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PROGECT TALTERNANCE AND \ TRANSITION, GRUPPO STUDI LIUTART VIOLIN MAKING WORK BOOK N’13 " THE VIOLIN AND [ITS REDUCED SIZES see eae = SS 2S SS SS SS SS VIOLIN tAFING Worm BOCK om, 13 "THE VIOLIN AND TTS REDUCED STRESM ‘IR REALIZATION OP THE GRUFPO STuDr LIVTARIY crimon 1980 ‘Tullio Pigols Oreanoloey teckniosan Organology technietan Organology technician Roharte Softdentinie Paolo Palosohi velerio Lustants* Organelogy tecnniesan trina Travagtn Organclogy techaicten Mariaroaa Peroni Oryavology techatoian cro maT woRASST snglish translation Violin Maker Carlos Funes ‘Sf ss SS SS Ss Se Ss = = RR EPACE In thie publication, represented are the results of a research in vhich ain 16 the settling down, in objective terms, the different sizes of the violin. Because of the constant ambiguity in the current distinctions of ma- ‘terial; the problem of rational research or the appropriate settling down of the conventional aises with analitical method had to be confronted. In the descriptive part that follows, the conclusions are obviously derived by mathematical means. Conclusions have been verified in the “Civic tuseun" - Cremona, thim the measurements of every single part of ‘the violin, distinct from each mould, have been sumerized and filed. It cones into consideration that the measurements brought forth, even ‘though Linked to the stradivarian conception in relations, should not be understood in rigid terms; rather as a media that permits the possibility of moderate otylical variations. In summary it 1s considered appropriate simplifying the discourse by bringing forth the principal aimensions of sone instruments by fanous Makerst MeKER/YEAR renoHT POST, KIDTH SUP. WIDTE Moold anaté 1671 352,5 201,6 162 Meo Amati 1682 354 209.5 169.9 antonio Stradivari 1654 349.3 200 160.3 antonio Stradivart 1689 357.2 209.6 171.5 antonio Stradivari 1718 358.2 209.6 169.9 andrea Guarneri 1660 349 200 162 andrea Guarneri 1676 356 206 166 ©, Guarneri del Good 1726 355.6 205 166 G. Guarneri del Gosd 1730 352 205 166 G. Guaimert del Gosh 1734 352 206 165 Te research de then completed with the "Aisgramhistogran™ that graphically represent the mathematical conclusions on the different sizes of the violin, let alone the plates, relutive to euch sige, are ‘the outlines and the "internal forms" of the instruments. ‘the "ff" and ‘the lateral profiles of the scrolls are worker veparstely. Ite furthe ‘out on the drawing board “more considered approvable to add in, some plates of eignificant instruments by great lakers of the past. THB _VIOETN AND TTS REDUCED sTzEs It is the aim of thie research to orguntcally synthetize the method used in determining the moacurenente of the aifferent parte of the violins by drawing out of origin the (by now consolidated) full or 4/¢ size frons, to arriving to the reduced dimentions of the forms. Piret of all it 1s conventent to clearly specify the fintlized details, ‘then to the fixation of the methodological criteria that presides the individualization of the sizes, criteria vhich is often applied in oxtomporancous ways if not ignored, to where the aifference of the moasurements of norm are attributed to one fixed eize or form. In exeption to the viola, the traditional sizes of the violins and cellos ure individualized and conststent in the following decressing order: 4/4 4/8 5 5/4 5 1/25 1/4 In such a vay, the relations would not seen correlated in mathenatical vonse to any of the measurements of tho full size form. In which, perhape, At Le the motive to these confusions in the references. Ao the matter of fact, the accurate analysts has evidenced out the Ampropriate formations of the ambigual references. It 1s to be understood that for instance cise 1/4 refers to the body of the inotrument which hae juced Lenght of 1/4 reepecting the body lenght of the full (4/4) etze. ‘Take for example the current measurement of the body 355 mm. (tr. Violin Berthier 1716 of A. Stradivari) the measurement 1/4 ie obtained: 356 mo. = 1/4 x 356 = 356 ~ 89 = 267 mm. corripendent, ac example to the body lencht of viclin "L'Atglon" 1734 A, Stradivari (internal