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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL &


BIO-ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FLUID MECHANICS

CLB 11003

TITLE :
Experiment 6 : Multi Pump Test Rig

Lecturers Name :
En.Eddyazuan

Name / Section
1)SURENDRAN BALAKRISHNAN
2)MUHAMMAD AKMAL HAKIN BIN RAMLAN
3)AHMAD IKHRAM ROSLAN
Due Date :
13 APRIL 2016

ID Number
55201113445
55201113557
55201113682

OBJECTIVES

Determine the operating characteristic of different pumps in a contained unit.

Understand the types of pumps in principle and design, and the selection of the
appropriate pump for a particular application for optimal operation.

SUMMARY
The objective of this experiment is to determine the operating characteristic of
different pumps in a contained unit. In addition, this experiment was conducted to
understand the types of pumps in principle and design and the selection of the appropriate
pump for a particular application for optimal operation. The results for this experiment
were obtained for pump 1, pump 2 and pump 3 according to different types of
characteristics for each of the pump. This experiment is divided into four parts. First
experiment is rotational speed vs volumetric flow rate, which is for a performance curve
for a centrifugal pump. The second experiment is other performance curve for a
centrifugal pump. The third experiment is rotational speed vs output pressure, which is
performance curve for a positive displacement pump. Finally, the last experiment is other
performance curve for a positive displacement pump. For each part of experiment, the
respective graphs were plotted for different types of characteristics. In the discussion, the
characteristics curves for each part of experiment was plotted according the pump 1,
pump 2 and pump 3. In the each characteristics curves for pump 1, pump 2 and pump 3,
the relationships between each characteristics have been discussed. In short, as a
conclusion, students were able to determine the operating characteristics of different

pumps in a contained unit. Besides, students understood the types of pumps in principle
and design and the selection of the appropriate pump for a particular application for
optimal operation. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were achieved.

RESULTS
Data Collected for Experiment 1:
Table 1 : Rotational Speed and Flow rate for P1
Speed (RPM)

Flow rate (%)

2800

59.3

2600

57.0

2400

53.9

2200

49.1

2000

44.6

1800

40.1

1600

35.7

1400

30.8

1200

26.2

1000

21.7

800

17.3

600

12.8

Volume of Q was calculated using formula :


a) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

b) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 59.4

When q is 57.0

59.3 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 4.04
hr

57.0 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 3.88
hr

c) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

d) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 53.9

When q is 49.1

49.1 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 3.35
hr

53.9 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 3.67
hr

e) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

f)

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 44.6

When q is 40.1

44.6 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 3.04
hr

g) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

40.1 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 2.73
hr

h) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 35.7

When q is 30.8

35.7 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 2.43
hr

30.8 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 2.10
hr

i)

q 113.56 60

100
1000

j)

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 26.2

When q is 21.7

26.2 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 1.79
hr

21.7 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 1.48
hr

k) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

l)

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)

q = Flow rate (%)

When q is 17.3

When q is 12.8

17.3 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 1.18
hr

12.8 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 0.87
hr

Volume Flow, Q (m3/hr)

Flow rate (%)

Rotational Speed , N
(RPM)

59.3

4.04

2800

57.0

3.88

2600

53.9

3.67

2400

49.1

3.35

2200

44.6

3.04

2000

40.1

2.73

1800

35.7

2.43

1600

30.8

2.10

1400

26.2

1.79

1200

21.7

1.48

1000

17.3

1.18

800

12.8

0.87

600

Rotational Speed (N) vs Volume Flow rate (Q)


Rotatinal Speed, N (RPM)

3000
y = 667.63x - 0.2371
R = 0.997

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Volume Flow Rate, Q ( m3/hr)

Figure 1: Rotational Speed (N) vs Volume Flow rate (Q)

4.5

Data Collected for Experiment 2 :


Table 2: Flow rate, Speed, Differential Pressure and Power for P1
Flow rate
%

Speed
RPM

Diff. Pressure
%

Power
kW

60

2800

16.4

0.53

50

2799

30.4

0.50

40

2807

42.9

0.48

30

2822

55.2

0.46

20

2836

61.5

0.42

10

2851

65.4

0.40

Volume of Flow rate , Q wac calculate using formula :

a) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

b) Q

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 60

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 50

50 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 3.41
hr

60 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 4.09
hr

c) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

d) Q

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 40

30 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 2.04
hr

40 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 2.73
hr

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 20

20 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 1.36
hr

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 30

e) Q

q 113.56 60

100
1000

f)

q 113.56 60

100
1000

q = Flow rate (%)


When q is 10

10 113.56 60

100
1000
3
m
Q 0.68
hr

PMi is calculated as below :-

a).

c).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

when power 0.53

when power 0.50

PMi 0.53kW

1000W
1kW

b).

1000W
1kW

PMi 530W

PMi 500W

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

when power 0.48

when power 0.46

PMi 0.48kW

1000W
1kW

d).

PMi 0.46kW

1000W
1kW

PMi 4800W

PMi 460W

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.40

when power 0.42

e).

PMi 0.50kW

PMi 0.42kW
PMi 420W

1000W
1kW

f).

PMi 0.40kW
PMi 400W

1000W
1kW

i.

