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CHAPTER ONE
Review of Basic Principles
Basic principles To Be Observed In Keeping A Navigational Watch
a. Parties shall direct the attention of ship owners, ship operators,
masters and watch keeping personnel to the following principles
which shall be observed to ensure that a safe navigational watch is
maintained at all times.
b. The master of every ship is bound to ensure that watch keeping
arrangements are adequate for maintaining a safe navigational watch.
Under the master's general direction, the officers of the watch are
responsible for navigating the ship safely during their periods of duty
when they will be particularly concerned with avoiding collision and
stranding.
c. The basic principles, including but not limited to the following, shall
be taken into account on all ships.
d. Watch arrangements
i. The composition of the watch shall at all times be adequate and
appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions and shall
take into account the need for maintaining a proper lookout.
ii. When deciding the composition of the watch on the bridge, which may
include appropriate deck ratings, the following factors, shall be taken
into account:
At no time shall the bridge be left unattended;
Weather condition, visibility and whether there is daylight or
darkness;
Proximity of navigational hazards which may make it nece ssary for
the officer in charge of the watch to carry out additional
navigational duties;
Use and operational condition of navigational aids such as radar or
electronic position indicating devices and any other equipment
affecting the safe navigation of the ship;
Whether the ship is fitted with automatic steering;
Any unusual demands on the navigational watch that may arise as a
result of special operational circumstances.

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e. Navigational duties and responsibilities


i.

The officer in charge of the watch shall:


Keep his watch on the bridge which he shall in no circumstances
leave until properly relieved.
Continue to be responsible for the safe navigation of the ship,
despite the presence of the master on the bridge, until the master
informs him specifically that he has assumed that responsibility and
this is mutually understood.
Notify the master when in any doubt as to what action to take in
the interest of safety.
Not hand over the watch to the relieving officer if he has reason
to believe that the latter is obviously not capable of carrying out his
duties effectively, in which case he shall notify the master
accordingly.

ii.

iii.
iv.

On taking over the watch the relieving officer shall satisfy


himself as to the ship's estimated or true position and confirm its
intended track, course and speed and shall note any dangers to
navigation expected to be encountered during his watch.
A proper record shall be kept of the movements and activities
during the watch relating to the navigation of the ship.

f. Look-out
In addition to maintaining a proper look-out for the purpose of fully
appraising the situation and the risk of collision, stranding and other
dangers to navigation, the duties of the look-out shall include the
detection of ships or aircraft in distress, shipwrecked persons, wrecks and
debris. In maintaining a look-out the following shall be observed:
i. The look-out must be able to give full attention to the keeping of a
proper look-out and no other duties shall be undertaken or assigned
which could interfere with that task;
ii. The duties of the look-out and helmsman are separate and the
helmsman shall not be considered to be the look-out while steering,
except in small ships where an unobstructed all-round view is
provided at the steering position and there is no impairment of night

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vision or other impediment to the keeping of a proper look-out. The


officer in charge of the watch may be the sole lookout in daylight
provided that on each such occasion:
The situation has been carefully assessed and it has been
established without doubt that it is safe to do so ;
Full account has been taken of all relevant factors including, but
not limited to:

State of weather
Visibility
Traffic density
Proximity of danger to navigation
The attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic
separation schemes.

iii. Assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge


when any change in the situation so requires.
g. Fitness for duty
The watch system shall be such that the efficiency of watchkeeping
officers and watchkeeping ratings is not impaired by fatigue. Duties shall
be so organized that the first watch at the commencement of a voyage and
the subsequent relieving watches are sufficiently rested and otherwise fit
for duty.
h. Navigation
i. The intended voyage shall be planned in advance taking into
consideration all pertinent information and any course laid down shall
be checked before the voyage commences.
ii. During the watch the course steered, position and speed shall be
checked at sufficiently frequent intervals, using any available
navigational aids necessary, to ensure that the ship follows the planned
course.
iii. The officer of the watch shall have full knowledge of the location and
operation of all safety and navigational equipment on board the ship and
shall be aware and take account of the operating limitations of such
equipment.

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iv. The officer in charge of a navigational watch shall not be assigned or


undertake any duties which would interfere with the safe navigation of
the ship.
i. Navigational equipment
i. The officer of the watch shall make the most effective use of all
navigational equipment at his disposal.
ii. When using radar, the officer of the watch shall bear in mind the
necessity to comply at all times with the provisions on the use of radar
contained in the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea.
iii. In cases of need the officer of the watch shall not hesitate to use the
helm, engines and sound signaling apparatus.
j. Navigation with pilot embarked
Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, his presence on board does
not relieve the master or officer in charge of the watch from their duties
and obligations for the safety of the ship. The master and the pilot shall
exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions
and the ship's characteristics. The master and officer of the watch shall
co-operate closely with the pilot and maintain an accurate check of the
ship's position and movement.
If any doubt as to the pilots actions or intentions, the officer in charge of
the navigational watch shall seek clarification from the pilot and if doubt
still exists, shall notify the master immediately and take whatever action
is necessary before the master arrives.
k. Protection of the marine environment
The master and officer in charge of the watch shall be aware of the
serious effects of operational or accidental pollution of the marine
environment and shall take all possible precautions to prevent such
pollution, particularly within the framework of relevant international and
port regulations.

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The Properties Of Different Chart Projection Used For Navigation


For the purposes of navigation it is necessary to project the features of the
Earth's surface on to a chart. A projection is a means of representing a
spheroid surface on a plane. It is usually expressed as a mathematical
formula for converting geographical co-ordinates on the spheroid to plane
co-ordinates on the chart or map. Provided it is suitable a projection may
be used to represent any portion of the Earth's surface.
Since it is impossible to fit exactly a plane surface on to a spheroid one,
projections of anything but very small areas will contain some distortion,
see Fig. (1).
The distortion of a projection must involve some or all of the following
properties:

Shape.
Bearing.
Scale.
Area.

It is possible to devise a good projection, which will eliminate or reduce


to negligible proportions some of these distortions while keeping the
others within reasonable and thus usable limits. The choice of projection
for a chart or map is governed by the requirements of the user. The
mariner requires a chart which will not only show the correct shape of
the land he is looking at, but also give him his correct position, course
and speed when he plots bearings and distances on it. Unfortunately all
these requirements cannot be met in one single projection, and a
compromise must be made by accepting a very close approximation to all
three (shape, bearing, distance), or satisfaction of two (usually shape and
bearing) at the expense of the third (distance or scale).
The network of lines representing the meridians of longitude and parallels
of latitude, which derive from any projection, is known as a graticule.
A grid is a reference system of rectangular (Cartesian) co-ordinates
obtained when a projection is applied to a particular part, or the whole of
the world.

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Fig. (1) Projections Of A Sphere

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Mercator Projection / Chart


To the navigator, the most useful chart is one on which he can show
the track of his ship by drawing a straight line between his starting point
and his destination, and thus measure the steady course he must steer in
order to arrive there. Fig .2 shows mercator projection of north atantic
ocean The Mercator chart permits him to do this because it is constructed
so that:
Rhumb lines on the Earth appear as straight lines on the chart.
The angles between these Rhumb lines are unaltered, as between
Earth and chart.
It therefore follows that:
The equator, which is a Rhumb line as well as a great circle, appears on
the chart as a straight line.
The parallels of latitude appear as straight lines parallel to the equator.
The meridians appear as straight lines perpendicular to the equator.
The idea of the projection belongs to Gerhard Kremer, a Fleming who
adopted the name Mercator. Kremer used the graticule derived from the
projection in the world map, which he published in 1569.
The graticule, however, was inaccurately drawn above the parallels of
40, and there was no mathematical explanation of it. That was not
forthcoming until Wright calculated the positions of the parallels and
published the results in his Errors of Navigation Corrected thirty years
later.
The chart came into general use among navigators in about 1630, but the
first complete description of it did not arrive until 1645, when Bond
published the logarithmic formula.
Gnomonic Projection/ Chart
In order to assist the navigator in finding the great-circle track
between two places, charts are constructed so that any straight line drawn
on them shall represent a great circle. These are known as gnomonic
charts, and they are formed by projecting the Earth's surface from the
Earth's center on to the tangent plane at any convenient point. They are

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Fig. (2) Mercator Projection Of The North Atlantic Ocean

