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Chapter 1


Chemistry is the study of the composition, nature, and properties of matter and the
changes it undergoes
A. Scanning Electron Microscope reveals tiny structures by beaming electrons at


Branches of Chemistry (6)
A. Organic Chemistry- study of carbon containing compounds
B. Inorganic Chemistry- study of all substances not classified as organic (no carbon)
C. Physical Chemistry- study of the properties and changes of matter and their
relation to energy
D. Analytical Chemistry- Identification of the components and composition of
E. Biochemistry- study of substances and processes occurring in living things
F. Theoretical Chemistry- use of mathematics and computers to understand the
principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the


properties of new compounds

Types of works (3)
A. All Chemists work with chemicals- any substance that has a definite composition
1. Ex: sucrose
B. Basic Research
1. Sake of increasing knowledge
2. May result in chance discoveries
C. Applied Research
1. Done to solve a problem
D. Technological Development
1. Production and use of products that improve quality of life
2. The 3 overlap



Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space

Basic Building Blocks of Matter- The Atom
A. The Atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of only
that element
B. An Element is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
C. A Compound is a pure substance that is made from the atoms of two or more
elements that are chemically bonded
1. Molecule is the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the
properties of that element or compound
Properties and Changes in Matter
A. Each chemical has characteristic properties
1. Intensive properties

- Do not depend of amount of matter present

- Ex: Boiling point, melting point, etc
2. Extensive properties
- Depend on amount of matter present
- Ex: Mass, volume
B. Physical Properties
1. Can be observed or measured without changing the identity
- Boiling Point
C. Physical change
1. Change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the
- Melting/ boiling
- Change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to
i. Solids have definite volume and definite shape; particles held closely
and only vibrate
ii. Liquids have definite volume and indefinite shape; particles held close
together but can move past one another. Attractive forces are temporarily
overcome and allowed to flow
iii. Gas has neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles move very
rapidly and are at great distances from one another. Attractive forces weak
iv. Plasma is a high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms
lose their electrons
States of Change Table

D. Chemical Properties
1. Relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into
different substances
2. Easiest to see when substances form new substances
- Ex. Ability of charcoal to burn in Air
E. Chemical Change
1. Change in which one or more substances are converted into different
2. Substances that react are the reactants
3. Substances that are formed by the chemical change are called the products
4. Conservation of Mass always applies

F. Energy is always involved and conserved in physical OR chemical changes

G. Classification of Matter
1. Pure substances; Fixed composition
- Element or compound
- Exactly the same characteristic properties
- Do NOT depend on amount
- Every sample has the same composition
2. Mixtures- more than one substance/ variable composition and properties
blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identities
and properties
- Components can be separated
- Homogenous Mixture- uniform in composition/ same proportion
throughout AKA Solution
- Heterogeneous mixture- not uniform throughout



A. Vertical Columns are called groups
1. Each element of a group has similar properties
B. Horizontal rows are called periods
1. Physical and chemical properties vary in a period
C. Lathanide and Actinide Series
Types of Elements

A. Metals
1. Metallic luster
- Exception of gold and copper
2. Conductor of heat and electricity
3. Solid at Room temperature
4. Malleable
5. Ductile
6. Tensile strength
7. Mercury liquid at room temperature
B. Copper: A Representative Metal
1. Reddish color and a metallic luster
2. Conducts electricity
C. Nonmetals
1. Gases at room temperature
- Exception is bromine which is a liquid
2. Poor conductor of electricity and heat
3. Fewer nonmetals than metals
D. Phosphorous: A Representative Nonmetal
1. One of 5 solid nonmetals
2. 2 common forms
- Red Phosphorous
- White phosphorous
- Too reactive to exist in pure form in nature
3. Metalloids
- Some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals
- Solids at room temperature
- Less malleable than metals but not as brittle as nonmetals
- Somewhat metallic luster
- Semicondcutors of electricity
- 7 Nonmetals
- Boron
- Silicon
- Germanium
- Arsenic
- Tellurium
- Polonium
- Antimony
4. Noble Gasses
- Group 18
- Low reactivity



Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matters and
6 Branches of Chemistry
Chemical is a pure substance
3 types of research


Matter takes up space and has mass

Element is composed of one type of atom
Compounds two or more elements in fixed compositions
All substances have characteristic properties
Physical Changes dont change identity; chemical changes do
Conservation of mass and Energy


Each element has a unique symbol

Properties are similar down a group; vary across a period
Characteristics of metals, metalloids, and noble gases/ nonmetals