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ANATOMY Physiology

of the
Nervous System
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The Nervous System


The nervous system coordinates

all body functions, enabling a


person to adapt to changes in
internal and external environment
The nervous system is composed
mainly of the nerve cells (neurons)
and supporting cells (neuroglia)

The neuron
This is the basic
conducting cell of the
nervous system
Highly specialized but
cannot reproduce itself
Main parts are the cell
body (soma), the fibers:
axon and dendrites.

The neuron
The axon is a long process

with myelin sheath. This


conducts impulses away from
the cell body

The dendrites are short, thick,

diffuse branching processes


that receive impulses and
conduct them towards the cell
body

The NEURON
The nervous

system is
composed of
neurons, which
produce and
conduct
electrochemical
impulses and
supporting
cells, which
assist the
functions of
neurons.

The neuroglia
The supporting cells
They supply nutrients to the

neurons and help maintain the


electrical potential
They also form part of the bloodbrain barrier
They are made up of macroglia,
microglia and ependymal cells

The neuroglia
Oligodendrocytes produce

myelin sheath in the CN


Scwhann cells or lemmocytes
produce myelin sheath in the
peripheral NS

The Organization of the Nervous


System
The nervous system is divided
functionally and structurally
into 2 parts
1. Central Nervous System- the
Brain and the spinal cord
2. Peripheral Nervous Systemthe cranial nerves and spinal
nerves

The Organization of the nervous


System
The Peripheral Nervous System is

further classified into THREE


Functional Divisions
1. The Somatic Nervous Systemcontrols the skeletal muscles
2. The Autonomic Nervous Systemcontrols the visceral organs
3. The Enteric Nervous Systemcontrols the functions of the GIT

The Central Nervous System


Composed of the brain
The brain consists of the gross
structures: cerebrum, cerebellum,
brainstem and the diencephalon.
Diencephalon- Thalamus.
Hypothalamus and pineal body
Brainstem- Pons, medulla and
Midbrain

Brain

3rd ventricle
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Cerebellum
4th ventricle
Spinal cord

Cortex
Corpus callosum
Septum pellucidum
Fornix
Optic chiasma
Hypophysis
Brain stem

The Cerebrum
This is the largest part of the brain
Consists of right and left hemisphere

connected by the corpus callosum


Each cerebral hemisphere is
composed of different lobes- frontal,
temporal, parietal and occipital
Embedded in the cerebrum is the
BASAL ganglia

The Frontal Lobe of the


cerebrum
Influences the
personality of the
person
Also responsible for
judgment, abstract
reasoning, social
behavior, language
expression and motor
movement.

The Temporal lobe of the


Cerebrum

This part of the


cerebrum controls the
hearing, language
comprehension,
storage and recall of
memories
The LIMBIC system is
deeply located in the
temporal lobe. This
controls the basic
drives such as hunger,
anger, emotion and
sexual drive.

The Parietal lobe of the


cerebrum
This is the principal
center for the
reception and
interpretation of
Sensation
This part interprets
and integrates the
sensory inputs like
touch, temperature
and pain
It interprets size,
shape, distance and
texture

The occipital lobe of the


cerebrum
This

functions
mainly to
interpret
visual stimuli

Speech areas in the


cerebrum
1. Wernickes area- responsible

for the sensory reception of


speech.
2.Brocas Area- responsible for

the motor speech

The Cerebellum
The second largest brain region
Has also two hemispheres
Functions to maintain muscle tone,

coordinate muscle movement, posture


and control balance/equilibrium
If this is damaged, muscle tone
decreases and fine motor movements
become very clumsy

The Brainstem
Lies inferior to the cerebrum
Continuous with the cerebrum and

the spinal cord


It is composed of the midbrain, the
pons and the medulla oblongata
Functions: houses the center for
respiration and cardiovascular
system

The Midbrain
This connects with the

cerebrum
Contains numerous
ascending and descending
tracts and fibers

The Pons

Connects the cerebellum

with the cerebrum


Houses the respiratory
center and cardiovascular
center
Exit points for cranial nerves
5, 6 and 7