Motor Input Power (PMI) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Volume Flow rate,

Flow rate (%)

Power (kW)

Q (m3/hr)

Motor Input
Power, PMi, (W)

60

4.09

0.53

530

50

3.41

0.50

500

40

2.73

0.48

480

30

2.04

0.46

460

20

1.36

0.42

420

10

0.68

0.40

400

Motor Input Power (PMi) vs Vol Flow Rate (Q)

Motor Input Power , PMi (W)

600
y = 38.089x + 374.16
R = 0.9898

500
400

300
200
100
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Volume Flow Rate , Q (m3/hr)

Figure 1: Motor Input Power vs Volume Flow Rate

4.5

ii.

Pump Total Head (H) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Pump Total Head is calculated by using formula as below :4


DP 3 10.2 10
H Z c 2 Z c1

w g
100

where

H Pump Total Head , m


Z c 2 Outlet Dis tan ce From Datum ( water ) 860mm 0.86m
Z c1 Inlet Dis tan ce From Datum ( water ) 180mm 0.18m
DP Differential Pr essure,%

w Density water 1000


g Gravity 9.81

kg
m3

m
s2

i). Differential Pressure, % = 16.4


when DP 16.4

2
3bar 10.2 10 4 N / m

16.4
bar
H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100
1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
16.4 3bar 10.2 10

bar
H 0.68m

2
kg
m 1N .s
100
1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 5.80m

ii). Differential Pressure, % = 30.4


when DP 30.4

2
3bar 10.2 10 4 N / m

30
.
4


bar
H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100
1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
30.4 3bar 10.2 10

bar
H 0.68m

2
kg
m 1N .s
100
1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 10.16m
iii). Differential Pressure, % = 42.9
when DP 42.9

4 N / m2

42.9 3bar 10.2 10


bar

H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100

1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
3
bar

10
.
2

10
42.9

bar
H 0.68m

2
100
kg
m
1
N
.
s

1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 14.06m
iv). Differential Pressure, % = 55.2
when DP 55.2

2
3bar 10.2 10 4 N / m

42.9
bar

H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100
1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
42.9 3bar 10.2 10

bar
H 0.68m

2
kg
m 1N .s
100
1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 14.06m

v). Differential Pressure, % = 61.5


when DP 61.5

2
3bar 10.2 10 4 N / m

61
.
5


bar
H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100
1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
61.5 3bar 10.2 10

bar
H 0.68m

2
kg
m 1N .s
100
1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 19.86m
vi). Differential Pressure, % = 65.4
when DP 65.4

4 N / m2

65.4 3bar 10.2 10


bar

H (0.86m 0.18m)

kg
m

100

1000 3 9.81 2

m
s

4 N / m2
3
bar

10
.
2

10
65.4

bar
H 0.68m

2
100
kg
m
1
N
.
s

1000 3 9.81 2

kg.m
m
s

H 21.08m

Zc2-Zc1

Diff. Pressure, D

Pump Total Head, H

(m /hr)

(m)

(%)

(m)

4.09

0.68

16.4

5.80

3.41

0.68

30.4

10.16

2.73

0.68

42.9

14.06

2.04

0.68

55.2

17.90

1.36

0.68

61.5

19.86

0.68

0.68

65.4

21.08

Volume Flow rate, Q


3

Pump Total Head (H) vs Vol Flow Rate (Q)


25

Pump Total Head, H (m)

20

15

10
y = -4.5772x + 25.727
R = 0.9611
5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Volume Flow Rate, Q

3.5

(m3/hr)

Figure 2 : Pump Total Head (H) Vs Volumetric Flow Rate (Q)

4.5

iii.

Pump Power Output (Po) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Pump Power Output was obtained by calculate using formula as below :-

Po w gHQ

1hr
3600s

where
Po Pump Power Output , W

w Density water 1000


m
s2
H Pump Total Head , m
g Gravity 9.81

m3
Q Volume Flow rate,
hr

kg
m3

1.

when H 5.80m, Q 4.09


Po
Po
Po
Po

2.

m3
hr

kg
m
m 3 1hr


1000 3 9.81 2 5.80m 4.09
hr
m
s

3600s
kg.m 2 1N .s 2
64.64 3
kg.m
s
N .m
64.64
s
64.64W

when H 10.16m, Q 3.41

m3
hr

kg
m
m 3 1hr
Po 1000 3 9.81 2 10.16m 3.41
hr 3600s
m
s

2
2
kg.m 1N .s
Po 94.41 3
kg.m
s
N .m
Po 94.41
s
Po 94.41W
3.

when H 14.06m, Q 2.73


Po
Po
Po
Po

m3
hr

kg
m
m 3 1hr

1000 3 9.81 2 14.06m 2.73


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2 1N .s 2
104.60 3
kg.m
s
N .m
104.60
s
104.60W

4.

