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Name________________________________________

Date_______

Genomes, Chromosomes, and DNA Web Quest


Topic: Genomes and Chromosomes
Go to: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/hgp/genome
1. What is a genome?

A genome is an organs complete set of DNA, including all of it genes.

2. On the left hand side, click on cells and DNA. Explore this site to answer the
following questions:
a. What is a chromosome?
A DNA molecule that is packaged into thread-like structures.
b. When are chromosomes visible?
When the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly
packed during cell division.

c. What is a centromere?
The construction point that divides the chromosome into two sections.
d. How many chromosomes do people have?
23 pairs

Go to: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/karyotype/
3. What is a karyotype?
An individuals collection of chromosomes. Also refers to a technique the
produces an image of an individuals chromosomes.
4. Match the chromosomes to complete the karyotype (turn on hints for help). Is the
karyotype from a male or female? How do you know?
This karyotype is male because of the X and Y chromosomes.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

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Date_______

5. Predict what would happen if a person has the incorrect number of


chromosomes. Write your prediction here.
The person would be more likely be susceptible to

6. Do a quick google search to find the answer to question 5.

More chromosome means added genetic material or duplicated genetic


material. This commonly results in Down syndrome.
Less chromosome means missing some genetic material, this will result in
missing enzymes or insufficient enzymes.

As a class you determined that chromosomes must be duplicated before the cell can
divide. This process is called DNA Replication.
Topic: DNA Replication
Go to: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna/shockwave.html
Click: DNA replication (upper left) and then click unzip Read the script, answer the
questions below, and then, click OK.
1.

2.

In a real cell, what does the DNA molecule do before it unzips?


The molecule unwinds from spools made from protein, then untwist.

What molecules break the rungs (bases) apart?

The DNA molecule is known to break the rungs apart. In order for this to be
accomplished, the bases must synthesize with the DNA.

Drag the correct bases over to synthesize the new DNA halves.
Read script, answer questions, and then click OK.
3.

How many base pairs are in the real human genome?

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

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Date_______

3 billion

Go to: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/
Click on Play DNA Game; Click next and reading each page, continue to click next
until you come to the game.; Click on organism #1 and match the base pairs as fast as
you can! It is hard.
Click next and then click on each organism until you identify the one that belongs to
chromosome #1; continue playing the game with the other two chromosomes, filling in
the chart below.
Be careful, other teams may get different results.
Chromosome #
1

How many
chromosomes?
20

How many
base pairs?
2,500 million

How many
genes?
22,000

14

22.7 million

5,300

16

11.7 million

6,300

What is the
organism?
House Mouse
Malaria
parasite
Bakers yeast

Topic: Mutations
Go to: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/mutations_03
Read the information and fill out the table below:
Type of mutation
Substitution

Description
A substitution is a mutation that
exchanges one base for another

Effect on resulting protein


Change a codon to one that encodes the
same amino acid and causes no change
in the protein produced.

Insertion

Extra base pairs are inserted into a


new place in the DNA.

The protein made by the gene may not


function properly.

Deletion

A section of DNA is lost, or deleted.

Small deletions may remove one or a few


base pairs within a gene, while larger
deletions can remove an entire gene or
several neighboring genes.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

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Frameshift

Insertions and deletions can alter a


gene so that its message is no longer
correctly parsed.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Date_______

The resulting protein is usually


nonfunctional.

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction