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You are on page 1of 41

Mr. J Cunningham

Introduction

Solids in contact is in relation to cones, spheres and other cylindrical objects in

contact.

There are many types/shapes of objects related to this topic.

A typical question usually asked to locate a sphere in contact with a point of contact

that you are given.

OR

You maybe given the point of contact in plan or in elevation and required to obtain it

in the other view.

Background

hemispheres, cylinders, etc.)

Points of Contact (P.O.C)

Location of objects

Necessary steps when looking for objects in certain views

Auxiliary views

Generators

There are more but these are the most commonly used.

Key points

Things to consider when solving a question:

Type of solids included in the question

Altitude of the solid base (e.g. Is the sphere resting on the horizontal plane?)

Solids in contact

Examples of common solids used

(Base & three sides)

Cube

(Six faces)

(Base & four sides)

Solids in contact

Examples of common solids used

Cylinder

(Revolved rectangle)

Cone

(Revolved triangle)

Sphere

(Revolved Semi-circle)

Solids in contact

Solids in contact drawing exercises generally contain two or three solids

More often than not the solids used are:

Cylinder

(Revolved rectangle)

Cone

(Revolved triangle)

Sphere

(Revolved Semi-circle)

Solids in contact

A Cylinder & Sphere

into contact is known as the

Point of Contact (P.O.C)

When a sphere is in contact with a

Solid the P.O.C is found by drawing a

line from the centre-point perpendicular

to the surface of the other solid

Cylinder

Sphere

P.O.C

Cylinder

most basic curvilinear

geometric shapes.

The surface is formed by

the points at a fixed

distance from a given line

segment, the axis of

the cylinder.

Cylinder

A cylinder can be considered to be a stack of circles. It may be created by extruding a circle from the sketch

plane through a distance equal to its height or by revolving a rectangle around one its sides through 360.

Extruding method

Revolving method

containing a point P on its surface

KEY PRINCIPLE

Point P can always be found

by locating point P on the

circumference (end-view).

This represents the curved surface

of the cylinder seen as a circle.

outer surface on the end-view

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Cone

A cone is a threedimensional

geometric shape

that tapers

smoothly from a

flat base

(frequently

circular) to a point

called the apex or

vertex.

KEY PRINCIPLE

The height of POC will not change as it is rotated around the

sphere so in plan we see this height as a circle.

KEY PRINCIPLE

The height of POC will not change as it is

rotated around the sphere so in plan we see

this height as a circle.

G.M.I.T. Letterfrack

Name:

Title:

Date:

Scale:

Dwg No.

EXTREME GENERATOR

Any straight line that goes from the base of the

cone to its Apex is known as a GENERATOR

outer generators are known as the

EXTREME GENERATORS

the XY line as shown

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Generator shown

Elevation

using the Generator Method

KEY PRINCIPLE

We now know that cones are made up

of Generators.

resting on a Generator.

To find point P, we must construct a

generator from the Apex through point

P and on to the base of the Cone.

between views to locate point P

Generator shown in Plan

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Spheres

A sphere is a revolved feature. It is created by revolving a semicircle around its diameter.

If two spheres touch one another, the point of contact and the

centres of the spheres are in the same straight line.

their radii.

line segment joining the two centres in the ratio of their

radii.

P.O.C

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Principles of a Sphere

Showing the cut surface

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Horizontal section method

KEY PRINCIPLE

In elevation the point P does not change in

height as it is rotated around the Sphere.

X

Y

In plan this rotation is seen as a circular

travel path.

KEY PRINCIPLE

A sphere appears as a circle in all views

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

Point P in rotation

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

If a sphere is in contact with a cone, the line joining the point of contact and the centre of

the sphere is perpendicular to the element of the cone that contains the point of contact.

P.O.C

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

KEY PRINCIPLE

The centre point of a Sphere which is

tangential to a Cone and the ground is an

equal parallel distance from both surfaces

as shown in drawing.

P.O.C

R

Y

from the centre point to the cone. Where

those lines intersect is the P.O.C.

generator in elevation, it is then

transferred directly to the extreme

generator in plan.

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Loci

contact with two surface

P

CP

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Loci An Introduction

Using Loci to bisect an angle

both loci intersect, meeting

the parameters of each

locus.

contains one point on the

bisector of the angle

contains another point on

the bisector of the angle

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

The cone has an altitude of 70mm.

Also shown is a point P on the cones

surface.

(i) Draw the projections of the cone and

point P

(ii) (ii) Draw the elevation and plan of a

sphere that makes contact with the

cone at point P and also touches the

vertical plane

KEY PRINCIPAL

The true length of the radius of the sphere

will be seen in elevation and then projected

down to plan, and rotated about the cone to

meet a line equal distance down from the XY

line. Repeat for larger distances forming the

locus.

G.M.I.T. Letterfrack

Name:

Title:

Date:

Scale:

Dwg No.

LOCI METHOD

P

CP

KEY PRINCIPLES

The centre point of the sphere to be

constructed will be the same distance

from the ground and from the given

sphere at all times.

To find this centre point the Loci

method can be used.

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Pyramid

and a square base

in Cairo, Egypt

Sometimes, depending on the question we may need to acquire an auxiliary view in order to complete the

exercise.

By completing an auxiliary we see the components in a different orientation although the position of the

solids remain the same.

By drawing an auxiliary it allows us to look perpendicular to a surface, thus providing an edge view.

An auxiliary which is projected from the plan is an auxiliary elevation.

An auxiliary which is projected from the elevation is an auxiliary plan.

resting on the horizontal plane are shown below.

They are in contact with each other.

The altitude of the pyramid is 58mm.

X

the point of contact.

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

H

R

P

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

KEY PRINCIPAL

When working with pyramids, we cannot see an edge view using the generator method or

horizontal sections method.

We must find an edge view by taking an auxiliary and seeing the surface as an edge view

in order to find the point of contact.

G.M.I.T. Letterfrack

Name:

Title:

Date:

Scale:

Dwg No.

Traces of a Plane

The traces of a plane are visible where a third plane comes into contact

with both the Horizontal and Vertical plane

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

that contains point P

V

a cone having the same base

Angle as cone A and having

point P as its apex

T

P

The horizontal trace will be

tangential to the two base

circles (base circles of the

cones).

G.M.I.T. Letterfrack

Name:

Title:

Date:

Scale:

Dwg No.

that the plane makes contact

with the cones along a whole

generator

perpendicular to a line that

joins the point of contact to

the centre of the sphere.

perpendicular to the line from the

centre of the sphere to the POC we

must construct an auxiliary to see the

plane as an edge view

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

V

To determine the traces of a plane which shall

be tangential to a given cone and a given sphere

using the cone method.

point in plan, parallel to the HT

sphere which consist of the

same angles as the existing

cone.

Draw a line tangential to both

cones in plan (up to XY line),

this line represents the

Horizontal Trace.

altitude as the cone in elevation, this

gives you a point on the Vertical Trace.

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

Recap

1. What is meant by P.O.C?

2. Name 3 most commonly used solids?

3. Outline one thing about each object.

4. What is meant by the Loci method?

5. Why do we use Auxiliary views?

6. What does the abbreviations VT and HT stand for?

G.M.I.T. LETTERFRACK

NAME:

TITLE:

Date:

Scale:

SHEET NO.

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