The Medulla oblongata


The most inferior portion of the

brainstem
Serves as the center for autonomic
reflexes to maintain homeostasis,
regulating respiratory vasomotor
and cardiac functions
Serves as exit of cranial nerves
9,10,11 and 12

The
Diencephalon
The thalamus and the
hypothalamus
The thalamus is the relay
station of all sensory
stimuli towards the brain
The hypothalamus
controls body
temperature, appetite,
water balance, pituitary
secretions and sleepwake cycle

Brain circulation: The circle of


Willis

The spinal cord


A long cylindrical structure extending

from the foramen magnum to the L1


in adult, L3/L4 in pedia
In the cross section of the spinal cord,
we find the GRAY matter- contains
neurons; and WHITE matter-consists
of nerve fibers
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
that exit the spinal cord

The spinal cord


Each spinal nerve is formed by

the dorsal root (sensory) and


the ventral root (motor)
Cervical segments= 8 pairs
Thoracic segments=12 pairs
Lumbar= 5 pairs
Sacral=5 pairs
Coccygeal=1 pair

The Meninges
These are 3 connective tissue layers

surrounding the brain and spinal cord.


1. DURA MATER- the superficial, thickest
layer. The area above the dura mater is
called epidural space
2. ARACHNOID- second layer, thin and wispy.
3. PIA MATER- the deepest layer, adhered to
the brain and spinal cord substance

The Meninges
The space in between

the arachnoid and pia


mater is called the
arachnoid space
This arachnoid space
contains the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
In this space, blood
vessels are also found

The Ventricles
These are CSF filled cavities in the

brain
The lateral ventricle- found in the
cerebrum
The third ventricle- in the center of
the thalamus and hypothalamus
The fourth ventricle- located at the
base of the cerebellum

The CSF
This is the fluid found inside the

ventricles that bathe the brain and


spinal cord
Function: provides protective
cushion around the CNS
Produced by the choroid plexus in
the ventricles
Absorbed by the arachnoid
granulations

Tracing the CSF pathway


Lateral ventricle Interventricular

foramen of Monro Third


ventricle Cerebral aqueduct of
Sylvius
fourth ventricle
exits trough the median foramen of
Magendie or the lateral foramen of
Luscka Subarachnoid spaces in
the cisterna magna, spinal cord
subarachnoid space of the brain
superior sagittal sinus

The cranial nerves

Are 12 pairs of nerves that exit

the brain
Can be classified as
Sensory
Motor mixed (sensory and
motor)

The Autonomic Nervous


System
The part of the peripheral

nervous system that innervates


cardiac muscles, smooth
muscles and glands
Functionally divided into
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous
System

The SYMPATHETIC system


Originates from the T1-L2/L3

segments of the spinal cord


(thoracolumbar)
Utilized by the body for FLIGHT
and FIGHT response
Neurotransmitter agents are
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
(coming from the adrenal gland)
ADRENERGIC system

Sympathetic nervous system


Pupils
Salivary glands

Heart

T1
T2

Bronchi of lungs

T3
T4
T5

Liver

T6

Stomach

T7
T8

Small intestines

T9
T10

Adrenal gland

T11
T12
L1

Kidney

Large intestine

L2
L3

Rectum
Bladder
Genitals

Sympathetic responses
Increased:

HR
RR
BP
Visual Acuity (Pupillary Dilation)
Smooth Muscle tone sphincters

are contracted
Vasoconstriction
Metabolism glucose, fatty acids

Sympathetic responses
Decreased
Peristalsis
Salivary secretions
Ejaculation

Parasympathetic System
CHOLINERGIC system
The vegetative system
Feed and Breed responses
Cranio-sacral location
Cranial nerves- 3, 7, 9, 10 and S2-S4
Neurotransmitter is Acetylcholine

Parasympathetic
nervous system

Pupils
Salivary glands

Heart

Bronchi of lungs
Liver
Stomach
Small intestines
Large intestine

Rectum
Bladder
Genitals

Parasympathetic
Responses

Increased

Gastric secretions
Salivary secretions
peristalsis
Pupillary constriction
Decreased
Smooth muscle tone sphincters are relaxed
erection

Nerve Physiology
The nerve cells are excitable cells
Any stimulus will change the

membrane potential and cause an


action potential to generate impulse
transmission or action potential
The myelin sheath of the nerve cell is
responsible for the SALTATORY
conduction increases the nerve
transmission

ACTION POTENTIAL
The synchronized opening and closing of

Na+ and K+ gates result in the movement


of electrical charges that generates a
nerve impulse or action potential.