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thus a zenithal projection. The Gnomonic projection is a perspective


projection, the meridians and parallels being projected on to the tangent
plane from the center of the sphere. The tangent point is chosen at the
center of the area to be shown on the chart, to minimize distortion, see
Fig.( 2)
Since a great circle is formed by the intersection of a plane through the
Earth's center with the Earth's surface, and as one plane will always cut
another in a straight line, all great circles will appear on the chart as
straight lines. However, the meridians will not be parallel unless the
tangent point is on the equator, nor will Rhumb lines be straight. Angles
are also distorted, except at the tangent point. It is therefore impossible to
take courses and distances from a Gnomonic chart.
Datum Used On Charts:
a. Plotting a position
A position may expressed by its latitude and longitude, or as a range and
bearing from a specific object. It may be plotted on the chart using a
parallel rule, dividers and the scale of latitude and longitude appropriate
to the chart itself but what about the reference datum.
Reference datums and spheroids
Throughout the world, a number of these datums and associated spheroids
have been used for charting. In consequence, there are differences to
geodetic latitudes and longitudes, albeit small, between different charting
systems. Table gives some examples of the datums and spheroids used.
Satellite geodesy
Since the 1960s the limitations of the classical methods have been
overcome by the use of extremely accurate satellite techniques. Accurate
co-ordinates of ground stations and the Earth's gravity field have been
determined, from Doppler and laser observations to satellites, and the
height of the geoid has been measured over sea areas by satellite
altimetry. By combining these data with surface measurements, a
worldwide 3-D reference system and a spheroid which best fits the geoid
have been defined. It has also been possible to establish the relationships
between previously unconnected datums and to convert them to the world
datum.

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World geodetic systems (WGS)


In the past the differences in the various datums used for charting had
very little effect on the day to day navigation of ships, particularly as the
errors inherent in astronomical observation were larger than any
discrepancy in charted latitude and longitude. However, it became clear
in the late 1950s that the increasing range of weapon systems (thousands
of miles in some cases) and the requirements for manned space flight
necessitated the establishment of an agreed worldwide spheroid which
fitted the actual shape of the whole Earth as closely as possible and whose
center coincided with its center of mass. This came about with the
development of the World Geodetic System 1972 (WGS 72) spheroid,
details of which are given in Table 1. A few metric charts throughout the
world are now compiled on this basis.
The US Navy Navigation Satellite System (TRANSIT), which came into
being in 1964, is now based on WGS. The increasing world-wide use of
this system, accurate to the order of 100 meters, shows up the
siscepancies in the various datums used for charting.
It has thus become necessary to tabulate this discrepancy on any chart not
based on WGS in the form of a correction to the latitude of the position
obtained from TRANSIT. This correction is known as the datum shift and
may be as large as several hndred meters in well surveyed areas.
For example, in Southampton Water the datum shift amounts to about
130 metrs (145 yards). A further error, amounting to a mile or more in
poorly surveyed areas such as parts of the pacific ocean, may also arise
from errors in the charted geographical position.
A similar problem exists with the Royal Navy's automated Navigational
Plotting System, which is also based on WGS.
NAVSTAR GPS is based on the WGS 84 Datum, which uses the GRS
(Geodetic Reference System) 80 Spheroid. As far as the navigator is
concerned, the differences between WGS 72 and WGS 84 are negligible.
b. Height
Height on Admiralty charts is given above a particular datum. This is
Mean Height Water springs in areas where the tides are semi-diurnal and
Mean Higher High Water where there is a diurnal in equality. Mean sea

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level is used in places where there is no tide.


In most instances, the position of the height is that of the dot alongside
the figure, thus: * 135. Heights, which are displaced from the feature
(e.g. a small islet) to which they, refer, or which qualify the description of
a feature (e.g. a chimney) are placed in parentheses.
Drying heights
.
Underlined figures on rocks and banks, which uncover see Fig.(3) give
the drying heights above chart datum in meters and decimeters or in feet,
as appropriate.
Tidal stream information
1. All information about tidal streams, whether in tables, or in
notes giving the times of slack water and the rate of the tidal
streams, is given in some convenient place on the chart and
referred to by a special symbol [e.g. ] at the position for
which the information is given.
2. This information may be shown by means of tidal stream
arrows on certain charts when insufficient data for
constructing tables are available.

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Fig. (3) Tide Levels And Heights

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c. Depths
The unit in use for depths is stated in bold lettering below the title of the
chart. It is also shown, in magenta, outside the bottom right and top
left-hand corners of metric charts.
On all charts, the position of a sounding is the center of the space
occupied by the sounding figure(s). On metric charts, soundings are
generally shown in meters and decimeters in depths of less than 21
meters; elsewhere in whole meters only. Where navigation of
deep-draught vessels is a factor and where the survey data are sufficiently
precise, soundings between 21 and 31 meters may be expressed in meters
and half-meters.
On fathom charts, soundings are generally shown in fathoms and feet in
depths of less than 11 fathoms and in f athoms elsewhere. In areas used by
deep-draught vessels where the depth data are sufficiently precise, charts
show depths between 11 and 15 fathoms in fathoms and feet. Some older
charts show fractional parts of fathoms in shallow areas and a few older
charts express all soundings in feet.
Depths on charts are given below chart datum. On metric charts for which
the UK Hydrographic Department is the charting authority, chart datum is
a level as close as possible to Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT), the
lowest predictable tide under average meteorological conditions. On
earlier charts and those based on foreign charts, chart datums are low
water levels, which range from Mean Low Water to lowest possible low
water in tidal waters; in non-tidal waters, such as the Baltic, chart datum
is usually Mean Sea Level. A brief description of the level of chart datum
is given under the title of metric charts.
Large and medium scale charts contain a panel giving the heights above
chart datum of either Mean High and Low Water Springs and Neaps, or
Mean Higher and Lower High and Low Water, whichever is appropriate.
d. Direction
A line on the Earth's surface, which cuts all the meridians and parallels at
the same angle is called a Rhumb line. If two places on the Earth's surface
are joined by a Rhumb line and the ship steers along that line, the
direction of the ship's head will remain the same throughout the passage.
This direction is determined by the angle from the meridian to the Rhumb

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line, measured clockwise from 0 to 360, and is called the course. The
Rhumb line itself is often spoken of as the course. On the Earth's surface,
a continuous Rhumb line will in general spiral towards the pole. To the
navigator, the most useful chart is one on which he can show the track of
his ship by drawing a straight line between his starting-point and his
destination, and then measure the steady course he must steer in order to
arrive there. Table (1) shows the accuracy of position fixing method
Table (1)Methods Available For Position Fixing And Their Accuracy
Position Fixing
D.G.P.S
G.P.S
Radar observation

Accuracy (95%)
5-10 meter
100 meter
Depending on method used

Accuracy Of Range And Bearing Measurements Required By The


Performance Standards For Radar Equipment
1. Range Performance
The operational requirements under normal propagation conditions, when
the radar antenna is mounted at a height of 15 meter above sea level, is
that the equipment shall 'in absence of clutter give a clear indication of:
a) Coastlines
At 20 nautical miles when the ground rises to 60 meters.
At 7 nautical miles when the ground rises to 6 meters.
b) Surface objects
At 7 nautical miles a ship of 5000 tons gross tonnage, whatever her
aspect.
At 3 nautical miles a small vessel of 10 meters 'in length.
At 2 nautical miles an object such as a navigational buoy having an
effective echoing are of approximately 10 square meters.
2. Minimum Range
The above-specified surface object shall be clearly displayed from a
minimum range of 50 meter up to range of one nautical miles, without
changing the setting of controls other than the range selector.

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The minimum range is the shortest distance at which, using the range
scale between 0.5 and 0.8 nautical miles, a target is still presented
separately from the trace origin.
3. Range Measurements
The equipment shall provide the following set of range scales of display:
1.5, 3, 6 , 12 and 24 nautical miles and one range scale of not less than
0.5 and not greater than 0.8 nautical miles. Additional range scale may be
provided, which are either smaller than the range scale between 0.5 and
0.8 nautical miles or greater than 24 nautical miles. Fixed electronic range
rings shall be provided for range measurements as follows:
On the range scale between 0.5 and 0.8 nautical miles, at least two
range rings.
On each of the other range scales six range rings.
where off-setting facilities are included in the equipment additional
range rings shall be provided on each range scale so that the range
rings extend from the point of maximum offset to the edge of the
display farthest from that point . On each range scale the distance
between the additional range rings shall be the same as the distance
between the range rings provided in accordance with 1 and 2 above as
appropriate.
A variable electronic range marker shall be provided with a numeric
readout of range.
The maximum range of the variable range marker shall not exceed
significantly the maximum range of the longest radar scale.
Fixed range ring s and variable range markets shall enable the range of
an object to be measured with an error not exceeding 1.5% of the
maximum range of the scale in use or 70 meters, which ever is greater.
It shall be possible to vary the brilliance of the fixed range rings and
variable range markets and to remove them completely from the
display.

