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II. A SCAI,E FOR ALL OCCASIONS


This piece utilizes the following symmetrical scale which alternates a minor 3rd and a half step.

The scale can be used in a variety of situations due to it having the minor 3rd, major 3rd, sharp 5 and major'
of the tonic. This works well with major 7th, sharp 5 or flat 5, and if lou flat the 7th G);you can use it to color dor
nant 7th chords.

The tonal center of the piece is G and pretty much uses the one scale in a variety of ways. Eighth notes shor
be played long and legato (connected) and evenly.
I was hearing this one as aiazz & funk piece with a Middle Eastern flavor. Try figuring out another groove

might work with swing, hip-hop, etc.


When playing on the blues, try to interject this scale in your solo. If the piano player is listening, he/she v
compliment your line with a major 7th shaqp 5 chord or perhaps a dominant 7th altered chord.

Example:

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III. A FUNKY STATE

This piece developed out of something I used to do on Bass Clarinet and later transferred to Tenor Sax. I
involves playing typical funk and blues licks combined with bass notes and implied chord changes to create the sensa
tion of a whole rhythm section playing with the soloist.
One of the first people I heard doing this was Eddie Harris (listen to "Listen Hetre" and "Compared To What'
on Les McCann-Eddie Harris "Swiss Movement"). Eddie is an unsung hero to me!
Playing this one is a great way to work on your internal time as well as being able to imply the "feel" that thr
rhythm section typically sets up in a groove of this kind. You will find many of the common pentatonic and blues-typr
melodies usually associated with funk-blues. The large interval skips will make this one easier to play on some instru
ments than on others.
TITINGS TO LOOK FOR
1. The scale most used in this piece is a form of pentatonic. It can be used over both dominant 7th aqd minor
7th chords.

2. Avaiation of this scale incorporates both major and minor 3rds and has the same
(A possible use)

uses.

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V. OVER THE BAR

LINE

Over The Bar Line was inspired by the Bach Cello Suites and should be approached the same way musicall
Playing legato and building or receding the intensity of the line will help the performince of the piece.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
1. Although the meter is 3/4 there are five note groups, thus creating an over-the-bar-line
situation.
2. The notes with a line (
) over it should be emphasized slightly. Typically, they are
"bass notes" and can be-played a bit longer.
3. This piece utilizes some of the chords I typically use in my compositions. They are
employed "broken chord style" ala Bach. Steve Reich has done similar things with
this technique.This way of writing enables a single note instrument to create the sensation of playing chords. The key to achieving this is playing smoothly and giving
every note full value.

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VIII" SYNCOPATED ACCENTS


-_____

This piece deals with setting up a groove and accenting the designated notes (those v:ith an > over them). Th
tr6th notes sttould be played as accurately as possible and the accented notes can really stancl out with the non-accente
notes treing considerably sofier.
Ftaying something like this is a good opportunity to work on time and feel. This piece is written in a funk c
fusion style, although it can be approached as a rhythmic exercise not related to groove as well.

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I,OOK FOR
1.

Again, the predominant scale used is pentatonic and is typical of fr-rnk and trlues piaving.

2. Ivleasures 3 and 4 of letter B use the pentatonic with rnajor and minor 3rd reiat-ionships.

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This approach makes a rhythrnically interesting solo by instigating tension (caused by


syncopation) and release (playing more on the beat).

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IX. RHYTHM CHANGES - WIIAT'g T[trE }YORD?

