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1.

0 Summary
The aim of this experiment is to synthesize methane, ethene, and ethyne and to
characterize the prepared methane, ethene, and ethyne. Hydrocarbons, which contain only of
hydrogen and carbon, are divided into three classification which are aliphatic, aromatic, and
alicyclic. For this experiment, the hydrocarbons involved are aliphatic. Aliphatic is defined as an
open chains of single, double, or triple bonded carbon atoms, which are known as alkane, alkene
and alkyne. The experiment started with the preparation and collection of ethane, ethene and
ethyne gases into 5 different test tubes for each gases. In the reaction with bromine, ethene
decolourized the brown colour of the bromine solution. Alkane will only react with the presence
of light, while alkene and alkyne can react with or without the presence of sunlight. When the
gases are reacted with potassium permanganate solution, only ethene and ethyne reacted because
the double and triple bonds were oxidized to form alcohols and glycerol. In the reaction with
acidified potassium permanganate, methane shows no change in result, while ethene and ethyne
changed the solution to light purple and brownish, because alkene and alkyne are unsaturated
hydrocarbons which are oxidised when it was reacted.

2.0 Aim
The aim of this experiment to synthesize and characterize the prepared methane, ethane and
ethyne.

3.0 Introduction
Hydrocarbon solvent are compound that consist only carbon and hydrogen atom which can be
classified into aliphatic and aromatic solvent (Cheremisinoff & Archer, 2003). According to
Fernandes, 2008 aliphatic is a straight chain hydrocarbon while aromatic is a cyclic hydrocarbon.
Most of aliphatic compound is highly flammable which they can be use as source a fuel.
Aliphatic compound can be classified into two which are saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Saturated hydrocarbon is aliphatic hydrocarbons in which all the carbon-carbon bond are single
bond while the unsaturated bond is aliphatic hydrocarbons in which carbon-carbon bond may be
double or triple bond. The example of saturated aliphatic bond are alkane or paraffin while the
example of unsaturated aliphatic bond are alkene and alkyne.

4.0

Theory

Saturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon


Alkane is member of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon with only single bonds between the atoms
which can be either straight-chain or branched-chain. One of alkane member is methane.
Methane is the most simplest alkane that contain one atom of carbon and four atoms of
hydrogen. In order to obtain methane by using reduction of any halogenated derivatives of
alkane. This type of reaction involves the replacement of one or more atoms of halogen.

RX

reductio

HX

The methane will almost have no reaction in the dark after test with bromine in carbon
tetrachloride. This is because the bromine colour is gradually discharged as the substitution
reaction proceeds and hydrogen bromide (HBr) is evolved. In order to test for HBr, HBr will
dissolve in the moisture of breath and form a cloud of droplets.

Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon


Alkene and Alkyne are the member of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon with double (for alkene)
and triple (for alkyne) bond. Ethene is the one alkene member and it can be synthesize by using
dehydration of alcohols using aluminium oxide as catalyst or dehydration of alcohols using an
acid catalyst. (Chemwiki.ucdavis.edu, 2013)
Dehydration of alcohols using aluminium oxide as catalyst:
AlO2
CH3CH2OH3CH2=CH2+H2O

Two tests another can be carried for alkene and alkyne by dissolved in carbon tetrachloride:

a. Bromine, dissolved in carbon tetrachloride , adds rapidly to alkenes at room temperature


to

form

3RHC

CHR

dibromides

Br 2

Br

Br

Evidence for the reaction is the disappearance of the bromine colour, even in the dark
with no evolution of hydrogen bromide
b. Baeyer Test. Alkenes react with neutral permanganate solution to form glycols while
Alkynes give positive Baeyer Test for unsaturation with aqueous potassium
permanganate.

3RHC

OH

OH

CHR

2MnO4

2 KMnO4

4H2O

2 KOH

Dark Brown
Precipitate

Purpl
e

7.0

Experimental Results
Observation

No

Test

Methane

Ethane

Ethyne

Bubbles are
produced. Colourless
solution remains
unchanged.

No changes in
solution.

The colourless
solution turns chalky.

Colourless solution
remains unchanged.

Colourless solution
remains unchanged.

Colourless solution
remains unchanged.

Bubbles are
produced.

No changes in
solution.

Colourless solution
turned chalky and
produced bubbles.

SET 1A
1

Tubes left in darkness

SET 1B
2

Tubes left in a bright light

SET 1A & 1B
3

Blowing across the mouth of


each of the test tubes

SET 2A

Purple colour
solution of
potassium
permanganate
remained
unchanged.

Purple colour of
potassium
permanganate solution
turn into dark purple.

Purple colour of
potassium
permanganate
solution turned into
dark brown with
pungent smell and
precipitate.

No changes in purple
colour of potassium
permanganate
solution.

No changes in purple
colour of potassium
permanganate
solution.

Purple solution of
potassium
permanganate turns
into dark brown.

Purple colour of
potassium
permanganate
solution remains
unchanged.

Purple colour of
potassium
permanganate solution
turns into light purple.

Purple colour of
potassium
permanganate
solution turns into
dark brown.

