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Running head: INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

Individual SPC Assignment


Bernard Godfrey
Siena Heights University
LDR 640-OA
Professor Lucas

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

Individual SPC Assignment

Question 1 Data:
A drive-in restaurant is running a new promotion, the "Route 44," named after an interstate that
runs through their primary market area. The drink is promoted as 44 ounces of pure carbonated
pleasure but the regional manager, being somewhat of a quality expert, wants to make sure that
the company's drink process can deliver 44 ounces. He decides statistical quality control is the
best way to monitor their process.
For ten consecutive days he purchases five Route 44 drinks from franchise locations on his way
to headquarters and turns them over to the testing lab for volume analysis. The data appear in the
table; all amounts are in fluid ounces as measured by the testing lab.

Sample

Drink 1

Drink 2

Drink 3

Drink 4

Drink 5

43.51

41.47

42.15

48.15

47.14

47.94

47.90

49.72

48.68

41.71

42.05

44.65

47.37

41.43

48.32

41.72

47.94

46.68

43.13

40.62

46.98

48.39

41.30

46.52

43.44

40.83

42.44

48.94

46.74

41.83

48.76

41.65

46.41

44.73

48.41

49.53

46.18

49.65

40.11

47.08

43.42

41.16

46.53

48.23

47.63

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

10

46.56

41.10

41.04

40.56

43.06

Since the regional manager is somewhat of a quality expert, he needs your help in formulating a
control chart that will monitor the process performance to target. Develop the

appropriate metrics:

Sample Mean (X-Bar)

Grand Mean (Double X-Bar)

Sample Range (R)

Average Range (R-Bar)

Calculate Upper and Lower control limits

Is the process in control? Explain

Sample Mean (X-bar), Sample Range (R), Grand Mean (Double X-Bar), and Average
Range (R-Bar):
Sample

Drink 1

Drink 2

Drink 3

Drink 4

Drink 5

X-Bar

43.51

41.47

42.15

48.15

47.14

44.484

6.68

47.94

47.9

49.72

48.68

41.71

47.19

8.01

42.05

44.65

47.37

41.43

48.32

44.764

6.89

41.72

47.94

46.68

43.13

40.62

44.018

7.32

46.98

48.39

41.3

46.52

43.44

45.326

7.09

40.83

42.44

48.94

46.74

41.83

44.156

8.11

48.76

41.65

46.41

44.73

48.41

45.992

7.11

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

49.53

46.18

49.65

40.11

47.08

46.51

9.54

43.42

41.16

46.53

48.23

47.63

45.394

7.07

10

46.56

41.1

41.04

40.56

43.06

42.464

Grand Mean (X-Dbl Bar) = 45.0298


Average Range (R-Bar) = 7.382

Upper and Lower Control Limits:


X-Bar Upper Control Limits formula used: X-Dblbar+A2*R-Bar
X-Bar Lower Control Limits formula used: X-Dblbar-A2*R-Bar
R-Bar Upper Control Limits formula used: D4*R-Bar
R-Bar Lower Control Limits formula used: D3*R-Bar
X-bar
Chart

R chart

LCL

CL

UCL

LCL

CL

UCL

40.77039

45.0298

49.28921

7.382

15.60555

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

Sample Mean (X-bar)


51
49
47
45
43
41
39
37
35

4
X-Bar

LCL

CL

10

10

UCL

Sample Range (R)


18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Question 2:
The process engineers have designed our drink process with an upper tolerance of 46 ounces
and a lower tolerance of 42 ounces. I wonder what our process capability really is? I've been
reading about Six Sigma; it would be fantastic if we could add that to our already fantastic
slogan regarding this new beverage!"

