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venturi meter

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VENTURI METER

BASIC TERMS

Flow Rate(v)

Turbulent Flow

Laminar Flow

discontinues.

No disturbances in the flow, continues.

Venturimeter

device used for

measuring the rate of flow of a fluid flowing

through a pipe.

It consist of three parts,

Converging part

Throat

Diverging part

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Venturi meter works under the principle of Bernoulli's

equation and Continuity equation.

Bernaullis Equation

Continuity Equation

Where, P

V

1

2

A1

A2

V1

V2

PV = a constant

1A1V1 = 2A2V2

Pressure

Velocity

Density of converging fluid

Density of throat fluid

Pipe area

Throat area

Velocity of converging fluid

Velocity of throat

TYPES OF VENTURIMETER

Horizontal venturimeter

Inclined venturimeter

Vertical venturimeter

10

Incompressible fluids

11

B(m2,2,p2,v2)

A(m1,1,p1,v1)

Z1

Z2

At pt:-A

Datum

At pt:-B

P.E = g.z1

P.E = g.z2

V.E = v12

V.E = v22

Pre.E = P1/

Pre.E = P2/

12

g(Z1-Z2)+1/2(V12+V22)=(P2-P1)/

If Z1=Z2

As per law at continuity

A1V1=A2V2

V1= A2/A1 V2

&

V2= A1/A2 V1

[(A2/A1)*V22-V22]=P/

V22=(A12/A22-A12) * 2P/

13

Q2=A2.V2= A1.A2 *

2P/

(A22-A12)

Q 2P

Theoretical--

Original--

Q2=M.(2Pg)/

Q2=CdE M(2P)/

M- velocity approach factor

Q-over all volumetric flow rate

Cd-coefficient of discharge

E- thermal expansion factor

14

Q2=Cd.E.M.A22g {hm(sg-1)-(Zx-Zy)}

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flow rate is to be measured, a pressure drop occurs between the

entrance and throat of the venturimeter. This pressure drop is

measured using a differential pressure sensor and when

calibrated this pressure drop becomes a measure of flow rate.

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CONSTRUCTION

The entry of the venture is cylindrical in shape to match the size of

the pipe through which fluid flows. This enables the venture to be

fitted to the pipe.

After the entry, there is a converging conical section with an

included angle of 19 to 23.

Following the converging section, there is a cylindrical section

with minimum area called as the throat.

After the throat, there is a diverging conical section with an

included angle of 5 to 15.

Openings are provided at the entry and throat of the venturi meter

for attaching a differential pressure sensor.

17

MANOMETER

The differential pressure sensor used here is

Manometer.

Manometer is a device to measure pressure.

A common simple manometer consists of a U shaped

tube of glass filled with some liquid.

Manometers measure a pressure difference by

balancing the weight of a fluid column between the two

pressures of interest. Large pressure differences are

measured with heavy fluids, such as mercury (high

density).

Small pressure differences, such as those experienced in

experimental wind tunnels or venturi flowmeters are

measured by lighter fluids such as water .

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OPERATION

The fluid whose flow rate is to be measured enters the entry

section of the venturi meter with a pressure P1.

keeps on reducing and attains a minimum value P2 when it

enters the throat. That is, in the throat, the fluid pressure P2

will be minimum.

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the venturi meter records the pressure difference(P1-P2) which

becomes an indication of the flow rate of the fluid through the

pipe when calibrated.

regain its pressure and hence its kinetic energy. Lesser the angle

of the diverging section, greater is the recovery.

converging

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SAMPLE PROBLEM

A horizontal venturimeter with 15 cm inlet . 7.5 cm throat is used for

measurement of flow of water .The differential pressure between inlet

and throat is 17.5 cm, when measured using U-TUBE manometer. Make

the calculations for the water flow rate where Cd for venturi is 0.97.

Specific gravity =13.6.

Sol: Q2= Cd . E . M . A2 2g{ hm [(m/ )-1]}

M=A1/A12-A22

A1=*d2/4=*152/4=176.71 , A2=*d2/4=*7.52/4=44.178

M= 1.03

Q2=0.97

* 1* 1.03* 44.1782*9.8*17.5(13.6-1)

3

23

PRESSURE IN PIPELINE

24

APPLICATIONS

1

25

ADVANTAGES

1

26

DISADVANTAGES

1

27

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