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4. Bearing Measurements
Provisions shall be made to obtain quickly the bearing of any object
whose echo appears on the display.
Any means provided for obtaining bearings should enable the bearing
of a target whose echo appears on the edge of the display to be
measured with an accuracy of 1 or better.
The equipment shall be provided with an angular scale around the
periphery of the display. In addition an electronic bearing line or a
mechanical bearing cursor, or both, shall be provided.
The angular scale shall be graduated at l 'intervals and numbered
every 10 clockwise from 000, with 000 being the ' head-up '
position. Every 5, scale mark shall be noticeably longer than 1 scale
marks.
Where an electronic bearing line is provided shall:
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be clearly distinguishable from the ship's bearing marker;


be updated at least once each antenna revolution
have facilities to adjust its intensity
be free to rotate both clockwise and anticlockwise continuously
every 360, its direction of turning being the same as that of its
control. Where push button controls are used, the right or upper
shall cause clockwise rotation and the left or lower button shall
cause anticlockwise rotation.
have a maximum thickness not exceeding 0.5 when measured
at the edge of display;
extent from, or be capable of being extended from, its origin to
the edge of the display.

Where a numerical bearing cursor is provided it shah not unduly


obstruct the display and shah be free to rotate both clockwise and
anticlockwise through 360, its direction of turning being the same as
that of any associated control. It shall be possible to rotate and stop
the cursor at any given bearing within 10 seconds.
The center of the cursor shall coincide with the center of the display
bearing scale and shall be clearly marked. A line passing through this
center shall extend across the full diameter of the cursor and be readily

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identifiable. The cursor shall also be marked with a set of lines


perpendicular to or parallel with the line mentioned above. These lines
shah be at equal distance apart, approximately coincident with the
tangents to the range rings or the center and covering the effective
diameter of the display, but not exceeding to the graduated angular scale.
No other markers shall be on the cursor.
The marking of lines on the cursor shall be such as to minimize parallax
between the cursor and the face of the display and the cursor shall be
mounted such that the bearing line when turned to indicate 000 shah
cover the 180 marking within 0.5 and when turned to 90 shall cover
the 270 marking within 0.5.
5. Discrimination
The equipment shall be capable of displaying as separate indications
on a range scale of 1.5nautical miles. or less, two small similar targets
at a range of between 50% and 100% of the range scale in use, and on
the same azimuth, separated by not more than 50 meters in range.
The equipment shall be capable of displaying as separate indications
two small similar targets both situated at the same range between 50%
and 100% of the 1.5 nautical miles range scale, and separated by not
more than 2.5 in azimuth.
The Use of Nautical Publication
The masters decision on the overall conduct on the passage will be based
upon an appraisal of the available information. Such appraisal will be
made by considering the information from sources including:
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Chart catalogue
Navigational charts and Electronic Navigation charts
Ocean passages for the world
Routing charts
Sailing directions books or guide to port entry
Tide tables
Tidal stream atlases
Notice to mariners
Light lists
Radio signaling information (including VTS and pilot service)
Routing information

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Climatic information
Load - line charts
Electronic navigation systems information
Radio and local warnings
Draught of vessels
Mariner hand book
Personal experience

The items are well known to navigator but for the purpose of
shiphandling we will get details for some of them.
a. Sailing Direction Book:
British pilot books are published in 74 volumes by the hydrographic of
the navy and give worldwide coverage. Sailing directions are published
by the defense Mapping agency (USA) in series SDPUB 121-200.
Some of the books are referred to as planning guides giving information
essentially the same as the British Ocean Passage for the world, others as
enroute, giving similar information to the British Pilot Books.
b. Tide Tables:
Published by the hydrographic of the navy (British) annually, giving tidal
times and heights data, which now available by using a computer
program published by the British Admiralty.
c. Tidal Stream Atlases:
Published by the hydrographic of the navy (British), these atlases cover
certain areas of the Northwest Europe and Hong Kong
d. Notice To Mariners:
Are published in weekly addition by both the British Admiralty and US'
hydrographic authorities. Enabling ships to keep their charts and other
publications up to date.
e. Ships Routing:
Published by IMO, this publication gives information on all routing,
traffic separation schemes, deep water routes and areas to be avoided
which have been adopted by IMO. Routing information is also shown on
charts and is included in the sailing direction book.

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Reference:
1- Ministry of Defense (Navy) - Admiralty Manual of Navigation.
Volume 1 - 1987
2- STCW 1995 - Regulation II/ I
3- Captain A.J. Swift MNI - Bridge Team Management 1993

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CHAPTER TWO
ARPA Operating Controls
Introduction
This section describes the operational controls and indicators and their
functions required to operate SHIP ANALYTICS'
RADAR/AUTOMATIC RADAR Plotting Aid (ARPA) Simulator.

Fig. (1) Radar Display

Display Monitor
The DISPLAY MONITOR used in the RADAR/ARPA SIMULATOR is
a high-resolution raster can monitor fitted with a touch-screen overlay.
During normal operation the degauss, contrast and brightness controls are
the only operational controls used. The display width height and vertical

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horizontal centering controls are only used to size the display prior to the
touch-screen calibration. Figure.(1) shows radar display monitor

Display Controls
Operational controls and indicators, with the exception of the PC
computer and display monitor controls identified, are located on the
simulated ARPA DISPLAY. See Figure (1)
The simulated ARPA DISPLAY, shown on figure (1), provides control
and indicators for the following functional areas:
Ownship Status; Tracked Target Status; Operation Power Status; Alarm
Status; Range Scale Select/Display; Radar Display and ARPA Functions
Control; Sweep Center Position and EBL Origin Set Control; Radar
Transceiver Control; System Status; Radar/ARPA Display; and
VRM/EBL Control.

Own Ship Status Display:


The OWN SHIP STATUS DISPLAY provides a digital readout of
ownships current heading and log speed. When in the TRIAL
MANEUVER mode, the trial heading and trial speed will be displayed.

Target Track Acquisition Symbol:


The TARGET TRACK ACQUISITION SYMBOL is used to manually
select radar returns to be tracked by the ARPA. The operator can select
and track up to 20 targets at any time.

Tracked Target Status Display


The TRACKED TARGET STATUS DISPLAY will display the tracked
target's data (i.e., TARGET NUMBER, RANGE, BEARING, COURSE,
SPEED, CPA Range (+ closing and- opening) and CPA TIME (+ to and from)) for the target selected by the operator. With no target selected this
display is not shown.

Operation Power Status:


The STANDBY/ON control allows the operator to shift the system from
STANDBY to ON. When the system is ready for use the STANDBY/ON
display will be show with STANDBY highlighted and the system will not
display any radar returns. When ON, the ON in the STANDBY/ON
display will be highlighted and the system will display radar returns at a
sweep rate determined by the radar parameters (e.g., FREQ., POWER,

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PL, PRF, etc.) that were downloaded from the simulation host computer
during the exercise initialization.

Alarm Display:
The ALARM DISPLAY is normally blank unless a TARGET THREAT
or INTRUDER alarm occurs. When an alarm occurs, an alarm message
(THREAT or INTRUDER) will flash and an audio alarm will sound until
acknowledge by the operator.
The TARGET THREAT alarm that will occur whenever the calculated
CPA and TCPA for any tracked target is less than the set CPA LIMIT or
TCPA LIMT. The target that caused the TARGET THREAT alarm is
identified by a flashing target number and a highlighted speed vector on
the RADAR/ARPA display and the letter T attached to its target
number on the Target Designation submenu.
The INTRUDER ALARM will occur whenever the guard rings are ON
with the automatic acquisition function (AUTO ACQUIRES) OFF and a
target enters the guard ring area. On the RADAR/ARPA display, the
target that caused the INTRUDER alarm is identified with an
INTRUDER ALERT SYMBOL. When the AUTO ACQUIRES is ON,
this alarm will only occur for the targets over the 20 targets that the
system has already acquired.

Range Scale Select/Display:


The RANGE SCALE SELECT/DISPLAY displays the selected range
scale to the left of the colon and range ring interval to the right (e.g., 12:
2) It also allows the range scale to be changed. The range ring interval is
non-selectable and is determined by the range scale selection.