Action potentials reach the end of each

neuron where these electrical signals


are either transmitted directly to the
next cell in the sequence via gap
junctions, or are responsible for
activating the release of specialized
neurotransmitter chemicals.

Terminologies
Action potential another name for spike potential

or nerve impulse
Depolarization upward oscilloscope deflection or
Na+ conductance is highest (hypopolarization)
All-or-None is when the action potential amplitude
never varies
Repolarization at this point, Na+ conductance is
falling rapidly and K+ conductance has peaked.
Absolute refractory period time of depolarization
(Na+ gates open)
Relative refractory period time of depolarization
(K+ gates open)
Hyperpolarization downward oscilloscope
deflection below resting

ACTION POTENTIAL AT
SYNAPSES
Electrical synapses

between excitable
cells allow ions to
pass directly from
one cell to another,
and are much
faster than
chemical synapses

An action potential at one node of Ranvier

causes inwards currents that move down the


axon, depolarizing the membrane and
stimulating a new action potential at the next
node of Ranvier.

What is saltatory conduction?


An action potential at one node of Ranvier
causes inwards currents that move down the
action, depolarizing the membrane and
stimulating a new action potential at the next
node of Ranvier.

The SYNAPSE

This is the region where

communication occurs between 2


neurons or between a neuron and a
target cell
A neurotransmitter is released
from the nerve cell towards the
other cell with receptor

Reflex Arc
The reflex arc is a hard wired, unconscious rapid
response to external stimulus involving spinal
nerves and effector cell.
A reflex is an automatic, involuntary response of an
organism to a stimulus.
The entire nervous system is composed of
innumerable reflex arcs.

REFLEXES IN MAN

Stretch reflex

Biceps reflex & Radial-ulnar


reflex

What is synaptic
transmission?

Synaptic transmission is the process by

which nerve cells communicate among


themselves and with muscles and glands.
The synapse is the anatomic site where this
communication occurs.
Most synaptic transmission is carried out by
a chemical called a neurotransmitter.

The neurotransmitter is
manufactured by the neuron and
stored in vesicles at the axon
terminals

When the action potential reaches the axon


terminal, it causes the vesicles to release
the neurotransmitter molecules into the
synaptic cleft.

The neurotransmitter diffuses across the


cleft and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cleft cell.
Then the activated receptors cause
changes in the activity of the post-synaptic
neuron.

The neurotransmitter molecules are


released from the receptors and
diffuse back into the synaptic cleft.

The neurotransmitter is reabsorbed


by the post synaptic neuron. This
process is known as reuptake.

Neurotransmitters

Physiology of Vision
Light waves travel at a speed of 186,000

miles per second. Light is reflected into the


eyes by objects within the field of vision.
In order to achieve clear vision, light
reflected from objects within the visual field
is focused in to the retina of both eyes.
The processes involved in producing a clear
image are refraction of the light rays and
accommodation of the eyes.

The eye and the visual


pathway

Vision is made possible by the stimulation

of the photoreceptor cells in the retina


Receptor cells are the RODS and CONES
The eye is made up of three layers
Fibrous layer- sclerae and cornea
Uvea- choroid and iris and ciliary bodies
Nervous coat- retina

Functions of the Parts of


the Eye

Lens refraction and focusing


Iris regulated light entrance
Pupil opening in the iris
Choroid absorbs stray light
Sclera for protection
Cornea refraction of light
Ciliary body holds lens in place
Retina contains receptors (rods and cones)
Rods for black and white vision
Cones for color vision
Optic nerve transmits impulse
Ciliary muscle for accommodation

The optic nerve


This is the collection of fibers

from the cells in the retina


It passes through the
brainstem as the optic chiasm
it will reach the occipital
lobe for visual interpretation

EMMETROPIA
Emmetropia is normal

vision.

