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African Salt/Gold

Trade

Sahara Desert merchant


caravans exchanged salt
for gold

Al-Qaeda

Formed by Osama bin Laden

Alliance System
Sought to
preserve
balance of
power but
dragged
their
members
into
World War I

Archimedes

Greek who studied


levers and pulleys

Armenians
Christians in
the Ottoman
Empire who
faced
genocide in
World War I

Thomas Aquinas

Natural laws based on reason

Arms Race
Race to develop
better weapons
U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.

Atlantic Slave Trade

Atomic Bomb

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Aztec Civilization
Highly complex
society in
Central Mexico
Used unique
agricultural
techniques
including
floating gardens

Balkans
Spark that
ignited World
War I; and,
ethnic
cleansing by
Serbs in
1990s

Black Death
Disease
carried by
fleas on
rats that
killed
millions of
people in
Europe

Smon Bolivar

Independence in South America

Bolsheviks

Peace, Bread and Land Russian Revolution

Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who
seized power, declared
himself emperor and
conquered much of
Europe.

Robert Boyle
Father of Chemistry

Buddhism

Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path

Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman Empire - Constantinople

John Calvin

New Protestant Church


Predestination
Faith as key to salvation
Strict moral code

Christianity

Based on teachings of Jesus as the Son of God


Forgiveness, Mercy, Sympathy for Poor

Winston Churchill
British Prime
Minister during
World War II
We shall never
surrender.

Cold War
20th Century conflict
between U.S. and
U.S.S.R. never directly
engaged each other in
open warfare

Columbian Exchange

Exchange of products and ideas between Native


Americans and Europe

Commercial Revolution

From local economies to Mercantilism

Confucianism

Filial Piety = Respect for elders and order

Nicolas Copernicus

Believed Earth orbited the Sun Banned by The Church

Crusades
War to recapture the Holy
Land from Muslims
Led to increased trade between
Europe and the Middle East.

Marie Curie

First woman to
win Nobel Prize radioactivity

Declaration of the
Rights of Man
French Revolution
consent of the governed and
protection of rights.

Thomas Edison

American Inventor light bulb, phonograph and motion pictures.

Albert Einstein
Time and
Space are
Relative

Elizabeth I
Shared power
between
monarchy and
Parliament
Defeated the
Spanish Armada

English Bill of Rights


Signed by William and
Mary agreeing to many
rights for English
subjects

English Civil War


War
between
Parliament
and
Charles I
over
supremacy

Enlightenment
Thinkers
questioned
hereditary
privilege and
absolutism

Eratosthenes
Greek who showed that
the Earth was round and
calculated its
circumference

European Imperialism

European economic control of Africa, Asia and the Pacific

Fascism

Intense nationalism and


belief in an all-powerful
militaristic leader

Wilsons 14 Points
Goals announced by U.S.
President Woodrow Wilson
Created the League of
Nations

Free Enterprise
System
Free actions of
producers and
consumers supply and
demand determine
economic questions

French Revolution

Overthrew monarchy and ended hereditary privilege

Galileo Galilei
Confirmed the Earth
traveled around the Sun
Was tried and convicted
by The Church

Genocide
Murder of an
entire group of
people or
nationality
Holocaust,
Rwanda,
Darfur,
Kosovo

Glorious Revolution
Overthrow of
James II of Britain
and the placement
of William and
Mary on the
throne. They
agreed to a Bill of
Rights.

Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet reformer led
to the election of
non-Communist
governments in
Eastern Europe
and dissolution of
the U.S.S.R.