form lenght including end blocks, 260 mm. - Cremona ~ Civic Naseun). So, on the gurface difference of the two bodies, in the 4/4 and 1/4, it ie therefore about operating the eubdivisions according to the relations given above, to serve, as we'll ace, for caloulating the reduced boty sizes. REDUCTNG TER SIZBS USING S.c.D For calculating it ts necessary to use the smallest connon denoainator, in which we!31 huver Yeaditional relations: 4/4 4 1/8 5 3/4 5 Ves “a 5:0: relations 1 8/8 5 1/8 + 6/8 5 5/8; 4/8; 3/8 + 2/8 It 19 obviously evident thet alse 5/8 and 5/@ are missing in the tra~ ditional reductions; those measurements come assinilated impropriately in their neighboring relations for exess or defect. YIOLIN CALCULMITON OP BODY SURFACE 4/4 — EYUIVATENT REOTANGLE Yow, proceeding with the surface differences already given and the profile complexity of the coneidered inetrumont chown, We need to put into effect ‘the integration of the 4/4 belly by way of the integrating instrument (planineter) or, by means of subdivieions of the form surface ie many simple geouetric figures (rectangle, triangles, traperoids) therefore operating the sums of the respective elementary area. It ie felt appropriate to avoid the reader with such an operation 80 reported and already calculated, the integrated belly surface of the 4/4 violin, results - mu2 52.807 (at the end of the following calculations, the meaguremente are not critical). It ts necessary at the and to semplify the operations, proceeding with ‘the equivalent rectangle; or else by having the same belly surface, apply- ing the conditions that the height of the eyuivalont rectangle be the game lenght aa the belly considered. The octaves in reduction are therefore 6, in which we'll havet surface aifference mm2 23.103 1 6 = 3850,5 mn? nto ao the constant of surface in reducing octave after which repre octave or elees violin belly 7/8 (veliy surface 8/8) um2 52,607 - 3850,5 = 48,956,5 mm2 which is the belly surface of size 7/8. Now utilising ite equivalent rectangle having the height the same a ‘the lenght of the 7/8 belly, and the bape in 2,4 relation ueing "nh" a0 height we'll haves nx 2 = 40.956,5 4m whtoh 24 2 = 2,4 x 40,956,5 and therefore b= VATS ——= 342,776 mo which is rounded to 343 am. LikewLee for the other reductions violin 6/e (velly surface 7/8) m2 48.956,5 ~ 3850,5 = 45.105 mm2 VOTE WTO = 329,02 rounded to 350 mm. violin 5/8 (velty surface 6/8) mm? 45,106 ~ 3850,5 = 41.255,5 mk be VESTS TES = 314,56 rounsed to 315 mm Molin 4/6 (vetly surface 5/8) m2 41.255,5 ~ 3850,5 = 37.405 ame n= V2)Px WAS = 299,62 rounded to 300mm violin 3/8, (eiay surface 4/8) mm2 37.405 - 3850/5 = 33.554,5 mn? = YOPETESTS = 285,78 rounded to 264 mm violin 2/8 (verity eurtace 3/8) m2 35.554,5 - 3050,5 = 29.704 mz he VOPR TET = 267 nw ‘The results of the bases for the eyutvalent rectangles are: size 8/8 (4/4) mm. 356/24 = 148,93 om = size 1/0 mn, 343/24 143 mn size 6/8 (3/4) mm. 350/2,4 = 137,5 mm ~ pine 5/8 mn, 315/2)4 = 131,25 mm = etze 4/8 (1/2) mm. 300/24 = 125 mm = size 3/8 mm. 264/2)4 = 118,33 mm = ofze 2/8 (1/4) am. 267/2,4 = 111,25 nm QUAPHTC _REPRRSENTATT ON Im design plate "A", represented te the iagram-histogram which purmerizes the description now operated. As a matter of fact, the eyui~ valent rectangles to the sequence of the sises are represented in decreasing order. Por the equivalent rectangles to sizes 4/4 and 1/4, the semtpro~ files of the respective plates of the intruments have been traced. he somiprofile of a small violin, size 1/24, ha aloo been traced, the form of that intrunont ic attributed to antonio Stradivari and existent in the "Cresona Civie Kuseun", having e lenght (including viocks) of 157 m. [sraumenro violin Particolare a Sal Yalta "et? 53 | 26. 2a | 29 [30 | _ 1 \e Farlas 4a | ta | 13 | 45/15} 40] r7\ ral 49] 2 6 |65\o8| 7 78/8 a4 (43 | 46 | 48 | 50 | 52 | 54 a us| 42 |1e5| 13 |5| 4% | 34 | 40 | 42 | ou |46| 48 | 50 a jusle jes) a |as\ 4 20 | 2 | 22 | 23 |24 | 25 |Z t 9 |95| 10 |r05| 4 |r05| 72 | t | 20| 2 | 22 | 23 | 24 25 40 \40.5| 4 | 14.5| 42 |125| 13 ecaonpvoesrat-rommono drift. N< x eae | || ttecto Yel Val Yul Dovoesrat-roamono die €