Parallel light rays from

distant objects are in


sharp focus on the
retina when the ciliary
muscle is completely
relaxed.

This means that the

eye can see all distant


objects clearly, with
its ciliary muscle
relaxed, but to focus
objects at close range
it must provide
various degrees of
accommodation.

Myopia
Myopia or nearsightedness results from an

axial length of the eye that is too long for


the refractive power of the eye.
In this case, the focal point is in front of the
retina, thus, distant objects cannot be
focused on the retina.
An object can be seen clearly if it is moved
closer to the eye so that the image forms in
the retina.

Hyperopia results

from an axial
length of the eye
that is too short
for the refractive
power of the eye.
In this case,

distant objects
cannot be focused
clearly because
the focal point is
at the back of the
retina.

Astigmatism or
ghost vision is
when both far and
near objects
appear out of
focus. This is
because of the
uneven diameter
of the cornea
(oblong-shaped).
For light rays to
focus precisely on
the retina, the
cornea usually

Fovea & Macula


Fovea centralis is

an oval, yellowish
area with a
depression where
there are only cone
cells.

Size of the Pupils


Pupil size influences accommodation by

controlling the amount of light entering


the eye. In a bright light the pupils are
constricted. In a dim light they are dilated.
Contraction of the circular fibers constricts
the pupil, and contraction of the radiating
fibers dilate it.
The size of the pupil is controlled by
nerves of the ANS. Sympathetic
stimulation dilates the pupils and
parasympathetic stimulation causes
constriction.

What is Rhodopsin?
Rhodopsin or visual

purple is a
photosensitive
pigment present only
in the rods. It is
bleached by bright
light and when this
occurs the rods can
not be stimulated.
Rhodopsin is quickly
reconstituted when an
adequate supply of Vit
A is available.
The rate at which dark
adaptation takes place
is dependent upon the
rate of reconstitution
of rhodopsin.

PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING

How are sounds heard?


Sound waves cause movements of the

tympanic membrane and these


movements are both conveyed and
amplified by the middle ear ossicles
(malleus, incus, and stapes).
The vibrations transmitted to the ossicles
cause the foot plate of the stapes to
vibrate against the oval window thereby
transmitting them to the inner ear.
Thus air-borne sound waves are
transferred to the fluid in the inner ear.

The Vestibular apparatus


This is the part of the ear that

helps in equilibrium
Located in the inner ear
The saccule and utricle control
LINEAR motion
The semicircular ducts control
the Angular movement/
acceleration

Physiology of Smell
The sense of smell is

perceived when odorous


materials in the air are
carried into the nose
and stimulate the
olfactory cells.
Perception of odor
decreases and
eventually ceases due
to smell adaptation
The sense of smell may
affect the appetite

The Olfactory apparatus


Stimulation from the olfactory

nerves will reach the limbic


system of the brain
Consists of the nose and the
olfactory nerve

Primary Smell & Odor


System
6 primary types of
smell
Fragrant
Putrid
Spicy
Resinous
Burnt
Etheral

7 Odor System
Camphoraceous
Musky
Floral
Minty
Etheral
Pungent
Putrid

PHYSIOLOGY OF TASTE

The Gustatory apparatus


The receptor for taste are

cells in the tongue group


together called the taste
buds
They are numerous in the
vallate and fungiform
papillae

The Gustatory apparatus


Basic taste modalities
Sweet- tip of the tongue
Salty- over the dorsum of the
tongue
Sour- sides of the tongue
Bitter- back of the tongue

How are taste perceived?


Taste buds which consist of small bundles

of cells and nerve endings of cranial nerves


(VII, IX and X).
The nerve cells are stimulated by chemical
substances in solution that enter the pores.
The nerve impulses are transmitted to the
thalamus then to the taste area in the
cerebral cortex, one in each hemisphere,
where taste is perceived.
4 fundamental sensations of taste have
been described: sweet, sour, bitter and
salty.