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

Process Capability Formulas:

Sigma= R bar / D2
7.38 / 2.33 = 3.2
USL=46
LSL=42
Mean (x-bar) =45.03
Sigma (SD)= 3.2
Cp= (46-42) / 6*3.2
Cp= 4 / 19.2
Cp= .20
CpU= (46-45.03) / 3*3.2
CpU= .97 / 9.6
CpU= .10
CpL= (45.03-42) / 3*3.2
CpL= 3.03 / 9.6
CpL= .32
CpK= Min(45.03-42 / 3*3.10 ; 46-45.03 / 3*3.10)
CpK= Min(3.03 / 9.6 ; .97 / 9.6)
CpK= Min(.32 , .10)
CpK=.10

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

Conclusion
According to Infinity QS (nd.) Data that falls within the control limits indicates that
everything is operating as expected. Any variation within the control limits is likely due to a
common causethe natural variation that is expected as part of the process (para. 2). Because
the sample stayed within the upper control limit of 49.3 and the lower control limit of 40.8 it is in
control; however, the CpK is .10. A CpK of less than 1 is not capable of at least delivering a 3
sigma result. Therefore, deeming this not capable. Because the intended drink was to be 44
ounces and the sample yielded a grand mean of 45.03 ounces shifted the distribution off center.
With a Cpk of .10 only 10 percent of the 6 sigma ruler would fit in this curve. Also, I would add
that, in my opinion, just because the sample stayed within the upper and lower control limits
doesnt necessarily mean its in control. The grand mean was 45 ounces. The intended amount
was 44 ounces. That means the company is losing 1 ounce on every drink sold.

Follow up question on week five video:

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

What can we do to fix this issue?


According to Smith (2006) All work is a process, all processes have variability and all
processes create data that explains variability (para. 11). Because the process is not capable, we
have a variability issue. The process in place for pouring the route 44 drink at the drive-in
restaurant is clearly flawed and not consistent. I believe one can see this is a good area to utilize
the Six Sigma methodology. According to Cowman (2005) Six Sigma can be applied to any
business process where the quality of the result may be quantified and the results of each process
tracked (p.69). By analyzing the process and tracking inconsistencies, the flaws will surface and
the ability to fix those flaws will be possible. Six Sigma has processes that will track leading
indicators of problems to prevent them from happening again (HR Focus, 2007, p. 6).
Another process that could expose quality issues is Total Quality Management (TQM).
When Neave (1990) discussed Dr. Demings philosophy he talked first about the constancy of
purpose. The need to know that continually improving is necessary and second, this philosophy
needs to be maintained. The third is cease of mass inspection. If the process is constant
improvement, inspections will not be needed. The quality is always being inspected. Also, points
like improve every process, institute training on the job, institute leadership, eliminate numerical
targets, and permit pride of workmanship are all key to quality (Neave, 1990).
Dr. Juran had a three step process that runs simultaneously with each other. They are (1)
Quality planning which is where you discover what the customer needs and a system is designed
to make sure those needs are met. (2) Quality Control is the process that monitors the
performance to make sure it complies with the original design standards that were developed. If
the standards fall short, systems are put in place to deal with those short falls. (3) Quality

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT


improvement is when levels of performance are made better. In other words, when previously
un-obtained levels of performance are obtained (Juran, 1986).
Getting back to the original question of what can we do to fix the route 44 drinks
capability process? I think it is clear to see that some type of quality management process is
needed. Either TQM or Six Sigma.

INDIVIDUAL SPC ASSIGNMENT

10
References

Cowman, K. (2005). Six sigma: What, where, when, why & how. Materials Management and
Distribution, 50(8), 69. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/227981602?
accountid=28644
How six sigma may help HR to improve processes and services. (2007). HR Focus,84(12), 5-7.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/206801938?accountid=28644
Infinity QS. (n.d.). What is Statistical Process Control (SPC)? Retrieved April 8, 2016, from
http://www.infinityqs.com/resources/what-is-spc
Juran, J. M. (1986, May 20). The Quality Trilogy. Retrieved March 25, 2016, from
http://threadcontent.next.ecollege.com/CurrentCourse/Juran Trilogy.pdf
Neave, H. R. (1990). Deming'88 * .Part 1: Win-win, joy in work, and innovation. Total Quality
Management, 1(1), 33-48.
Smith, K. (2006, May 3). Quality Digest Magazine. Retrieved March 25, 2016, from
http://www.qualitydigest.com/may03/articles/01_article.shtml