Radar Display and ARPA Functions Control:


The RADAR DISPLAY & ARPA FUNCTIONS CONTROLS display
consists of two main menus (i.e., MENU 1 and MENU 2) and submenus,
which allow the operator to make radar display and ARPA functions
selections.(Figure .2)

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Own Ship
The OWN SHIP selection allows the operator to initialize the data on the
OWN SHIP STATUS DISPLAY on a real RADAR/ARPA system. In the
RADAR/ARPA simulator own ship data is provided by the host
simulation computer provides data; and the only selection available to the
operator is the EXIT selection.

Display Orientation
The DISPLAY ORIENTATION submenu allows the operator to select a
NORTH UP, COURSE UP or HEAD UP radar display orientation.
NORTH UP is a presentation that orientates the radar display with
North at the top of the display (000o on the azimuth ring). Own ship
heading is shown at the intersection of the own ship heading flasher
and the azimuth ring. All radar returns are referenced and displayed
in true bearings.
COURSE UP is a presentation that initially orientates the radar
display with own ship heading and Own Ship Heading Flasher at
the top of the display (000 o on the azimuth ring). The COURSE UP
display provides for the digital readouts of the radar returns to be
referenced to true bearings while the radar returns are being
displayed relative to own ship. This orientation is correct only as
long as own ship remains on the course when COURSE UP was
selected. If own ship changes course, after a course change, touch
and release the NEW COURSE selection on the system status
display to re-orientate own ship and own ship heading flasher.
HEAD UP orientates the radar display where own ship's heading is
always at the top of the display (000o on the azimuth ring). All
radar returns are referenced and displayed in relative bearings.

Intensity
The intensity submenu allows the operator to adjust the intensities of the
RADAR VIDEO, VRM/EBL, RANGE RINGS, PANEL GRAPHICS &
ARPA SYMBOLS.

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True Motion
The true motion submenu allows the operator to turn the true motion
function On or Off and manual reset. When true motion is OFF the
display is in RELATIVE MOTION where own ship is at a selected point
on the display and all targets move relative to own ship. In true motion,
stationary targets are stationary and own ships and targets are displayed as
moving with their true course and speed. When own ship reaches the
outer portion of the display 75% of the display radius, the system will
automatically reset the display with own ship repositioned back to the
start point.
a. TRUE MOTION ON/OFF allows the operator to turn true motion On
or Off.
b. MANUAL RESET allows the operator to manually reset the true
motion display anytime before own ship reaches 75% of the display
radius.

Symbol Display
The symbol display submenu allows the operator to select and/or define
display symbols. See (Figure.2)
VECTOR TRUE/REL allows the operator to designate the vectors as
true or relative.
HISTORY ON/OFF allows the operator to turn the history dots ON or
OFF.
DOT INTERVAL x MIN allows the operator to set the time between
history dots.
LENGTH x.x Min allows the operator to set the length of the vectors.
VRM TYPE MARK/RING allows the operator to select the VRM as
either a Mark or a ring range marker when VRM-EBL is turned on.
VRM-EBL ON/OFF allows the operator to turn the VRM-EBL symbol
ON or OFF.

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Fig. (2)
radar display main and sub menus

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Fig. (3) ARPA Display

Tracking Conditions
The tracking conditions submenu allows the operator to set the CPA and
TCPA limits that will activate the target threat alarm.
CPA LIMIT x.x NMI allows the operator to enter the minimum range
that a target can close own ship before the alarm activates.
TCPA LIMIT x.x MIN allows the operator to enter a time before a target
reaches CPA that will cause the alarm to activate.

Target Designation
The target designation submenu allows the operator to select what target
is to be displayed in the TRACKED TARGET STATUS DISPLAY,
notes how many targets are being tracked by ARPA, and allows the
operator to cancel targets.

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Up to 20 target designations are available. The target designation


highlighted is the target displayed on the TRACKED TARGET STATUS
DISPLAY. Any target with the letter "T" next to it is a threatening target
(i.e., within the set CPA/TCPA limits).
# TARGETS IN TRACK denotes how many targets are being tracked by
ARPA.
CANCEL TARGET #X (X being the highlighted target) allows the
operator to cancel this target from being tracked by ARPA.
CANCEL ALL TARGETS allows the operator to cancel all targets,
currently being tracked by ARPA, from being tracked by ARPA.

Guard Ring
The guard rings submenu allows the operator to set up an automatic
warning system which will active the INTRUDER alarm or an automatic
acquisition mode which will automatically acquire and track when any
non-tracked target passes into a guarded area. The operator can set up to
two separate 0o to 360o guard rings at different ranges from own ship.
RANGE x.x NMI allows the operator to set the range from own ship to
the guard ring.
RING START xxx DEG allows the operator to set the bearing for the
start of the guard ring.
RING STOP xxx DEG allows the operator to set the bearing for the end
of the guard ring.
RING ON/OFF allows the operator to turn the guard ring ON or OFF.
AUTO ACQUIRE ON/OFF allows the operator to select a automatic
tracking of an INTRUDER target. When ON, an INTRUDER will be
automatically tracked, when OFF or when all 20 targets are being
tracked, the INTRUDER alarm will activate and the INTRUDER ALERT
symbol will flash but the target will not be automatically tracked.
SELECT GUARD RING x allows the operator to switch between guard
ring #1 and guard ring #2 controls.

Trial Maneuver
The TRIAL MANEUVER submenu allows the operator to evaluate the
effect of an own ship speed and/or course maneuver before the ship
actually maneuvers. When activated, vectors for all tracked targets are
calculated and displayed from the own ship speed and course data entered
by the operator. This mode is useful for evaluating own ship maneuvers
in crossing traffic, where avoiding one traffic ship might cause a closing
situation on another traffic ship. When in the trial maneuver mode, a large

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"T" appears on the screen and TRIAL HEADING and TRAIL SPEED are
indicated in the OWN SHIP STATUS DISPLAY.
HEADING xxx DEG allows the operator to enter an own ship course.
SPEED x.x KTS allows the operator to enter an own ship speed.
TRIAL ON/OFF allows the operator to turn the trail maneuver ON
and OFF.

Radar Controls.
The radar control submenu allows the operator to select either AUTO or
MANUAL tuning capability in the radar transceiver control section. In
the RADAR/ARPA simulator the only selection available to the operator
on the radar controls submenu is the EXIT selection.

Menu 2
The MENU 2 selection allows the operator select Menu 2 and its
submenus for display.

Radar Test Mode


The radar test mode submenu provides simulated targets to be displayed
on the screen and allows the operator to perform operability and system
readiness tests. In the RADAR/ARPA simulator the host simulator
computer provides this function and the only selection available to the
operator on the radar test mode submenu is the EXIT selection.

Display Options
The display options submenu allows the operator to adjust the display
monitor's background color. In the RADAR/ARPA simulator the only
selection available to the operator on the display options submenu is the
EXIT selection.

Calibrate Touch
The calibrate touch submenu allows the operator to align the touch screen
to the display.

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Menu 1
The MENU 1 selection allows the operator selects Menu 1 and its
submenus for display.

Sweep Center & EBL Origin Set Control:


THE SWEEP CENTER & EBL origin set control section provides
controls for the display of own ship's position and electronic bearing line
(EBL).
q CENTER allows the operator to position own ship as the center of the
display.
q OFF CENTER allows the operator to display own ship off centered
from the center of the display.
q EBL HOME allows the operator to reset the origin of the EBL to the
home own ship's position.
q EBL OFFSET allows the operator to offset the EBL origin to any point
on the display.

Radar Transceiver Control:


The radar transceiver control section allows the operator to make
simulated adjustments to the radar receiver to improve the radar display.
PWR PULSE allows the operator to simulate an increased transmitted
pulse width. The effect of this control is to optimize the detection of
small targets in sea clutter. This control is not available for range
scale selections of 24 nm and above.
AUTO TUNE is a fixed control for the tuning of the receiver local
oscillator. MANUAL control is not available.
GAIN allows the operator to simulate the adjustment of the overall
receiver gain.
SEA allows the operator to simulate the adjustment of the receiver's
STC setting. The effect of this adjustment is to reduce the clutter
produced by heavy rain.
RAIN allows the operator to simulate the adjustment of the display's
background level.