Great Depression

Devastating economic downturn in the 1930s

Great Schism
Split in Catholic
Church with two
Popes
Caused many to
question the
authority of
The Church

Greek Civilization
Major
contributions to
art, architecture,
philosophy,
literature, drama,
and history

Gupta Empire
Peace, Prosperity
and Trade The
Golden Age of
Hindu Culture

Hammurabis Code
Earliest written law
code of the
Babylonians
promoted justice, but
treated social classes
differently

Han Dynasty
Silk Road
Civil service examinations
Paper and Ceramics
Beginning of Pax Sinica

Hinduism
Reincarnation
Many gods and
goddesses
Karma and Dharma

Adolph Hitler
Nazi Party leader of
the German
totalitarian state
prior to and during
World War II

Thomas Hobbes
Man is nasty and
brutish and need an
authority to keep
order Wrote
Leviathan

Holocaust

Genocide of Jews and others by Nazis in World War II

Human Rights

Rights that all people possess

Hundred Years War


War between
England and
France over
succession to
the French
throne
Brought an end
to feudalism

Inca Civilization

Pre-Columbian civilization in Andes Mountains

Industrial Revolution
Began in England
Moved production from
home to factory
and from hand to
machine

Islam
Founded by Muhammad
Five Pillars of Faith
One God Allah
Share wealth between rich
and poor

Israel
In 1948, the
U.N.
partitioned
Palestine into 2
states Israel
and Palestine.
Five
neighboring
Arab nations
declared war on
Israel.

Justinians Code of
Laws
In Byzantium,
Justinian collected all
Roman laws and
organized them into a
single code

Korean War
1950s
Communist
North Korea
invaded
South Korea
United
States and
United
Nations
intervened

League of Nations
Proposed by
Woodrow Wilson
Created by the
Treaty of
Versailles
Failed to stop war

Limited Monarchy

Monarch shares power with Parliament

John Locke
Power comes from
consent of the
governed
People have the right
to overthrow abusive
government
Two Treatises of
Civil Government

Magna Carta
In 1215, King John of
England guaranteed right
to a trial by jury and
consent of a council of
nobles needed for any
new taxes.

Manorialism

Economic system of feudal Europe


self-sufficient manors

Karl Marx
Believed workers
would eventually
overthrow their
capitalist bosses.

Mauryan Empire
Emperor Asoka
converted to
Buddhism
Improved roads,
build hospitals, and
encouraged
education.

Mayan Civilization

Pre-Columbian civilization in Guatemala and Yucatan


Builders and creators of a numbering system

Militarism

Civilians adopt military values and goals and become over-reliant


on military advisors led to the outbreak of World War I

Ming Dynasty
Followed the
Mongols
Moved Chinas
capital to
Beijing
Ruled for 300
years of peace
and prosperity

Monarchy

System of government in which political power is inherited.

Monotheism

Belief in one God


Shared by Judaism,
Christianity and Islam

Baron de
Montesquieu
Separation of Powers
Executive, Legislative, and
Judicial
Wrote The Spirit of Laws

Benito Mussolini
Italian leader during
World War II
Fascist state
controlled the press,
abolishing unions,
and outlawing strikes

Napoleonic Wars
Wars between
Napoleon of
France and the
rest of Europe
Spread the
ideals of the
French
Revolution

Printing Press
Johann Gutenberg
Movable type
Helped spread the ideas
of the Protestant
Reformation

Nationalism
Each
nationality is
entitled to its
own
government and
homeland
A cause of
World War I

Neolithic Revolution

When people learned how to plant and grow crops, and herd
animals

Isaac Newton
Discovered laws of
gravity
Universe acts according to
certain fixed and
fundamental laws

Protestant Reformation

Led by Martin Luther Many Christians left the Catholic


Church for Protestant Churches

Pythagoras

Greek mathematician - Advances in geometry

Qin Dynasty
Qin Shi Huangdi Chinas first
emperor
Unified China, built roads and canals
Constructed the Great Wall to protect
the empire

Renaissance

A rebirth of European culture that started in Italy spirit of inquiry rediscovery


of classical learning improvements in painting and architecture

Republic

A system of government by representatives.