Po
Po
Po
Po
5.

m3
hr

when H 17.90m, Q 2.04

kg
m
m 3 1hr


1000 3 9.81 2 17.90m 2.04
hr
m
s

3600s
kg.m 2 1N .s 2
99.51 3
kg.m
s
N .m
99.51
s
99.51W

when H 19.86m, Q 1.36

m3
hr

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 1000 3 9.81 2 19.86m 1.36


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2 1N .s 2
Po 73.60 3
kg.m
s
N .m
Po 73.60
s
Po 73.60W
6.

when H 21.08m, Q 0.68


Po
Po
Po
Po

m3
hr

kg
m
m 3 1hr

1000 3 9.81 2 21.08m 0.68


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2 1N .s 2
39.06 3
kg.m
s
N .m
39.06
s
39.06W

Volume Flow rate, Q


(m3/hr)

Pump Total Head, H


(m)

Pump Power Output, Po


(W)

4.09

5.80

64.64

3.41

10.16

94.41

2.73

14.06

104.60

2.04

17.90

99.51

1.36

19.86

73.60

0.68

21.08

39.06

Pump Power Output (P0) vs Vol Flow rate (Q)

Pump Power Output, P0 (W)

120
100

y = 8.1807x + 59.792
R = 0.1736

80
60
40
20
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Volume Flow Rate, Q (m3/hr)

Figure 3 : Pump Power Output vs Volume Flow Rate

4.5

iv.

Pump Power Input (Pi) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Pump Power Input, Pi was calculated by using formula below :-

Pi PMi Pp1 min


where
Pi PumpPowerInput , W
PMi Motor Input Power , W
Pp1 min Pump 1 Power at No Load (50 Hz ) 70W

a).

c).

e).

when PMi 530

b).

when PMi 500

Pi (530 70)W

Pi (500 70)W

Pi 460W

Pi 430W

when PMi 480

d).

when PMi 460

Pi (480 70)W

Pi (460 70)W

Pi 410W

Pi 390W

when PMi 420

f).

when PMi 400

Pi (420 70)W

Pi (400 70)W

Pi 350W

Pi 330W

Volume Flow rate, Q

Motor Input
Power, PMi

Pp1min

Pump Power Input,


Pi

(m3/hr)

(W)

(W)

(W)

4.09

530

70

460

3.41

500

70

430

2.73

480

70

410

2.04

460

70

390

1.36

420

70

350

0.68

400

70

330

Pump Power Input (Pi) vs Vol Flow Rate (Q)


500
y = 38.089x + 304.16
R = 0.9898

Pump Power Input, Pi (W)

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Volume Flow rate, Q (m3/hr)

Figure 4 : Pump Power Input vs Volume Flow rate

3.5

4.5

v.

Pump Efficiency (ETA) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Pump Efficiency was obtained by calculation:-

a).

ETA

Po
100%
Pi

b).

when Po 64.64 W , Pi 460W


ETA

ETA

64.64W
100%
460 W

Po
100%
Pi

ETA

d).

ETA

when Po 73.60 W , Pi 350W


ETA

73.60W
100%
350 W

ETA 21.03%

Po
100%
Pi

99.51W
100%
390W
ETA 25.52%

104.60W
100%
410W

Po
100%
Pi

ETA

when Po 99.51W , Pi 390W


ETA

ETA 25.51%
e).

94.41W
100%
430W

ETA 21.96%

when Po 104.60W , Pi 410W


ETA

Po
100%
Pi

when Po 94.41W , Pi 430W

ETA 14.05%
c).

ETA

f).

ETA

Po
100%
Pi

when Po 39.06W , Pi 330W


ETA

39.06W
100%
330 W

ETA 11.84%

Volume Flow rate,


Q

Pump Power
Output, Po

Pump Power
Input, Pi

Pump Efficiency, ETA

(m3/hr)

(W)

(W)

4.09

64.64

460

14.05

3.41

94.41

430

21.96

2.73

104.60

410

25.51

2.04

99.51

390

25.52

1.36

73.60

350

21.03

0.68

39.06

330

11.84

Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs Vol Flow rate (Q)


30

Pump Efficiancy , ETA

25
y = 0.5786x + 18.605
R = 0.0163

20
15
10
5
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Volume of Flow rate, Q ( m3/hr)

Figure 5 : Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs Volume of Flow Rate (Q)

4.5

vi) Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) Vs. Volume Flow rate (Q)

Overall Efficiency was obtained by calculate using formula at below :a).

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

b).

when Po 64.64W , PMi 530W


ETAgr

ETAgr

64.64W
100%
530W

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

d).

ETAgr

104.60 W
100%
480W

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

when Po 99.51W , PMi 460W


ETAgr

99.51W
100%
460W

ETAgr 21.63%

ETAgr 21.80%
e).

94.41W
100%
500W

ETAgr 18.88%

when Po 104.60 W , PMi 480W


ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

when Po 94.41W , PMi 500W

ETAgr 12.20%
c).

ETAgr

f).

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

when Po 73.60W , PMi 420W

when Po 39.06W , PMi 400W

73.60W
100%
420W
ETAgr 17.52%

ETAgr

ETAgr

39.06W
100%
400W

ETAgr 9.77%

Volume Flow rate,


Q
(m3/hr)
4.09
3.41
2.73
2.04
1.36
0.68

Pump Power
Output, Po
(W)
64.64
94.41
104.60
99.51
73.60
39.06

Motor Input
Power, PMi
(W)
530
500
480
460
420
400

Overall Efficiency,
ETAgr
(%)

12.20
18.88
21.80
21.63
17.52
09.77

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Vol Flow rate (Q)

Overall Efficiency, ETAgr (%)

25
20

y = 0.6863x + 15.33
R = 0.0311

15
10
5
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Volume of Flow rate, Q ( m3/hr)

Figure 6 : Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Volume of Flow rate, Q