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System Status Display:


The system status display section provides a NEW COURSE reset control
and several system status displays.
NEW COURSE is displayed only when the selected display orientation
is COURSE UP. In COURSE UP, own ship's heading was initially
orientated to 000 on the azimuth ring. If own ship's heading changes,
the indicated course will no longer be referenced to 000. To
reorientate own ship's new course to 000, touch and release NEW
COURSE.
NORTH UP, COURSE UP, or HEAD UP indicates the selected
orientation of the radar display.
RELATIVE MOTION or TRUE MOTION indicates the selected
display mode for own ship's motion.
TRUE VECTOR MIN or RELATIVE VECTOR MIN indicates the
target vector status and the time length of each vector line.
CPA LIMIT NMI indicates the set range for the closest point of
approach. When a target reaches the CPA LIMIT the TARGET
THREAT alarm activates.
TCPA LIMIT MIN indicates the set time to the closest point of
approach. When a target reaches the TCPA LIMIT the TARGET
THREAT alarm activates.

Radar/ARPA Display:
The RADAR/ARPA display is a graphic representation of a Plan
position indicator (PPI) display, consisting of an outer azimuth ring
and inner range rings, which display the radar picture 360o around
own ship. The fixed azimuth ring denotes bearings, while the inner
concentric range rings, the number of rings dependent on the
selected range scale, denotes range distances from own ship.
VRM/EBL Control:
The VRM/EBL control section displays the range from the EBL
origin to the mark designated on the VRM position and the bearing
from the EBL origin to the mark designated on the EBL line. TRUE
is displayed when NORTH UP or COURSE UP orientation is
selected. RELATTVE is displayed when HEAD UP orientation is
selected.

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Graphics & Symbols


To assist the operator in the identification of various display features the
RADAR/ARPA simulator display provides graphics and symbols, shown
on (Figure. 4), associated with RADAR & ARPA functions.

Azimuth Ring:
The azimuth ring is the fixed outer ring graphic on the radar display. The
ring is graduated in one-degree increments and marked in ten-degree
increments.
With NORTH UP/OWN SHIP CENTERED display selected, the true
heading of own ship's course and the true bearing of targets, intersected
by the EBL, are determined directly from the scale on the azimuth ring.
With COURSE UP display selected, the display is initially rotated so
that 000 represents own ship's course and relative bearings can be
determined from the scale on the azimuth ring.
With HEAD UP display selected, the radar display is rotated so that 000
always represents own ship's bow and all bearing are relative to own ship
and can be determined from the scale on the azimuth ring.

Fig. (4) Symbol Display Of ARPA & Guard Rings

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Range Rings:
Range rings graphics will display three, five or six concentric rings
depending on the selected range scale. The distance between the range
rings is displayed on the RANGE SCALE display (to the right of the
colon). Range eings will always remain concentric with own ships
position in both CENTERED and OFF centered modes.

Guard Ring:
The guard ring symbols represent an area set up by the operator as an
alert area. One or two guard rings can be established either in an arc or a
complete circle around own ship.
If any non-tracked target enters an area set by guard ring, an INTRUDER
alert will be display in the alarm display area and a flashing INTRUDER
symbol are displayed ON.
The target acquire mode is selected; the target entering the guard ring will
be automatically acquired and tracked.

Intruder Alert Symbol:


The intruder alert symbol, associated with guard rings, is displayed on
any non-tracked target that enters a guard ring area.

Own Ship Indicator:


The own ship indicator is a cross - located at the origin of the Own Ship
heading flasher.

Tracked Target Number:


Any time a target is selected for tracking the system will assign a number
to the target. The number is displayed near the target tracking window
and is added on the target designation menu. The target number will
flash whenever it is a threatening target (i.e., within the CPA/TCPA
limits).

History Dots:
The history dots symbols show the previous positions of a tracked target.
The spacing between history dots indicates the distance traveled and is
controlled by the DOT INERRVAL x NIN selection.

VRM Mark or Ring:


The VRM Mark (+) symbol indicates the range of a selected point on the
EBL. A ring range marker can be selected instead of the EBL mark
symbol.

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Electronic Bearing Line:


The electronic bearing line (EBL) is a reference line that can be set to
start at any position on the display and extended, in a straight line, to any
other point on the display. The orientation of the line provides the
bearing between the two points. Regardless of whether the EBL is
centered or OFF centered, it provides true bearing when NORTH UP or
COURSE UP orientation is selected and relative bearing when HEAD UP
orientation is selected.

Tracking Window:
The tracking Window symbol, two short parallel arcs, brackets each
target in track.

Target Speed Vector:


The target speed vector is displayed in all orientations when selected from
the SYMBOL DISPLAY menu. When selected, a vector whose length
and direction represent the target's predicted motion is displayed from
each tracked target. The target speed vector will highlight whenever it is
a threatening target (i.e., within the CPA/TCPA limits).

Own Ship Speed Vector:


The own ship speed vector extends outward from own ship's position and
indicates own ships speed and heading. The length of the vector is
scaled to represent the distance; that own ship will travel in the time
interval (Length x.x NIN) entered by the operator on the symbol
submenu. The own ship speed vector is a true vector and it is not
available when vectors are selected.

Own Ship Heading Flasher:


The own ship heading flasher symbol is a line that extends outward from
own ship's position along own ship's heading to the azimuth ring. When
NORTH UP CENTERED is selected, own ship's heading can be
determined directly from the azimuth ring.

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CHAPTER THREE
Blind Navigation
Blind navigation means navigation through restricted water in low
visibility. The master should remain on the bridge and conduct the
navigation. It is desirable; if possible, to have two watch officers to back
up the master on the bridge, watch officer no.1 to man radar No. 1 (3 cm.)
to monitor the navigation. Watch officer No.2, if available, mans radar
No. 2 (10 cm), if provided, he has the primary duty of developing and
reporting collision avoidance information.
If only one radar is available this has to be used for both navigation and
collision avoidance and a safe speed is then possibly slower than when
two radars are in use.
The composition and duties of the bridge team in this situation must
therefore have sufficient flexibility built in to cope with such
circumstances. The master may continue to con the ship from the
compass platform, in case of blind navigation situation arises
subsequently, taking full account of the navigational and collision
avoidance information he is receiving from the watch officers on radar
displays and lookouts.
The ship must be accurately along a pre-arranged track. The delays
inherent in fixing are unacceptable. It is necessary, for anti-collision and
navigation in these conditions, to work directly from the radar display
using a prepared notebook; but it is still necessary to pass, radar
information for fixing regular intervals as a safety check as an insurance
against radar failure.
Blind and visual selected track should be the same, to enable the
transmission from visual to blind or vice versa to be made at any time and
also to allow one plan to be used to cross check the other. Consideration
mentioned for navigation under pilotage should be applied. Stress should
be made on the following:
1) The number of the course alterations should be kept to a minimum to
reduce the workload in redrawing and 'wheel over lines.
2) Parallel index technique is a simple and most effective way of
continuously monitoring a ship's progress in restricted waters.
3) Two parallel index lines could be used, where possible, one on each
side of the track.

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4) Objects to be used both for parallel index lines and for fixing must be
carefully selected. They should be radar-conspicuous and unchanged
by varying heights of tide. They should be marked on the charts.
5) The range scale to be used requires careful consideration. Changes of
range scales and parallel index marks should be pre-planned and noted
in the notebook.
6) Expected sounding (allowing for height of tide and calibration of echo
sounder) should be noted for each leg.
7) All hazards along the track; should be boxed in by clearing ranges and
their cross-index ranges listed in the bridge notebook.
8) Details of lights and fog signals should be entered in the bridge
notebook.
Parallel Index Technique
Investigation of casualties involving the grounding of ships, when radar
was being used as an aid to navigation, have indicated that a factor
contributing during the period of time leading up to the casualty.
Valuable assistance plan could have been given in such cases if the bridge
personnel had used the techniques of Parallel Index Plotting on the radar
display. Such techniques should be practiced in clear weather during
straightforward passages, so that bridge personnel become thoroughly
familiar with this technique before attempting it is confined and difficult
passages, or at night, or in restricted visibility.
The basic principle of Parallel Index Plotting can be applied to either
A stabilized relative motion display or;
A ground-stabilized true motion display.
1. On a stabilized relative motion display the echo of a fixed object will
move across the display in a direction, which is the exact reciprocal
of the course made good, by own ship at speed commensurate to that
of own ship over the ground. A line drawn from the echo of the
fixed object tangential to the variable range marker circle set to the

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desired passing distance will indicate the forecast track of the echo
as own ship proceeds. If the bearing cursor is set parallel to this
track it will indicate the course to made good for own ship. Any
displacement of the echo from the forecast track will indicate a
departure of own ship from the desired course over the ground.
2. On a ground-stabilized true-motion display, the echo of a fixed object
will remain stationary on the display (own ship) will move along the
course made good by own ship at a speed commensurate to that of
own ship over the ground. A line should be drawn form the echo of
the fixed object tangential to the variable range marker circle set to
the desired passing distance. If the electronic bearing marker is set
parallel to this line it will indicate the course to be made good by
own ship over the ground. The drawn line not being tangential to the
variable range circle will indicate any departure of own ship from
this course. (The variable range marker circle should move along the
line like a ball rolling along a straight edge).
I.