Here's a little tune I wrote based on "I Got Rhythm." Rhythm changes are a great vehicle for improvising ir
that the harmony is from the great old songs of the '20's and '30's and is open enough to allow for many different vari
ations. The tune is f"r:und trom letter A through letter C and the "blowing" begins at letter D. I attempted to trav'e
through a variety of improvising styles in the soloing section including Coltrane, Lester Young, Sonny Stitt, Charlit
Parker and Dexter Gr:rdon.
Again, this one is steeped in the jazz "langlage." To fully play this music with the right inflection, it is essentia
to put the language in your ears. Go buy the records of the above mentioned afiists (and more - Miles Davis, Sonn;
Rollins, etc.) and wear them outi
TTTINGS TO LOOK FOR
1. The tune (A-C) is in the bop tradition. The bridge uses the #9, #11 of the dominant 7th
chords t0 create a colorful sound"
2. Measr.ires 1 & 2 of letter D are a typical "send off' for a bop solo. The whole rhythm
section can play this. It could also be repeared at the top of each solo.
3. Measure 7 of letter F is a iilV up a half step (A#m7 D#7/l,:m7 D7) eomrnonly used in
this style.
4. At ietter G, measures 1 - 4 are a littie variation on the changes (G7 Bt E7 N7 Db7.
etc.) This progression, like the Coltrane changes, sorves as an "arc" up over the original
changes.
5. At letter H, measures 1 - 4 and at letter I, I - 4 are Coltrane's alternate changes. This
is one way to go "outside" with a plan.
6. Letter J is a nice variation on the briclge changes using tritone substitutions and a half
step above iiiY" The eighth measure of letter J is a tritone substitution, also"

RHYTF{

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XI. FIVE.FOUR.

Here is a piece in 5t4meter. This one should be played with long eighth notes and connecting notes to forr
smooth phrases is essential. The use of the broken chords is inspired by the writing of J.S. Bach.
All of us need to get in the habit of reading and improvising in odd meters. The goal is to make an odd mete
feel like 4/4.
Again, watch the dynamics and try to get the eighth notes even and consistently played with good timing.

THINGS TO LOOK FOR


1. Emphasize the notes which have a tenuto mark (-) or accented tenuto mark over
them. They are the roots of the chords.
2.Pay attention to the dynamics!
3. As an exercise, try to analyze the chords formed by the lines I have written. Play them
on a keyboard.

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XII. MAKE IT FUNKY AGAIN

This is another funk piece which encompasses bass, melody and changes in a single line tune. The tonic i
played as the bass part and then I build a variety of things on top of that.
Plenty of standard funk licks are here as well as a few suqprises. This piece demonstrates that you can write a
open improvisatory situation. In this case, G is the key center. I have gone through many different quality chords b
playing off of the G bass notes. The sky's the limit.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
1. This should be played in such a way that you hear the rhythm section in your head and
can convey the "feel" through your performance.
2. Letter C is still in the key of G. I used the 3rd and #9th of G7 to play the accompaniment groove.
3. The bar before letter

D and letter E, use a broken #11 dominant chord, e.g. A7(#11)

This can be used in many settings and should be played and practiced in all keys.

XI IIAI{T IT TUNKY A64IN


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X[I. SWINGIN'-

NO CHANGES

This piece is a swing-feel improvisation which doesn't have chord changes. Instead, I nse jazzphrases a
melodic themes to suggest what will come next, moving from note to note in the moment.
Playing this and other stuff like this in duet with a drummer is a great thing to do. When playing with dru
only (minus piano and bass), you are free to explore all kinds of melodic avenues. It's very good for your time a
melodic sense.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
1. The opening

is played every fourth

rhythm

measure in the beginning of the piece and serves as a irnifying device.

2. Some sections are busy and full of continuous eighth notes and some sections are
sparse and have rhythms such as

making for a sense of change, building and contrast.


3. I try to take a melodic and/or rhythmic theme and develop them. A good example is
letter E. Measures I - 2,5 - 6,9 - 10, and 13 - 14 take a motif and build on it.
4. Letter F is in the area of Bb. I used pentatonics to create the sound of Bb7sus.
5. Letter G, measures 5 - 8 use descending major triads moving on whole steps. You can
also move triads in minor thirds or major thirds.

TIIT, SWI NG!N'- NO CHANGES


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XIY. FAST!

Like the title reads, this piece is quick, fairly diatonic and easy to hear for the purpose of dealing with a blazir
tempo. I have found it is best to start with something simple in working on playing fast, and then moving on to thin
that are more complex (perhaps that will be a piece in book II).
Practipe this slowly at first with a metronome, gradually increasing the tempo once you are comfortable wi
the tempo at hand.
Here's a hint - one thing that can help you to play fast is to establish strong beats every other measure, e.g.

This is much less cumbersome than tapping on every quarter note. The idea is to have groups of eight
rather than groups of single beats.
BLAZE ON!

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