4.5

Table 3 b: Rotational Speed and Flow rate for P3


Speed (RPM)

Flow rate (%)

Volume flow rate, Q


(m3/hr)

1400

29.2

0.497

1300

27.0

0.460

1200

24.9

0.424

1100

22.5

0.383

1000

20.2

0.344

900

17.9

0.305

800

15.6

0.266

700

13.3

0.227

600

11.1

0.189

500

08.8

0.150

400

06.6

0.112

Volume Flow, Q was calculated by using formula :

Q=

When q = 29.2,
Q=

29.2

28.39 103 60
100

= 0.497 m3/hr
When q = 24.9,
Q=

24.9
100

28.39 103 60

= 0.424 m3/hr

100

28.39 103 60

When q = 27.0,
Q=

27.0
100

28.39 103 60

= 0.460 m3/hr
When q = 22.5,
Q=

22.5
100

28.39 103 60

= 0.383 m3/hr

When q = 20.2,
Q=

When q = 17.9,

20.2

28.39 103 60
100

Q=

= 0.344 m3/hr

28.39 103 60

When q = 13.3,

15.6

28.39 103 60
100

Q=

13.3
100

28.39 103 60

= 0.227 m3/hr

= 0.266 m3/hr
When q = 11.1,
Q=

100

= 0.305 m3/hr

When q = 15.6,
Q=

17.9

When q = 8.8,

11.1

8.8

28.39 103 60
100

Q = 100 28.39 103 60

= 0.189 m3/hr

= 0.150 m3/hr

When q = 6.6,
6.6

Q = 100 28.39 103 60


= 0.112 m3/hr

Figure 2 :Graph of Rotational Speed (N) Vs Volume Flow Rate (Q) for pump 3

Rotational Speed (N) Vs Volume Flow Rate (Q)


1600
y = 2582x + 112.03
R = 0.9999

Rotational Speed (N)

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Volume Flow Rate (Q), m3/hr

0.5

0.6

Data Collected for Experiment 4


Table 4 b: Pressure, Flow rate, Speed and Power for P3
Pressure

Flow rate

Speed

Power

RPM

kW

60

29.6

1400

0.56

55

30.0

1407

0.51

50

30.3

1413

0.49

45

30.7

1419

0.47

40

31.0

1426

0.44

35

31.3

1432

0.43

30

31.6

1438

0.40

25

32.0

1440

0.39

20

32.2

1447

0.37

10

33.9

1452

0.36

Motor
Power
Input,PMi
W
560
510
490
470
440
430
400
390
370
360

Volume
Flow
rate, Q
m3/hr
0.50
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.53
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

Pump
Total
Head,H
m
137.43
126.00
114.57
103.15
91.72
80.30
68.87
57.45
46.02
32.75

Pump
Power
Output,P0
W
170.40
159.35
147.73
133.01
120.54
105.54
92.22
78.35
62.76
32.75

Pump
Power
Input, Pi
W
510
460
440
420
390
380
350
340
320
310

Pump
Efficiency
(ETA)

Overall
Efficiency
(ETAgr)

Volumetric
Efficiency
(ETAV)

33.41
34.64
33.58
31.67
30.91
27.77
26.35
23.04
19.61
10.56

30.43
31.25
30.15
28.30
27.40
24.54
23.06
20.09
16.96
9.10

94.35
95.76
97.22
96.81
98.18
97.77
99.20
100.90
100.41
103.70

i.

Motor Input Power (PMi) vs Output Pressure for P3

PMi was calculated as below :


a).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

b).

when power 0.51

when power 0.56


PMi 0.56kW

1000W
1kW

PMi 0.51kW

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

d).

1000W
1kW

PMi 0.47kW

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

f).

1000W
1kW

PMi 0.43kW

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

h).

1000W
1kW

PMi 0.39kW

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.37
PMi 0.37kW
PMi 370W

1000W
1kW

PMi 390W

PMi 400W
i).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.39

when power 0.40


PMi 0.40kW

1000W
1kW

PMi 430W

PMi 440W
g).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.43

when power 0.44


PMi 0.44kW

1000W
1kW

PMi 470W

PMi 490W
e).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.47

when power 0.49


PMi 0.49kW

1000W
1kW

PMi 510W

PMi 560W
c).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000

1000W
1kW

j).

PMi Power (kW ) 1000


when power 0.36
PMi 0.36kW
PMi 360W

1000W
1kW

Output Pressure
%
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
10

Motor Power Input,PMi


W
560
510
490
470
440
430
400
390
370
360

Table 4.1 : Output Pressure (Pr) , Motor Power Input (PMi) for P3

Motor Input Power vs Output Pressure

Motor Input Power, PMi (W)

600
y = 3.9654x + 295.28
R = 0.9519

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Output Pressure, Pr (%)

Figure 2 : Motor Input Power vs Output Pressure for P3

70

Volume Flow (Q) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3


Volume Flow (Q) was calculated as below :
a).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
29.6
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.50
hr

b).

c).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
30.3
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.52
hr

d).

e).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
31.0
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.53
hr

f).

g).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
31.6
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.54
hr

h).

i).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
32.2
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.55
hr

j).

q
28.39 1000 60
100
30.0
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.51
hr

q
28.39 1000 60
100
30.7
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.52
hr

q
28.39 1000 60
100
31.3
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.53
hr
q
28.39 1000 60
100
32.0
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.55
hr
q
28.39 1000 60
100
33.9
Q
28.39 1000 60
100
m3
Q 0.57
hr

Output Pressure
%
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
10

Volume Flow rate, Q


m3/hr
0.50
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.53
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

Table 4.2 : Volume Flow (Q) , Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

Volume Flow vs Output Pressure


0.58

Volume Flow, Q (m3/hr)

0.57
0.56
0.55
0.54
0.53
0.52
0.51
y = -0.0013x + 0.5799
R = 0.9773

0.5
0.49
0

10

20

30

40

50

Output Pressure, Pr (%)

Figure 3 : Volume Flow vs Output Pressure for P3

60

70

ii.