The navigation line or offseting of electronic bearing line


cursor can be used as an aid to drawing the Index Lines

II.

It should be borne in mind that Parallel Indexing is an aid to


safe navigation and does not supersede the requirement for
position fixing at regular intervals using all methods available to
the navigator.

III.

When using radar for position fixing and monitoring, check:

The radar's overall performance;


The identity of the fixed object(s);
Gyro error and accuracy of the heading marker alignment;
Accuracy of the variable range marker, bearing cursor and
fixed range rings;
On true motion, that the display is correctly groundstabilized."

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The parallel index technique offers the possibility of a continuous check


as to whether the ship follows the planned track (over the ground). The
method may be applied at night as well as in daytime, and in restricted
visibility. The only prerequisite is the presence of an echo of a known,
charted and fixed conspicuous target on the radar screen.
Before using parallel index technique:
It is important that the following items are checked before using parallel
index method:
The radar's overall performance.
Centering error (can be corrected by X-Y shift).
Fore and aft line of radar not coinciding with fore and aft line of
ship.
Heading marker bearing scale error.
Gyro error.
Azimuth stabilization error.
Electronic bearing indicator index error.
Variable range marker index error.
In true motion it should be ensured that the display is correctly
ground stabilized.
When applying the parallel index method, it is recommended to use the
radar in its relative motion, mode.
*There are four reasons for the requirement of sing relative motion
made
I. On True Motion (TM), with an unknown drift and leeway, the ship
will be moved off the PI-track, and the echo of the fixed point will
move as well. This must be checked continuously and can be
corrected by the x-y shift. On Relative Motion (RM) this problem
does not exist and one need only concentrate on the PI-track and the
echo.
II. Drawing a PI-track on the reflex plotter beforehand is impossible on
TM without adjusting the x-y shift afterwards due to the still
unknown location of own vessel on the screen. On RM the
previously planned PI-Track may be drawn on the reflex plotter.
III. In view of the "Rules of the Road", it is recommended to use radar in
R.M.

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IV. A weak echo of an object dead ahead might not be noticed on TM


because the PI-track on the reflex plotter goes right over it. This
objection does not exist on RM.
Limitations of parallel index techniques:
There are two important limitations to be remembered when using Parallel
Index Techniques for piloting.
1. Instrumental Errors.
2. Nature of the Observed Object.
Instrumental Error:
The maximum error, allowed by the specification of a D of T type-Tested
set, depends on the Range-scale in use as follows:

6-mile range-scale: 256 meters (0.14 mile)


3-mile range-scale: 128 meters (0.07 mile)
11/2-mile range-scale: 85 meters. (0.05 mile)
3 /4
mile range-scale: 74 meters (0.04 mile)

N.B.
Integrating range and bearing errors have found the above possible errors.
(1 .5 % of max. range ... etc., and 1o).
Note also that there can be additional observational errors (including
failure to check for faulty equipment) particularly if using un-stabilized
Radar Presentation, i.e. it is best to use North-Up Stabilized Relative
Motion.

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Nature of the observed object:


Accuracy depends on the size and shape of the object and whether it is a
fixed or floating. An ideal is Monkstone Beacon because it is reasonably
small, isolated and fixed (beam width and pulse length distortions
reference point). Less favorable objects are edges of headlands...
(Monkstone Beacon is a lighthouse on a rock in the Bristol Channel,
U.K.)

Fig. 1 Fixing by Radar Range and Bearing.

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Use of A Radar Clearing Range


When proceeding along a coast, it is often possible to decide on a
minimum clearing range outside which no off-lying dangers should be
encountered. The clearing range is illustrated in (Fig. 2), and may also be
drawn on the display using the parallel index technique. The ship must
remain outside the clearing range to proceed in safety.

Fig. 2 Use of a Radar Clearing Range

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CHAPTER FOUR
Electronic Charts & Display Information Systems
(ECDIS)
Introduction
ECDIS is a system, which integrates from the global position system
(GPS), a ship speed log, gyrocompass, and radar, using electronic charts.
It was a great step in technology of navigation due to its compact size on
the bridge and its various uses. ECDIS is linked to the autopilot, so
officers can monitor all the activities without having any trouble on the
displays of all the ECDIS. In order system mariners used to draw the
courses on paper charts, using pencil, dividers, and parallel rules, but now
using ECDIS it's done on electronic display using trackball and key
strokes. Their charts will actually be geographic data stored as connected
points that a computer reassembles to show where the ship is and what
surrounds it.

With in a few years ECDIS is expected to become a legal replacement for


the paper copies of official hydrographic charts that all the ships carry
nowadays. Standards of ECDIS where finalized by the international
maritime organization (IMO), and the international hydrographic
organization (IHO), Monaco, London.

ECDIS is only one piece of equipment among many on the bridge of


modern ships. It simplifies many jobs for the navigator and makes it
much easier. For navigators, ECDIS represent and item of equipment
consisting of hardware and software, it integrates data from:
GPS, Radar, Gyrocompass, Echo Sounder & Speed Ship Log through
interfacing.

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The software that enables the computer to be an ECDIS consists of the


user interface and the so-called ECDIS kernel.

The major goal of this chapter is to show what is meant by interfacing,


what kinds of interfacing used, what are the main uses of interfacing in
our project. The following items interfaced to the ECDIS are shown in the
Figure.(1)

Fig.( 1)

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Fig. (2)

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AMVER..Automated Manual-Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
ARPA..... Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
COLREG.. .. Collision Regulations
CPA Closest Point of Approach
D.W.Dead Weight
EBL..Electronic Bearing Line
EPIRB..... Electronic Position Indicator Radio Beacon
ETA..... Estimated Time of Arrival
ETD. Estimated Time of Departure
IALAInternational Association of

Light House

Authority
K.TON.. . 1000 Ton
K.W.... Kilowatt
MERSAR... Merchant Ship Search & Rescue
MPP.Most Probable Position
OOW Officer of The Watch
P.IParallel Index
P.R.F. .. Pulse Repetition Frequency
PC... Personal Computer
PPI Plan Position Indicator
RPM Revolution Per Minute
SAR.... Search & Rescue
SOLAS. .. Safety of Lives at Sea
STCW. Standards of Training, Certification & Watch
keeping At Sea

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TSS.Traffic Separation Schemes


UMS. .. Unmanned Machinery Space
VRM. .. Variable Range Marker
-... Astern
+ .. Ahead
0...Stop
1 .. Full Speed
1/2. .. Half Speed
1/4Slow Speed
1/8. .. Dead Slow Speed
<.. (m.m) Main Menu
.. (s.m) Sub Menu
VGA. .. Video Graphics Adaptor On The Computer
PALRGB.... Red, Green, Blue System By Cables To Display
On Or Projectors
QUAD TreeType of Structure Data
K-Dimensional Tree... Multi System of Data Structure

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ECDIS Features
Geographic information system (GIS) techniques have been used to
provide additional safety and data access function, creating a basis from
which the chart can be expanded into an intelligent decision support tool.
For example, an automatic grounding warning system has been
implemented which sounds an alarm if the charted depth at the ship's
Position falls below a predetermined value.
This approach is shoe to provide a through and complementary approach
to current navigation methods, gives new opportunities in safety and
control and easy it use by mariners of varying experience in a full range
of navigational environments. This design philosophy describe the
objectives of the technology to:
1. Reduce the navigational workload of officers by direct interfacing of
chart display and position systems, automating the process of chart
work and provision of rapid acres to supporting publications, and to
allow the automatic updating of charts and publications by means of
satellite link and magnetic disk.
2. Improve safety at sea by providing automatic generation of navigation
information, for example by using spatial data access to give warning
of possible grounding.
3. Provide an application of information technology to the maritime
industries to improve commercial performance through cost savings.
ECDIS has a significant impact on navigation control and permit safe
reductions in manning level, in commercial shipping.
The technical description of the charts is based upon PC compatible
computers.
The hardware platform permits the use of standard
commercial software libraries. Communication interfacing to other
associated hardware, for example positioning devices and exciting ship
equipment takes place via three-channel asynchronous commutation
device. A vital competent of the system is the multimedia expansion card
which converts PAL RGB video to VGA line display standard and
provides a graphics overlay facility. Video images are stored sequentially
as single frames on a laser vision videodisk to which random access is
provided by a laser disk player. Two screens are used as output devices;
one for the chart images, the other is monochrome for the display of
textual information.

