will discover how the Allies achieved
victory in Europe.

I. Turning Back the German Army


A. The leader of the Soviet Union,
Joseph Stalin, urged Roosevelt to
open a second front in Europe.
However, in July 1942, Roosevelt
ordered the invasion of Morocco and Algeria
instead, which were French territories indirectly
under German control.

B. On November 8, 1942, the


American invasion of North Africa began
under the command of General Dwight D.
Eisenhower. Known as Operation Torch,
General George Patton led the American
forces. After several hard fought battles
the American and British forces finally
pushed the Germans back. On May 13,
1943, German forces in North Africa
surrendered.

C. Hitler ordered his army to capture oil


fields, industries, and farmlands vital to
the Soviet economy. The Germans tried to
capture Stalingrad, but the Soviets held
their ground. The Germans were
surrounded and surrendered. The Battle
of Stalingrad was a turning point in the war
in Russia because it put the Germans on
the defensive.

In the Battle of Stalingrad, the city was


ruined, and the Soviets suffered more
casualties than the United States did in
the entire war.

II.Striking Back at the Third


Reich
A. After taking North Africa, the allies
launched an invasion of Sicily. By August
18, Germans had evacuated the island,
and Mussolini was placed under arrest by
the king of Italy.

B. On September 8, 1943, the Italian


government announced Italys surrender.
However, Hitler sent German troops to
seize control of Italy and put Mussolini
back in power. However, by May 1944,
the Germans retreated back to Germany.

C. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill met


in Tehran, Iran, and reached several
agreements about the plans for the
rest of the war and after the war. They
included
1. Russia would invade Germany from the
east after the allies invaded France in 1944.
2. Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to break up
Germany after the war so they could never
wage war again.
3. After Germany was defeated, the USSR
would help the U.S. defeat Japan.

III. Landing in France


A. Operation Overlord was
the code name for the planned
invasion of France by the
Allies. General Eisenhower
was selected to command the
invasion.
B. The Allies had the
advantage of surprise the
Germans did not know when
or where they would strike.
The Germans were fooled into
thinking the attack would occur
in Pas-de-Calais, when in fact
the invasion was planned to
take place in Normandy.

C. The date for the invasion became known as


D-Day because Eisenhowers planning staff
referred to the day of any invasion with the
letter D.

D. This was the largest amphibious


invasion in history, and its success marked
the beginning of the end for Nazi Germany.

Go to Longest Day
Power Point!!!!!

With 100,000 soldiers, 23,000


paratroopers, and 7,000 ships, the
invasion of France along the Normandy
coast of northern France was the largest
seaborne invasion in history.

IV. The Third Reich Collapses


A. Soon after D-Day, Allied troops blew
through the German lines, and
successfully pushed the German military
back toward Paris. The Allies liberated
Paris on August 25. Three weeks later,
they were just 20 miles from the German
border.

B. After one last brutal offensive, known as


the Battle of the Bulge, Adolf Hitler,
realized the end was near. In his bunker,
on April 30th, he killed himself. His
successor, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz
was forced to unconditionally surrender
on May 7, 1945. The next day was
proclaimed V-E Day, for Victory in
Europe.

In the previous section, you learned how


the Allies won the war in Europe. In this
section, you will learn about the road to
victory against Japan and the creation of
the United Nations.

I. Holding the Line Against Japan


A. After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor,
the commander of the United States Navy
in the Pacific, Admiral Chester Nimitz,
could do little at first to stop the advancing
Japanese into Southeast Asia. Japan
attacked American airfields in the
Philippines and landed their troops in the
islands.

B. Realizing he was completely


outnumbered, the commander of the
Americans and Filipinos defending the
Philippines, General Douglas MacArthur,
decided to evacuate the islands and cede
it to the Japanese.

I shall return
-MacArthur

C. The turning point in the war came


during the Battle of Midway when
Americans shot down 38 Japanese planes
and destroyed four Japanese carriers.
This stopped the Japanese advance into
the Pacific.

II. Driving the Japanese Back


A. The U.S. began an island-hopping
campaign in the central Pacific in the fall
of 1943. Although many U.S. Marines
died in several brutal battles along the
way, this strategy was extremely
successful.
B. By August 1944 The U.S. was in
position to use its B-29 bombers to begin
bombing Japan.

C. Japanese warships headed through the


Philippine Islands into Leyte Gulf and
ambushed American ships. The Battle of
Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in
history and the first time the Japanese
used kamikaze attacks. Kamikaze pilots
deliberately crashed their planes into
American ships, killing themselves and
causing severe damage to the ships.

D. The Japanese
commander ordered a
retreat, fearing
additional American
ships were on the
way.
E. The battle to
recapture the
Philippines left Manila
in ruins and over
100,000 Filipino
civilians dead.

III. Japan is Defeated


A. President Roosevelt died a month
before the defeat of Germany. Vice
President Harry S Truman became
president. Although Germany surrendered
a few weeks later, Truman needed to
make many difficult decisions regarding
the war as the battle with Japan
intensified.

B. Hoping to get
closer to mainland
Japan, on February
19, 1945, 60,000
American Marines
landed on Iwo Jima.
6,800 lost their lives
before the island was
eventually captured
by the Americans.

D. General Curtis LeMay, commander of


the B-29s based in the Marianas, changed
strategy to drop bombs filled with napalm,
a kind of jellied gasoline. These bombs
not only exploded but also started fires.
The risk of killing civilians made this very
controversial. The Tokyo firebombing killed
over 80,000 people and destroyed more
than 250,000 buildings. Japans six most
important industrial cities were
firebombed.

E. Japan refused to surrender. American


military planners chose to invade
Okinawa, 350 miles from Japan, to
stockpile supplies and build up troops.
F. On April 1, 1945, American troops
landed on Okinawa. On June 22, 1945,
Okinawa was captured with more than
12,000 American soldiers, sailors, and
marines losing their lives.

G. Japan would not surrender unconditionally


because they wanted their emperor to remain in
power. Americans wanted him out of power, and
Truman was reluctant to go against public
opinion.
H. The American program to build an atomic
bomb was code-named the Manhattan Project
and was headed by General Leslie R. Groves.
On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was
detonated near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Alternative Options
1. use a naval blockade to force the
Japanese to starve or surrender
2. invade Japan with five million American
troops
3. ask the USSR to join the fighting
against Japan
4. demonstrate the power of the bomb by
destroying a small unpopulated island

Trumans Reasons for Dropping the Bomb


1. it would save American lives. It was estimated an
invasion of Japan would cause 1 million American
casualties and an even higher number of Japanese
deaths
2. It justified the cost of building it.
3. To intimidate the USSR.
4. demonstrating the power of the atomic bomb by
destroying a small unpopulated island was not an
option because
a.) the bomb might not work.
b.) the U.S. only had three A-bombs
c.) the Japanese might put American
P.O.W.s on the island or shoot down the
delivery plane.

I. President Truman felt it was his duty to use


every weapon available to save American lives.
The Allies threatened Japan with utter
destruction, but received no response. On
August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped
on Hiroshima, one of Japans important
industrial cities. Tens of thousands of people
died instantly, and thousands more died later
from burns and radiation sickness. On August
9, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. That
same day, the United States dropped an atomic
bomb on Nagasaki, killing between 35,000 and
74,000 people. On V-J Day, for Victory in
JapanAugust 15, 1945Japan surrendered.
The war ended.

In the previous section, you learned how


the Allies won the war in Japan. In this
section, you will learn about the creation of
the United Nations and a return to
normalcy.

III. Building a New World


A. To prevent another war, President Roosevelt
wanted a new international political
organization. In 1944 delegates from 39
countries met to discuss the new organization
that was to be called the United Nations (UN).
B. On April 25, 1945, representatives from 50
countries met in San Francisco to officially
organize the United Nations and create its
charter, or constitution.

C. The delegates decided to have a


General Assembly, where each member
nation would have one vote. Britain,
France, China, the Soviet Union, and the
United States would be permanent
members of the Security Council, each
having veto power.

D. In August 1945, the


International Military
Tribunal (IMT) was
created by the United
States, Britain, France,
and the Soviet Union to
punish German and
Japanese leaders for
their war crimes. The
IMT tried German leaders
suspected of committing
war crimes at the
Nuremburg trials.

E. In Tokyo the IMT for the Far East tried


leaders of wartime Japan suspected of
committing war crimes. The Japanese
emperor was not indicted.