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What is Secondhand


Work Cited
"Association of Pediatric Dental Caries with Passive

Involuntary inhalation of
tobacco smoke from a person
smoking nearby

Smoking." JAMA Network. 12 Mar. 2003. Web.

21 Feb. 2016.

Cigarettes, cigars and pipes

are all forms of tobacco all of
which contain 4,000 different
chemical compounds, 250
known to cause disease

Effects of Secondhand
Smoke on the oral

articleid=196145#Abstract>. JAMA 2003

Brazier, Yvette. "Tooth Decay Risk Doubles in Children
Exposed to Secondhand Smoke." Medical
News Today. N.p., 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 20 Feb.
1299.php>. Brazier 2015

Ratini, Melinda. "Effects of Second Hand Smoke." WebMD.

Inflammation of the oral

Damage to salivary glands
and decrease in serum
Vitamin C, which impacts
immune system
Inflammation of the
respiratory tract which can
lead to mouth breathing,
thus, dry mouth

12 Sept. 2014. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Ratini 2014
"Secondhand Smoke and Incidence of Dental Caries in
Deciduous Teeth among Children in Japan:
Population Based Retrospective Cohort
Study." Hwadmin. K Kawakami, 21 Oct. 2015.
Web. 21 Feb. 2016.

Higher levels of Sialic Acid

which enhances the growth
of Strep. Mutans

Tooth Decay

Kawakami 2015

"Secondhand Smoke Harms Children's Health."

Delta Dental. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Smoke Harms Children's Health." Delta
Dental. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Delta Dental
Tanaka, Keiko. "BMC Public Health." Household Smoking
and Dental Caries in Schoolchildren: The

The Impact
d Smoke

Ryukyus Child Health Study. 14 June 2010.

Web. 21 Feb. 2016.

Tanaka 2010

Anna Buzbee &

Renee Klyn

Kids are particularly at higher risk

for the effects of secondhand
smoke because their bodies are

Study 3

still growing, and they breathe at a

faster rate than adults. (Ratini


Retrospective Cohort Study In

Kobe City, Japan
Carried out to see if maternal
smoking during pregnancy and
exposure of infants to tobacco
smoke has an effect on dental
76,920 children received health
checkups at birth, four, nine
and eighteen months, and
three years of age
55.3% of children had someone
within the household that
smoked, and 6.8%of the
children had evidence of
exposure to tobacco smoke

Study 2

14% (No smoker in the family)

20% (Smoker in household but
without exposure)
27.6% (Exposure to tobacco

(Kawaskami 2015)

Cross- Sectional Study

Assessed relationship between
caries and serum cotinine levels
from secondhand smoke
3,531 children, between the ages of
four and eleven
A child exposed to secondhand
smoke has serum cotinine levels
between 0.2 and 10 ng/mL
Caries are defined as decayed or
filled tooth surfaces


Risk of Caries at the Age of


31.7% of children with decay and

36.5% with filled caries on
deciduous teeth had cotinine level
consistent with exposure
Children with cotinine levels not
consistent with exposure had
18.2% with decay and 29.2% with
filled caries in deciduous teeth
10.4% of children with decay and
18.3% with filled caries on
permanent teeth had cotinine
levels consistent with exposure
Children with cotinine levels not
consistent with exposure had 7.4%
with decay and 19.7% with filled

Cross- sectional study in Okinawa,

20,703 children
Information on secondhand smoke
exposure was obtained through
questionnaire form and dental
records from the school
A dentist diagnosed children with
decay or filled teeth
Of the children studied, 82% had
decay or filled teeth


Children with no exposure, 43.1%

had decay and 68.4% had filled
Child with secondhand smoke
exposure, 54.3% had decay and
69.4% had filled teeth

(Tanaka 2010)