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A degree of multi-tasking is incorporated to enable continuous position


monitoring, display refresh and logging functions to operate concurrently
with the user's inputs, which are monitored, by a trackball and keyboard.
Specially developed software libraries provide graphics routines and
window/menu functions. A relational database has been developed using
a memory resident driver for data insertion and retrieval operations.
Either a commercial GPS receiver provides ship-positioning input or via a
dedicated link with a training shore simulator, which allows either sea or
shore, based testing.
System Operation
The chart display:
The chart display is a screen on which the video images of the source
charts are displayed. A cursor controlled by a trackball is used to direct
the frame handling, its geographical lat / long position being updated
continuously as the trackball is moved. Changes of frame occur when the
cursor crosses the current frame boundary and when the user operates the
zoom in / zoom out function keys. The photographs are provided at two,
levels, comprising images shot from different camera heights allowing
two stages of zoom. This gives the user the opportunity to view the
general topography of the charted area on the wide focus frames and the
ability to read the full detail on the chart where required on the close up
frames.
During zoom operations, which are centered, on the cursor location, the
display alternates between these levels and changes of scale accrue when
display the request can't be met within the current chart. Switching to the
next chart covering the area of interest does this. The cursor remains as
closely centered as possible on the same lat/long position allowance being
made for differences in the ratio of the pixel area to area in the charted
terrain. After the new chart has been displayed, a scale change warning is
briefly shown and the scale bar at the chart edges redrawn. All overlaid
information such as course lines, the range and bearing indicator etc, are
redisplayed appropriately. Considerable care has been taken to achieve a
satisfactory degree of chart accuracy.
The data preparation algorithms have to account for the chart projection
spheroid and datum. Supporting data is stored file to provide system
information concerning the chart projection, its horizontal datum, the
chart title number, last correction and date of production.

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The provision of chart corrections is being prototype using graphical


overlays. Each chart will have its own set of corrections, which will be
automatically loaded and displayed each time the chart is used. The data
format supports chart corrections and it will be from this source that they
will be provided within the system. It is anticipated the chart corrections
will be sent to chicks either on a floppy disk or via a satellite
communication system. The way in which the chart display is used is
determined by whether the system is in its in passage planning or
navigation modes of operation.
The passage-planning mode allows the user to define a route as a service
of waypoints. This are placed on the chart directly using the graphics
cursor. No lat/ long keyboard inputs are required. Further, routines allow
the addition, deletion, movement and insertion of waypoints. With a brief
description of the route being mentioned on the information screen. The

description takes the form of the course and distance along each leg,
or the form of the leg descriptor field provided for users comments.
The track should validate by visual inspection.
It is intended to automate this using the grounding warning
mechanism mentioned earlier. It is also intended to prototype an
automatic annotation features using similar method, which will
provide commentary consisting of the features along each leg in a
form, appropriate to the stage of the voyage being considered. Such
a track commentary technique could be considered as analogs to,
activity pre-processing data in the form of a navigators notebook.
In general, the chart with in the system is classified as belonging to
one of three major types: harbor, coastal and ocean.
The form of the commentary and the type of information it generates
will depend on the chart type being used, for example, the
commentary relating to the use of a harbor chart will contain detail
relating to the planned track as follows: detail of charted soundings
at regular intervals, all buoys encountered, all relevant navigational
lights, visual land marks ashore, safe track width, wheel over
positions, radio reporting points and clearing bearing, etc.
In contrast, the commentary relating to the use of a costal chart will
be more concentrated with: safe maximum cross track error, major
lights, buoys and fog signals, traffic separation schemes and

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regulations, radar conspicuous points, descriptive extracts from


sailing directions, etc.
The navigational mode is used whilst on passage. Positions are
received from GPS receiver using unmodified standard position
service data, and a continuous readout of course made good, Speed
made good, distance to waypoint, bearing waypoint, and time to
waypoint is maintained in a special area on the information system
screen.
Successive track Legs are selected by the user using a menu system as
they become current. The position of own ship is displayed continuously
on the chart and it is possible to allow the vessel's progress to control the
frame handling. At rack history is displayed of positions recorded at 30s
intervals over 15 min period. In the event of an emergency this would be
recorded as instantly to provide a moment-by-moment account of the
vessels movements. Emergencies might be detected automatically via
other interfaced NAVAIDS such as the ARRA or echo sounder.
At present the ships position is automatically recorded to disk every 15
min. The recording interval might be altered according to the operating
area of the vessel, since this again illustrates the need to apply the varying
degrees of control in different navigational circumstances.
Whilst navigation mode, it is intended to apply a further level of control
through a system setting, which will govern the behavior of certain
functions according to, whether the vessel is an pilotage, coastal or open
waters. The watch-keeping officer will manage the transitions between
the conditions.
Using a set of check-off. It is often the case that navigational accidents
accrue during these changes of circumstances due to a poorly managed
response to the new workload and risk. This can lead to a failure to
ensure the ships are materially prepared for the new conditions in which
they find them selves.
This type of technology will also allow a video output of the currently
active chart display to be maintained in, say, the masters accommodation,
allowing him to monitor safety critical information in locations remote
from the bridge, giving another level of safety of monitoring.

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The Information System Screen:


The screen contains a number of functions. It incorporates an area for the
display of current track information including course made good time to
next waypoint, distance to next waypoint and bearing to waypoint. It also
includes a context sensitive help system. Whilst providing a convenient
area for general information, it main rule is to act as a display area for the
substantial database of navigation information used to support the
primary chart display.
Data requests cart be made in three ways: by using the chart cursor to
request detailed information about a single point, for example a fight
characteristic, or via the menus to obtain specific area information for
example the local weather forecast, or in the future by using the track
commentary functions. User queries of several types are supported by the
use of two families of spatial data structure: Quad trees and kdimensional trees.
Quad trees are particularly useful as a spatial index to area data whilst kdimensional trees are will suited to point data, range searching and
nearest-neighbor problems. Both this data structures allow complex
queries to be answered, for example the data stored in a k-dimensional
tree can be used to respond the questions of the following forms: where is
the nearest coastguard station? , What is the light I can see in a bearing of
a 270? What is the tidal stream here?
The Quad tree is largely used to partition space and can therefore be used
as an index to depth, areas covered by sailing directions and other regions
best information. It is used heavily by the prototype track commentary
system. The main data that will be presented by the information system
are as follows: tidal and astronomical elements, light and radio signals
lists, coastguard and search and rescue information, abstracts from sailing
direction, vessel statues and navy warning information, weather date,
guidance information for port entry, chart correction and database update
information.

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ECDIS Electronic Chart Display Information System & Applications


CARD NO. 1

System Start Up
The following describes the steps needed to start up the system and use it
with the simulation system. Operation of the VMS is covered in the
Operation Manual included with the system.
1. Plug in the keyboard into the jack on the front of the system.
2. Turn on the power to the VMS. This will boot the Windows NT
operating system.
3. Log on to the system as administration with password Egypt.
4. A configuration program will be automatically started.
5. Start the simulator with the desired exercise.
6. Select the proper CD for the area and put it in the top CD drive.
7. Put the updated CD in the lower driver.
When the simulator has loaded, the configuration software will start the
VMS software as well as set up parameters to allow the own ship image
on the VMS to be drawn to scale. If the VMS software was already
running when the simulator is started, the VMS software will first be shut
down.
Once the VMS software has started, the VMS system may be used as
described in its operation manual.
v System Shut Down
To exit the VMS program
1. From main menu select <
System Menu
2. Select quit VMS system.
3. Accept will shut down VMS the [shut down] window appears.

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You can either turn off the computer.


Or select Restart button to restart VMS.
Cancel will cancel the selection and resume VMS operation.
Portfolio Name
Database Coverage
CD Number
Mediterranean Egypt Mediterranean Coast, Port said,
RC4
and Gibraltar
Suez/ Red sea Suez canal, Red sea, and West of
RC5
Singapore
New York
New York
RC9
Dover
Dover
RC1
Singapore
Singapore
RC6

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CARD NO. 2
Selecting A Chart & Features

(A)By Using Portfolio


Select Chart (m.m) < displays < Portfolio (s.m)
Charts may be selected from < Portfolio or < Chart Catalogue
After selecting a Chart, choose < Accept
Own ship symbol may not be displayed depending on ship's position
and chart coverage.
If the symbol does not display choice nearest position in your desired
chart by using Manual Data button at (mm).
v To Select Display Features
Select Features to display Features Menu use button <All features On
<Standard Display
<All Features Off
Individual Features (On or Off) using pop-up
Right pointing arrow expands topic to reveal more selections
Sensor Data Display & Source Selection

The sources for the data (Heading, Ground speed, Water speed and
Position) are displayed in the Main Menu.
The ground speed and water speed sensor windows are displayed by
selecting the G spd or W spd at the main menu.

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Position, Water speed, Ground speed and Heading


1. Select position (m.m) to display the [Position Source]
2. Select the desired position source
3. Select Accept, the source is displayed in the (mm)
Position (m.m)
Window provides a list of all position sensors < select the desired source
of position data from this list.
Manual Data < to enter any temporarily unavailable data.

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CARD NO. 3

(B) Selecting A Chart From The Chart Catalogue

1. Select

chart button (mm) < display Portfolio (sm)

2.Select Chart Catalogue button < display Chart Catalogue Overlay.


3.Select the desired chart (Map, List Zoom)
4.Select Accept.
v Positioning Own Ship on the Display: Center, Offset & CNTR
Area
Near the button of the m.m are the center < keeps the own ship symbol
centered around some point on the display (usually the middle).
The Offset < Moves a user-selected point on the chart, to the Center of
display
Procedure To Define Center Area:
Select

Center Area

button from (m.m)<display Center Area

menu (sm)
To define a new Center Area select < Set Center Area button
To return the Center Area to default area (in the center of the display)
Select < Default Center Area
Move the cursor to desired point on the chart
Select Accept.

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CARD NO. 4

Selecting A Chart & Features

Select Chart display Portfolio charts may be selected from portfolio


OR from chart catalog
Select Chart Catalogue button this displays the chart catalog overlay.
Select the desired chart from the map or list provided.
Select Accept the selected char is displayed.

If own ship symbol does not displayed choice the nearest desired
position in your chart by using Manual Data

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CARD NO. 5

Entering Position Manually

Select

Manual Data

Manual Sensor Data

Two ways to enter ship position

Numeric Entry latitude


& Longitude Using The
Keyboard

Chart Entry Position


On Chart

Chart Entry:
Display an appropriate chart.
Select Manual

Displayed

Select Position On The Chart


on chart

Manual Sensor Data


Move the cursor to OS position

Set the position data to manual.


Select Position
position

To Display

Position Source

the

Select will be displayed in lat. & long next to the manual


Select manual button followed by
symbol will appear on the display.

Accept

the own ship

Note: Using manual position is not normal mode of operation, and a


sensor such as GPS should be selected as soon as valid data is available.

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CARD NO. 6
ECDIS Application

Entering Initial Plan Data To Create Voyage Plan


VP Editor

a) Select
Voyage Plan Editor
b) From Edit Plan
c) Select Description

&

Edit Plan

New Plan to clear any previous WP data

select

use keyboard to type the description

d) Select Accept description will appear


e) Next select ETD to display the Enter Local ETD use keyboard to
enter the data
f) Select Accept
Note: The best way to select chart is to use the portfolio with VP the
chart will be automatically selected when executed the VP and will be
display when tending WP

Enter Data For The First WP:


a) Select the

Insert Waypoint Before


OR
Insert Waypoint After

B) The waypoint data entry menu is displayed way point 1 data is shown
in the VP Editor.
c) Enter the waypoint by one of the following
1. Key board
2. Select POS On Chart move the cursor to the desired location
release the device button Accept
3. Select the other waypoints by the same way.

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CARD NO. 7
ECDIS Application

Starting A Stored Voyage Plan

Select V Plan
Select Load Plan

Voyage Plan Control

display

choose the desired voyage plan from the list

displayed on Voyage Plan Load and select Accept The Track line of
the selected plan is displayed on the Voyage Plan Control Chart is redisplayed.
Select

Start Plan

voyage plan control the

Temporary plan

is displayed over and also main menu.


The VP Status window is displayed
part

move the window to the lower

the buttons on the Temporary Plan are used to create a

track line that defines exactly.


How will join the track line of the selected plan Temporary Plan will be
cleared.
Using Temporary Plan then you can add
RTP when using a track ball

50WPand then add the

select Add RTP then hold on one of

the device buttons and use the ball to designate the location of the 1*WP
and the RTP track line, and release the device button, the plan track is
displayed in Yellow.
One select Accept

the yellow track line changes to magenta the

VMS will take over and steer the vessel on the temporary plan track, and
join the track line to the selected voyage plan of RTP waypoint.

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Note:
The data VP Status on window will be based on 1*WP. The plan state
will be turning until the vessel steadied upon the temporary track line,
then the plan state changes to sailing. The autopilot will be active.
Voyage Plan Summary displayed
Selected from Voyage Plan Control

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CARD N O. 8
ECDIS Application

Temporary Plan
To create and start temporary plan do the following:
Select TTMG

Temporary Plan sub menu will display including

*Add WP

*Add RTP

*Add TTMG

1. Select TTMG (mm) < Temporary plan (sm.) displayed


2. Select Add WP

select the desired WP location on the chart (a

yellow track line is drawn from own-ship symbol to the Selected point
on the chart (WP1*)
3. Select Add WP again for WP position 2*(a second track yellow is
drawn between WP1*and2*
4. If you need to move point 2* select Move Point to move the last WP
added to the plan.
5. If you want to back up to a previous point select Delete Entry
6. Continue in this manner adding as 50 way-points
7. You can select Add TTMG and add a final 500 mile long plan leg if
desired

OR
8. If an appropriate voyage plan is loaded you can select Add RTP and
join the loaded Plan at selected point after the last temporary waypoint
9. When satisfied select Accept

*In Advisory Mode you will have to adjust the Heading order to follow
the Temporary waypoint plan. The PLANSTATE will be TURNING,
then SAILING and the pilot CONTROL will be ADVISORY.

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CARD N O. 9
ECDIS Application

Anchoring Display Operation

Do The Following
a) Select Anchoring
b) Anchor data window will display.
c) If you plan to anchoring at any desired position.
You can use keyboard to enter the latitude & longitude.
Use POS Anchor Mode and move cursor to the desired position on the
chart then touch Accept
d) The anchor symbols display and will surrounding by rings.
e) You can control the distance between these rings throw the anchor
data window.

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CARD N O. 10
ECDIS Application

Man Overboard Display


This function displays a man overboard emergence on chart display.
The maneuver board display shows:
A symbol (OSCAR) representing the maneuver board and data display
Showing:
Bearing
Range to Oscar
Elapsed time since the man overboard selected
Rudder angle
True wind direction
Man over boards display operation:
Select Man OVBD to display MOB Data window and to start the
elapsed time.
The range and bearing to the man based on the mid ship position at the
instant button was touched.
When the man over board is completed
Select No Oscar
Then select Accept to remove Oscar windows appears and displayed
select Yes to end the man overboard operation.
You can select the MOB screen Oscar with Oscar in a position you
select on the chart.

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Select Man OVBD


When MOB Data window appear touch Select position on chart and then
touch the screen and drag the cursor again to the desired position MOB
time starts at the instant you touch Man OVBD button.
If desirable to set elapsed time (as for SAR) set. elapsed time manually
now.
Touch the No Oscar Button

the green square is OFF

touch

Accept
You can start MOB screen by entering bearing, range, elapsed time
manually using.
Touch the bearing field a white rectangle appear
data from keyboard touch

Accept

enter the desired

Respect range & elapsed

time (range is 900 max).


Verify that no Oscar button is in active (not green) or touch to make it
in active
touch Accept
When Maneuver board completed:
- Select Man Over Board screen by touching close in the upper left
hand corner of the screen.
- Touch Man OVBD button on the main menu.
- When MOB Data appears touch noOSCAR to turn on the green
square
- Touch Accept

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