Pump Power Output (P0) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

Pump Total Head is calculated by using formula as below :H Z G 2

4
Pr 20 10.2 10
Z G1

oil g
100

where
H Pump Total Head , m
Z G 2 Outlet Dis tan ce From Datum (oil) 380mm 0.38m
Z G1 Inlet Dis tan ce From Datum (oil) 64mm 0.064m
DP Differential Pr essure,%

oil Density oil 910


g Gravity 9.81

kg
m3

m
s2

a). Output Pressure, % = 60


when Pr 60

4
60 20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 137.43m
c). Output Pressure, % = 50
when Pr 50

4
50 20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 114.57m
e). Output Pressure, % = 40

b). Output Pressure, % = 55


when Pr 55

4
H (0.38m 0.064m) 55 20 10.2 10

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 126.00m

d). Output Pressure, % = 45


when Pr 45

4
H (0.38m 0.064m) 45 20 10.2 10

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 103.15m
f). Output Pressure, % = 35

when Pr 35

when Pr 40

4
40 20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 91.72m
g). Output Pressure, % = 30
when Pr 30

4
H (0.38m 0.064m) 35 20 10.2 10

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 80.30m

h). Output Pressure, % = 25


when Pr 25

4
30 20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 68.87m
i). Output Pressure, % = 20
when Pr 20

4
H (0.38m 0.064m) 25 20 10.2 10

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 57.45m

j). Output Pressure, % = 10


when Pr 10

4
20

20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 46.02m

4
10
20 10.2 10
H (0.38m 0.064m)

100 910 kg 9.81 m

m3
s2

H 23.17m

Pump Power Output was obtained by calculate using formula as below :-

Po oil gHQ

1hr
3600s

where
Po Pump Power Output ,W

oil Density oil 910

kg
m3

m
s2
H Pump Total Head , m
g Gravity 9.81

m3
Q Volume Flow rate,
hr

1.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 137.43m 0.50


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 170.40 3 170.40
170.40W
s
s

2.

kg
m
m 3 1hr
Po 910 3 9.81 2 126.00m 0.51
hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 159.35 3 159.35
159.35W
s
s

3.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 114.57m 0.52


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 147.73 3 147.73
147.73W
s
s

4.

kg
m
m 3 1hr


Po 910 3 9.81 2 103.15m 0.52
hr
m
s

3600s
kg.m 2
N .m
Po 133.01 3 133.01
133.01W
s
s

5.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 91.72m 0.53


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 120.54 3 120.54
120.54W
s
s

6.

kg
m
m 3 1hr


Po 910 3 9.81 2 80.30m 0.53
hr
m
s

3600s
kg.m 2
N .m
Po 105.54 3 105.54
105.54W
s
s

7.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 68.87m 0.54


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 92.22 3 92.22
92.22W
s
s

8.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 57.45m 0.55


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 78.35 3 78.35
78.35W
s
s

9.

kg
m
m 3 1hr


Po 910 3 9.81 2 46.02m 0.55
hr
m
s

3600s
kg.m 2
N .m
Po 62.76 3 62.76
62.76W
s
s

10.

kg
m
m 3 1hr

Po 910 3 9.81 2 23.7 m 0.57


hr 3600s
m
s

kg.m 2
N .m
Po 32.75 3 32.75
32.75W
s
s

Pump Power Output Vs Output Pressure


200

Pump Power Output (Po)

180

y = 1.2258x + 58.205
R = 0.4116

160
140
120
100
80
60
40

20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Output Pressure (Pr)

Figure 3 :Pump Power Output (P0) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

iii.

Pump Power Input (Pi) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

Pi was calculated was below :


Pi = PMi - P3min

Pi = PMi - P3min

= PMi - 50W

= PMi - 50W

= 560 - 50

= 510 - 50

= 510 W

= 460 W

Pi = PMi - P3min

Pi = PMi - P3min

= PMi - 50W

= PMi - 50W

= 490 - 50

= 470 - 50

= 440 W

= 420 W

Pi = PMi - P3min

Pi = PMi - P3min

= PMi - 50W

= PMi - 50W

= 440 - 50

= 430 - 50

= 390 W

= 380 W

Pi = PMi - P3min

Pi = PMi - P3min

= PMi - 50W

= PMi - 50W

= 400 - 50

= 390 - 50

= 350 W

= 340 W

Pi = PMi - P3min

Pi = PMi - P3min

= PMi - 50W

= PMi - 50W

= 370 - 50

= 3600 - 50

= 320 W

= 310 W

Pump Power Input Vs Output Pressure


600
y = 3.9654x + 245.28
R = 0.9519

Pump Power Input (Pi)

500
400
300
200
100

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Output Pressure (Pr)

Figure 4 :Pump Power Input (Pi) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

iv.

Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

ETA was calculated was below :

1.

ETA

Po
100%
Pi

when Po 170.40 W , Pi 510W


ETA

70.40W
100%
510W

ETA 33.41%

2.

ETA

Po
100%
Pi

when Po 159.35W , Pi 460W


ETA

159.35W
100%
460W

ETA 34.64%

3.

ETA

Po
100%
Pi

4.

when Po 147.73W , Pi 440W


ETA

5.

ETA

6.

7.

120.54W
100%
390W

ETA 30.91%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi

9.

8.

when Po 62.76 W , Pi 320W


ETA

62.76W
100%
320 W

ETA 19.61%

105.54W
100%
380W

ETA 27.77%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi
when Po 78.35W , Pi 340W

92.22W
100%
350W

ETA 26.35%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi

ETA 31.67%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi
ETA

when Po 92.22 W , Pi 350W


ETA

133.01W
100%
420W

when Po 105.54 W , Pi 380W

when Po 120.54W , Pi 390W


ETA

Po
100%
Pi

when Po 133.01W , Pi 420W

147.73W
100%
440W

ETA 33.58%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi

ETA

ETA

10.

78.35W
100%
340W

ETA 23.04%
P
ETA o 100%
Pi
when Po 32.75W , Pi 310W
ETA

32.75W
100%
310 W

ETA 10.56%

Pump Efficiency Vs Output Pressure


40
y = 0.3612x + 14.55
R = 0.9092

Pump Efficiency (ETA)

35
30

25
20
15
10
5

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Output Pressure (Pr)

Figure 5 : Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

v.

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

ETAgr was calculated as below :

1.

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

170.40W
100%
560W

ETAgr 30.45%

2.

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

159.35W
100%
510W

ETAgr 31.25%

70

3.

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

147.73W
100%
490W

4.

ETAgr 30.15%
5.

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

120.54W
100%
440W

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

6.

8.

92.22 W
100%
400W
ETAgr 23.06%

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

62.76 W
100%
370W

ETAgr 16.96%

ETAgr

133.01W
100%
470W

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

105.54W
100%
430W

ETAgr 24.54%

ETAgr

9.

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr 28.3%

ETAgr 27.40%
7.

ETAgr

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

78.35W
100%
390W

ETAgr 20.09%
10.

ETAgr

Po
100%
PMi

ETAgr

32.75W
100%
360W

ETAgr 9.10%

Overall Efficiency Vs Output Pressure

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr)

35
y = 0.351x + 11.758
R = 0.93

30

25
20
15
10
5

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Output Pressure (Pr)

Figure 6 : Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Output Pressure (Pr) for P3

vi.

Volumetric Efficiency (ETAv) vs Output Pressure (Pr)for P3

Volumetric Efficiency (ETAV) was calculated as below :

1.

ETAv =
=

2.

100

60
0.50
6

6.309 10

x100
3
1400 60

ETAv =
=

6.309 10

4.

100

60
0.52
6.309 10

x100
3
1413 60

x100
3
1407 60

100

60
0.52
6

6.309 10

3
1419

x100
60

= 96.81

6.

100

60
0.53
6

6.309 10

= 98.18

ETAv =
=

= 97.22
ETAv =

100

60
0.51

= 95.76

5.

= 94.35
3.

ETAv =

3
1426 60

3x100

ETAv =
=

100

60
0.53
6

6.309 10

= 97.77

3
1432

x100
60

7.

ETAv =
=

8.

100

60
0.54
6

6.309 10

ETAv =

x100
3
1438 60

6.309 10

x100
3
1440 60

= 100.90

ETAv =

100

60
0.55
6

= 99.20
10.

100

60
0.55
6

6.309 10

3
1447

ETAv =

x100

100

60
0.57
6

60

6.309 10

= 100.41

x100
3
1452 60

= 103.70

Volumetric Efficiency Vs Output Pressure


102

Volumetric Efficiency (ETAv)

9.

101
100
99
98
97
96
y = -0.1486x + 103.79
R = 0.9229

95
94
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Output Pressure (Pr)

Figure 7 : Volumetric Efficiency (ETAv) vs Output Pressure (Pr)for P3

70

DISCUSSION
The main objective of this experiment is to determine the operating characteristic of different
pumps in a contained unit. Besides that, it also helps to understand the types of pumps in
principle and design, and the selection of the appropriate pump for a particular application for
optimal operation. In experiment 1, the reading that was recorded in the table shows that when
the speed is decrease the reading of flowrate also decreases. Then, the graph of Rotational Speed
(N) vs. Volume Flow rate (Q) is plotted, a straight line graph is produced. At speed = 2800 rpm,
the volume flowrate is 59.3% and when at the lowest speed = 600 rpm, the flowrate is lower
where its 12.8 %. Based on the theory, it can be said that when the rotational speed is increased,
the volume flow is also increased. The objective is achieved.