Normandy Landing

Largest amphibious assault in history - Allied troops landed at Normandy to


retake France from the Nazis

Roman Civilization

Absorbed Greek learning known for engineering skills, rule of law, and
The Rise of Christianity

October Revolution
of 1917
Revolution in 1917
Bolsheviks seized
power in Russia
Russia became a
Communist nation

Oligarchy

Rule by a few, powerful people.

Ottomans
Turkish nomads from
Central Asia
Ruled the Islamic world of
the 13th century
Conquered Constantinople
in 1453

Panama Canal

Built by the United States in Mesoamerica to provide


a short water route between the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans

Popular Sovereignty
Ultimate power
rests on the
consent of the
people being
governed.

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941 surprise attack by Japanese on the U.S.


fleet in Hawaii that brought the U.S. into World War II

Fall of the Roman


Empire
In 476 Rome was
overrun by invading
barbarian tribes
Followed by the
Dark Ages a period
of great turmoil in
Europe

Jean Jacques
Rousseau
Enlightenment Philosopher
Government should follow the
will of the people
Inspired the French Revolution

Rwanda

African nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsi


population by the Hutus.

Scientific Revolution
Rejected traditional
teaching of the
Church
Introduced the
Scientific Method
observing nature
and testing
hypotheses

Sikhism
Religion developed in
Northern India
Sikhs believe in one God
who can only be known
through meditation

Silk Road

Trade route connecting China to the Roman Empire. China


exported silk, porcelain and tea.

Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Attacked mercantilism
Promoted competition and the
division of labor and free market
system

Socialism

Government should pass laws to stop abuses of


workers and should even take over some businesses

Song Dynasty
Period of great social
and economic progress
in China
First use of paper
currency and
standardized coins

Joseph Stalin
Communist leader
following Lenin;
Purged government
of his opponents;
Established a
totalitarian state;
Resisted Hitler and
started the Cold War

Suez Canal
Provided a shorter route
from Europe to East Africa,
India, and East Asia.
Served as a lifeline between
Britain and its colonies,
especially India.

Tang Dynasty
Suppressed
peasant
uprisings,
Reunited China,
Revived feudal
relationships and
brought peace
and prosperity.

Ten Commandments
Commandments in the
Jewish religion
prohibiting stealing,
murder and other
forms of immoral
behavior.

Terrorism

Acts of violence against innocent civilians such as


hijacking planes and attacking schools to make demands
on a hostile government.

Theocracy
A society governed
by religious
leaders Present
day Iran is an
example.

Hedeki Tojo
Led the Japanese government
during World War II
Convinced the emperor to
launch a surprise attack on
the United States

Totalitarianism
A government that
controls all aspects
of life
government,
military, schools,
and other
organizations.

Trench Warfare

During World War I, ditches were dug to create


fortified positions.

United Nations
Began in 1945,
Its purpose is to maintain
world peace and
encourage cooperation
among nations.

Versailles Treaty

Treaty between Allied Powers and Germany that ended


World War I.

Queen Victoria

Monarch who doubled Britains size and favored social reforms.

Vietnam War
War between Communist
North Vietnam and U.S.
supported South Vietnam.
Started with the Viet Cong
launching guerilla warfare
against South Vietnam.

Voltaire
Enlightenment thinker;
Views on religious
toleration and
intellectual freedom
influence leaders of the
American and French
Revolutions.

James Watt
Scottish inventor who
improved the steam engine
and made steam power
available to run factories
and machines.

World War I
Assassination of
Archduke Ferdinand
set off a chain
reaction that
involved most
nations of Europe
and later, the United
State.

World War II
Most destructive
conflict in history
Killed an
estimated 70
million
Launched when
Hitler invaded
Poland in 1939.

Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist
leader who drove
Nationalists out of China.
Great Leap Forward
Cultural Revolution

Zhou Dynasty
Zhou rulers justified their rule
by the Mandate of Heaven
If a ruler was selfish and
ruthless, Heaven would
overthrow him.