2 ml of 0.3% potassium
permanganate solution

SET 2B

1ml Alkaline potassium


permanganate

SET 2C
6

8.0

2ml Acidified potassium


permanganate solution

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

1. What do `saturated and `unsaturated mean when applied to hydrocarbons? Give examples of a
saturated and an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
SATURATED HYDROCARBONS is a hydrocarbon in which carbon atoms are bonded with a
single covalent bond only are called saturated. Examples of saturated hydrocarbons are Methane,
Ethane, and Propane. The general formula for alkane or saturated hydrocarbon is CnH2n+2.
UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS is a hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded
with a double covalent bond or triple covalent bond is called unsaturated hydrocarbon. There are
two types of unsaturated hydrocarbons; alkenes and alkynes. ALKENE is an unsaturated
hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded with a double covalent bond is called
alkene. Examples of alkene: Ethene, Propene, Butene. The general formula is CnH2n.
ALKYNES is an unsaturated hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded with a triple
covalent bond is called alkyne. Examples of alkyne: Ethyne, Propyne, Butyne. The general
formula is CnH2n-2

2. Give Five (5) sources of methane.


i) Hydroelectric dams- When a dam is built, the area behind the dam is flooded by water that can
no longer travel where it used to flow. That leaves a potentially huge amount of vegetable
matter (plants and trees) that use to exist in the open air rotting beneath the surface of the
water. Rotting vegetation produces methane, and in normal situations that methane would
escape into the atmosphere in incremental doses. But the rotting plants behind a dam store
up their methane in the mud. When the supply of water lowers behind a dam, all of that
stored-up methane can suddenly be released.
ii) Rice- Rice is grown in flooded fields, a situation that depletes the soil of oxygen. Soils that are
anaerobic (lacking oxygen) allow the bacteria that produce methane from decomposing
organic matter to thrive. Some of this methane then bubbles to the surface, but most of it is
diffused back into the atmosphere through the rice plants themselves.
iii)

Semiconductors- the semiconductors in computers and mobile devices are produced using
several different methane gases, including trifluoromethane, perfluoromethane and
perfluoroethane. Some of this gas escapes in the waste process.

iv)

Composting- Home or business composting is a great way to get rid of organic waste such
as yard trimmings and food scraps and transform them into something useful. But it's not
without its downside: The act of composting produces both carbon dioxide and methane.

v)

Ocean microbes- As much as 4 percent of the planet's methane comes from the ocean.
According to scientists from the University of Illinois and Institute for Genomic Biology,
the ocean-based microbe Nitrosopumilus maritimus produces methane through a complex
biochemical process the researchers referred to as "weird chemistry." It was a totally
unexpected discovery that all other microbes known to produce methane can't tolerate
oxygen, which is found in both the air and water.

3. Describe reactions that are characteristics of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.

Alkanes- Alkanes considered difficult substances react so-called paraffin which means little
affinity. The most important reaction of alkanes is combustion reactions, substitution and
cracking.

i)

Combustion

Complete combustion of alkanes to produce gas CO 2 and water vapor, while the incomplete
combustion produces CO gas and water vapor, or soot (carbon particles).
ii) Substitution
Atom H from alkanes can be replaced by other atoms, especially the halogen group.
Replacement H atom by atom or another group called substitution reaction. One of the most
important substitution reactions of alkanes are halogenated alkanes, namely the replacement
of H atoms by halogen atoms, especially chlorine. Chlorination can occur if the alkane is
reacted with chlorine.

iii) Cracking
Cracking is breaking the carbon chains into pieces shorter. It can occur when the alkane is
heated at high temperature and high pressure without oxygen. This reaction can also be used
to make alkenes from alkanes. It can also be used to create hydrogen gas from alkanes.
Alkenes-alkenes more reactive than alkanes. This is because the double bond C = C. Alkene
reactions mainly occur at the double bond. Important reactions of alkenes include: combustion
reactions, addition and polymerization.
i)

Combustion
As with alkanes, alkenes low interest flammable. If burned in the open air, alkenes produce
more soot than alkanes. This happens because the alkene have higher levels of C than alkanes,
so that combustion demands / needs more oxygen.

ii) Addition
The most important reactions of alkenes are addition reactions that bond saturation reactions.

iii) Polymerization
The

reaction

of

incorporation

of

simple.

Molecules

into

large

molecules.

Simple molecules called monomers undergo polymerization, while the result is called a
polymer.
Alkynes- These reactions are similar to the alkyne alkene; to saturate double bonds, requiring
alkyne reagent 2 times more than the alkene. The most important reactions of alkenes and
alkynes are addition reactions with H 2, the addition of the halogen (X 2) and the addition of
the acid halide (HX). In addition reaction gas HX (X = Cl, Br or I) to alkenes and alkynes
Markovnikov rules apply, namely: If the C atom bonded dual binding of different amounts of
H atoms, the atom X will be bound to the atom C a few atoms bind H. If the C atom bonded
to duplicate the number of H atoms bind together a lot, then the atom X will be bound to C
atoms that have the most long-chain C
4. Write a balance equation for the reaction which methane was obtained by the reduction of
chloroform.
CHCl3 + 3H2 CH4 + 3HCl
5.

Provide 2 (TWO) other methods of collecting gas that can be used in this experiment.

i)A method for preparing and collecting a gas less dense (lighter) than air by heating solid
reactants. The less dense gas rises into, and displaces, the more dense air downwards. This
method of gas preparation is called upward delivery.
Method for preparing and collecting a gas more dense (heavier) than air by heating the

ii)

reactants. The more dense gas sinks down into, and displaces, the less dense air upwards.
This method of gas preparation is called downward delivery.
9.0

Conclusion

The purpose of the experiment is to prepare and characterize methane, ethene, and ethyne
gases. Throughout the experiment, we can conclude that in the reaction with bromine solution,
each of the hydrocarbons will react. Alkane can only react with the presence of light, while
alkene and alkyne can react in the presence or absence of light. In the reaction with potassium

permanganate solution and acidified potassium permanganate solution, only ethene and ethyne
reacted. There were few possible errors that occurred during the experiment. Firstly, the gases
collected in the test tubes were expelled to the air when the stopper was pushed out of the
mouth of the test tubes due to pressure. Next, the water from the basin that entered the test
tubes while collecting the gases might have affected the reactions being conducted. Based on
the results and its analysis that goes along with the hydrocarbon theories, we can conclude that
we have achieved the aim of this experiment.