Rotatinal Speed, N (RPM)

Rotational Speed (N) vs Volume Flow


rate (Q)
3000
y = 667.63x - 0.2371
R = 0.997

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

Volume Flow Rate, Q ( m3/hr)

In experiment 3, the readings for flow rate when there is a decrease in the speed is recorded. The
formula of volumetric flow rate,

q 113.56 x 60

Q = 100 x 1000

is used to determine the volume flow (Q). From the table, it is known that once the values of
speed decreases, the values of flow rate and volume flow rate are also decreasing. A graph of
Rotational speed (N) vs. Volume Flow Rate (Q) is plotted and it shows a straight line graph

which means that the speed is directly proportionally to the volume flow rate as said by the
theory.

Overall Efficiency, ETAgr (%)

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Vol Flow


rate (Q)
25

y = 0.6863x + 15.33
R = 0.0311

20
15
10
5
0
0

Volume of Flow rate, Q ( m3/hr)

Rotational Speed (N)

Rotational Speed (N) Vs Volume


Flow Rate (Q)
1500
y = 2582x + 112.03
R = 0.9999

1000
500
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Volume Flow Rate (Q),

0.5

0.6

m3/hr

In experiment 2, the readings for flow rate, differential pressure, power and speed are recorded
from the speed and output flow rate are maximum. When the output flow rate is decreased, the
table shows that the values differential pressure and speed increase when the power is decreased.
A range of graph is plotted. The graph for Motor Input Power (PMI) vs. Volume Flow rate (Q))
shows an increasing curve.

Motor Input Power , PMi (W)

Motor Input Power (PMi) vs Vol Flow Rate


(Q)
600
500
400

y = 38.089x + 374.16
R = 0.9898

300
200
100
0
0

Volume Flow Rate , Q (m3/hr)

The graphs for Pump Power Output (Po) vs. Volume Flow Rate and Pump Power Input (Pi) vs.
Volume Flow Rate (Q) also shows increasing curve, which shows a directly proportional graph
to volumetric flow rate. The Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs. Volume Flow Rate (Q) and Pump Total
Head (H) vs. Volume Flow Rate (Q) graph shows a constant decrease.

Pump Total Head (H) vs Vol Flow Rate (Q)


Pump Total Head, H (m)

25
20
15
10
y = -4.5772x + 25.727
R = 0.9611

5
0
0

Volume Flow Rate, Q

(m3/hr)

Pump Power Output, P0 (W)

Pump Power Output (P0) vs Vol Flow rate


(Q)
120
100

y = 8.1807x + 59.792
R = 0.1736

80

60
40
20
0
0

Volume Flow Rate, Q (m3/hr)

Pump Power Input, Pi (W)

Pump Power Input (Pi) vs Vol Flow Rate (Q)


500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

y = 38.089x + 304.16
R = 0.9898

Volume Flow rate, Q (m3/hr)

Pump Efficiency (ETA) vs Vol Flow rate (Q)


Pump Efficiancy , ETA

30
y = 0.5786x + 18.605
R = 0.0163

25

20
15
10
5
0
0

Volume of Flow rate, Q ( m3/hr)

Overall Efficiency, ETAgr (%)

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) vs Vol Flow rate


(Q)
25
y = 0.6863x + 15.33
R = 0.0311

20
15
10
5
0
0

Volume of Flow rate, Q ( m3/hr)

The last section of this experiment is experiment 4. In this experiment, the readings for
flow rate, differential pressure, power and speed are recorded from the speed and output flow
rate are maximum. When the pump head (pressure) is decreased, the table shows that the values
of volume flow rate increased and the power is decreased. Pump Efficiency, ETA and Overall
Efficiency (ETAgr) decreases when pressure is decreased. Volumetric Efficiency, % ETAVA
decreases when pressure is decreased. A range of graph is plotted. The graphs for Motor Input
Power (PMi) Vs Output Pressure (Pr) and Pump Power Input (Pi) Vs Output Pressure (Pr) show
increasing curves. While,
Pump Power Output (Po) Vs Output Pressure (Pr) gives a straight line graph. The
Volume Flow (Q) Vs Output Pressure (Pr)decreases, Pump Efficiency (ETA) Vs Output Pressure
(Pr)and Overall Efficiency (ETAgr) Vs Output Pressure (Pr) shows an increaese. The graph of

Volumetric Efficiency (ETAv) Vs


y100.

Output Pressure (Pr) gives a constant straight line graph at

Motor Input Power (PMi)

Motor Input Power Vs Output


Pressure
660
y = 1.1167x + 541.94
R = 0.9902

640
620
600
580
560
540
0

20

40

60

80

100

Output Pressure (Pr)

Volume Flow Rate Vs Output Pressure

Volume Flow Rate (Q)

1.32
1.315
1.31
1.305
1.3

y = -0.0002x + 1.3121
R = 0.8062

1.295

1.29
0

20

40

60

Output Pressure (Pr)

80

100

Pump Power Output Vs Output Pressure


Pump Power Output (Po)

120

y = 1.0973x + 2.6965
R = 1

100

80
60
40
20
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Output Pressure (Pr)

Pump Power Input Vs Output Pressure


Pump Power Input (Pi)

580
y = 1.1167x + 471.94
R = 0.9902

560
540
520
500
480
460
0

20

40

60

Output Pressure (Pr)

80

100

Pump Efficiency Vs Output Pressure


Pump Efficiency (ETA)

20
y = 0.1864x + 1.3208
R = 0.9983

15
10
5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Output Pressure (Pr)

Overall Efficiency (ETAgr)

Overall Efficiency Vs Output Pressure


20
y = 0.1668x + 1.0831
R = 0.9987

15
10
5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Output Pressure (Pr)

Volumetric Efficiency (ETAv)

Volumetric Efficiency Vs Output Pressure


110.4
110.2
110
109.8
109.6

y = -0.0044x + 109.89
R = 0.2115

109.4
109.2
0

20

40

60

Output Pressure (Pr)

80

100

Motor Input Power, PMi (W)

Motor Input Power vs Output Pressure


600
y = 3.9654x + 295.28
R = 0.9519

500
400
300

200
100
0
0

20

40

60

80

Output Pressure, Pr (%)

The characteristic curves for the experiment 2 and 4 were plotted in one graph.
For pump 1 :
Motor Input

Pump Total

Overall
Efficiency,
ETAgr

Power, PMi,

Head, H

(W)

(m)

Pump
Power
Output, Po
(W)

4.09

530

5.80

64.64

460

14.05

12.20

3.41

500

10.16

94.41

430

21.96

18.88

2.73

480

14.06

104.60

410

25.51

21.80

2.04

460

17.90

99.51

390

25.52

21.63

1.36

420

19.86

73.60

350

21.03

17.52

0.68

400

21.08

39.06

330

11.84

09.77

Volume Flow,
Q (m3/hr)

Pump
Power
Input, Pi

Pump
Efficiency,
ETA

(%)

Characteristics VS Volume Flow rate for P1


600

Characteristics

500
400

Pmi
H

300

P0
Pi

200

ETA
100

ETAgr

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Volume Flow rate, Q

From the graph plotted for pump 1, the pressure head (H) increases when the volume flow rate
(Q) increases. In addition, the motor input power (Pmi), pump output (Po), pump input (Pi),
pump efficiency (ETA), and overall pump efficiency (ETAgr) decreases as the Q increases.

For pump 3:
Motor
Power
Input,PMi
W
560
510
490
470
440
430
400
390
370
360

Volume
Flow rate,
Q
3
m /hr
0.50
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.53
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

Pump
Total
Head,H
m
137.43
126.00
114.57
103.15
91.72
80.30
68.87
57.45
46.02
32.75

Pump
Power
Output,P0
W
170.40
159.35
147.73
133.01
120.54
105.54
92.22
78.35
62.76
32.75

Pump
Power
Input, Pi
W
510
460
440
420
390
380
350
340
320
310

Pump
Efficiency
(ETA)

Overall
Efficiency
(ETAgr)

Volumetric
Efficiency
(ETAV)

33.41
34.64
33.58
31.67
30.91
27.77
26.35
23.04
19.61
10.56

30.43
31.25
30.15
28.30
27.40
24.54
23.06
20.09
16.96
9.10

94.35
95.76
97.22
96.81
98.18
97.77
99.20
100.90
100.41
103.70

Characteristics VS Output Pressure for P3


600

Characteristics

500
Pmi

400

Q
P0

300

Pi

200

ETA
ETAgr

100

ETAv
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Output Pressure

From the graph plotted for pump 3, the volume efficiency (ETAv) and volume flowrate (Q)
increases when the output pressure (Pr) increases. In addition, the motor input power (Pmi),
pump output (Po), pump input (Pi), pump efficiency (ETA), and overall pump efficiency (ETAgr)
decreases as the output pressure (Pr) increases.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The main objective of this experiment is to determine the operating characteristic of
different pumps in a contained unit. Besides that, it also helps to understand the types of pumps
in principle and design, and the selection of the appropriate pump for a particular application for
optimal operation. This experiment allows the students to measure the operating characteristic of
different pump in a contained unit. The principles of the pump are different from each other.
Pump is a device use to move fluid such as liquid, gases by physical or mechanical action. The
results show different types of curve and line graphs according to different pumps. The function,
principle and design of each pump vary according to its type. Different pumps hold different

operating characteristics. From this experiment, it is proven that centrifugal pump, plunger pump
and gear pump has different working principle due to the type of fluid in which the pump is used
to move the fluid. The design of three pumps has a big difference as centrifugal pump and
plunger pump need two motor to run the pump. While the gear pump only needs a motor.
To ensure the experiment successfully, before conducting this experiment, it is necessary
to do some check up towards the equipment to avoid any misuse and malfunction. Each valve
should be properly open/closed according to the type of pump. Next, the pump should not be
operating when there is no liquid in the pipeline to avoid serious damage to the equipment.
Besides that, adjust the potentiometer to its minimum setting before switch off the pump. Lastly,
make sure that HV2 is not completely closed when P2 is running.

REFERENCES
1) Kirby, B.J. (2010). Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics: Transport in Microfluidic
Devices.. Cambridge University Press .
2) Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications, Laurier L.
Schramm, Publisher: Wiley VCH, 26 July 2005
3) Cameron Tropea, Alexander L. Yarin, John F. Foss, Springer handbook of experimental
fluid mechanics Publisher: Springer, 9 October 2007
4) Falkovich, Gregory (2011), Fluid Mechanics (A short course for physicists), Cambridge
University Press

5) Batchelor, George K. (1967), An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University


Press
6) White, Frank M. (2003), Fluid Mechanics, McGrawHill