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Solids in contact

Mr. J Cunningham

Introduction
Solids in contact is in relation to cones, spheres and other cylindrical objects in
contact.
There are many types/shapes of objects related to this topic.
A typical question usually asked to locate a sphere in contact with a point of contact
that you are given.
OR
You maybe given the point of contact in plan or in elevation and required to obtain it
in the other view.

Background

Solids in contact generally work with cylindrical objects (cones, spheres,


hemispheres, cylinders, etc.)

Related principles you need to understand are:


Points of Contact (P.O.C)
Location of objects
Necessary steps when looking for objects in certain views
Auxiliary views
Generators

There are more but these are the most commonly used.

Key points
Things to consider when solving a question:
Type of solids included in the question

Required position of solids


Altitude of the solid base (e.g. Is the sphere resting on the horizontal plane?)

Solids in contact
Examples of common solids used

Triangle based pyramid


(Base & three sides)

Cube
(Six faces)

Square based pyramid


(Base & four sides)

Solids in contact
Examples of common solids used

Cylinder
(Revolved rectangle)

Cone
(Revolved triangle)

Sphere
(Revolved Semi-circle)

Solids in contact
Solids in contact drawing exercises generally contain two or three solids
More often than not the solids used are:

Cylinder
(Revolved rectangle)

Cone
(Revolved triangle)

Sphere
(Revolved Semi-circle)

Solids in contact
A Cylinder & Sphere

The point where to solids come


into contact is known as the
Point of Contact (P.O.C)
When a sphere is in contact with a
Solid the P.O.C is found by drawing a
line from the centre-point perpendicular
to the surface of the other solid

Cylinder
Sphere
P.O.C

Cylinder

A cylinder is one of the


most basic curvilinear
geometric shapes.
The surface is formed by
the points at a fixed
distance from a given line
segment, the axis of
the cylinder.

Cylinder
A cylinder can be considered to be a stack of circles. It may be created by extruding a circle from the sketch
plane through a distance equal to its height or by revolving a rectangle around one its sides through 360.

Extruding method

Revolving method

Shown is a cylinder lying on its side


containing a point P on its surface

Locate point P in end-view and plan

First draw the plan and end-view

Now locate point P in plan

KEY PRINCIPLE
Point P can always be found
by locating point P on the
circumference (end-view).
This represents the curved surface
of the cylinder seen as a circle.

Next, transfer point P across to


outer surface on the end-view

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Cone

A cone is a threedimensional
geometric shape
that tapers
smoothly from a
flat base
(frequently
circular) to a point
called the apex or
vertex.

Horizontal Section Method


KEY PRINCIPLE
The height of POC will not change as it is rotated around the
sphere so in plan we see this height as a circle.

Horizontal section method


KEY PRINCIPLE
The height of POC will not change as it is
rotated around the sphere so in plan we see
this height as a circle.

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EXTREME GENERATOR
Any straight line that goes from the base of the
cone to its Apex is known as a GENERATOR

Looking perpendicular to a cone, the two


outer generators are known as the
EXTREME GENERATORS

The extreme generator in plan will be parallel to


the XY line as shown
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Generator shown
Elevation

Finding a point on a Cone


using the Generator Method
KEY PRINCIPLE
We now know that cones are made up
of Generators.

This means that a point P must be


resting on a Generator.
To find point P, we must construct a
generator from the Apex through point
P and on to the base of the Cone.

This generator is then transferred


between views to locate point P
Generator shown in Plan

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Spheres
A sphere is a revolved feature. It is created by revolving a semicircle around its diameter.

If two spheres touch one another, the point of contact and the
centres of the spheres are in the same straight line.

The distance between their centres is equal to the sum of


their radii.

The point of contact between two spheres divides the


line segment joining the two centres in the ratio of their
radii.

P.O.C

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Principles of a Sphere

A 3D representation of the sphere


Showing the cut surface
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Finding a point on a Sphere using the


Horizontal section method

KEY PRINCIPLE
In elevation the point P does not change in
height as it is rotated around the Sphere.
X

Y
In plan this rotation is seen as a circular
travel path.

KEY PRINCIPLE
A sphere appears as a circle in all views

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Point P in rotation

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Cone and Sphere in contact


If a sphere is in contact with a cone, the line joining the point of contact and the centre of
the sphere is perpendicular to the element of the cone that contains the point of contact.

P.O.C

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KEY PRINCIPLE
The centre point of a Sphere which is
tangential to a Cone and the ground is an
equal parallel distance from both surfaces
as shown in drawing.
P.O.C

R
Y

To locate the P.O.C, draw a line perpendicular


from the centre point to the cone. Where
those lines intersect is the P.O.C.

When the P.O.C is on the extreme


generator in elevation, it is then
transferred directly to the extreme
generator in plan.
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Loci

A curve which runs through a number of points

Used to locate the position of an object in


contact with two surface

P
CP

We know that this curve obtains a specific point

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Loci An Introduction
Using Loci to bisect an angle

The bisector is found where


both loci intersect, meeting
the parameters of each
locus.

We know that this arc


contains one point on the
bisector of the angle

We also know that this arc


contains another point on
the bisector of the angle
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The plan of a right cone is shown


The cone has an altitude of 70mm.
Also shown is a point P on the cones
surface.
(i) Draw the projections of the cone and
point P
(ii) (ii) Draw the elevation and plan of a
sphere that makes contact with the
cone at point P and also touches the
vertical plane

KEY PRINCIPAL
The true length of the radius of the sphere
will be seen in elevation and then projected
down to plan, and rotated about the cone to
meet a line equal distance down from the XY
line. Repeat for larger distances forming the
locus.
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LOCI METHOD

P
CP

KEY PRINCIPLES
The centre point of the sphere to be
constructed will be the same distance
from the ground and from the given
sphere at all times.
To find this centre point the Loci
method can be used.

First, locate P in elevation


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Pyramid

A square based pyramid consists of four faces


and a square base

Similar to this real life photo of the Pyramids


in Cairo, Egypt

Auxiliaries in Solids in contact


Sometimes, depending on the question we may need to acquire an auxiliary view in order to complete the
exercise.

By completing an auxiliary we see the components in a different orientation although the position of the
solids remain the same.

By drawing an auxiliary it allows us to look perpendicular to a surface, thus providing an edge view.
An auxiliary which is projected from the plan is an auxiliary elevation.
An auxiliary which is projected from the elevation is an auxiliary plan.

The plan of a square-based pyramid and a sphere,


resting on the horizontal plane are shown below.
They are in contact with each other.
The altitude of the pyramid is 58mm.
X

Draw the plan and elevation of the solids showing


the point of contact.

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H
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P
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KEY PRINCIPAL
When working with pyramids, we cannot see an edge view using the generator method or
horizontal sections method.
We must find an edge view by taking an auxiliary and seeing the surface as an edge view
in order to find the point of contact.

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Traces of a Plane
The traces of a plane are visible where a third plane comes into contact
with both the Horizontal and Vertical plane

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Draw the traces of a plane that is tangential to the cone A and


that contains point P
V

Draw the plan & elevation of


a cone having the same base
Angle as cone A and having
point P as its apex

T
P
The horizontal trace will be
tangential to the two base
circles (base circles of the
cones).
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It can be seen from the pictorial


that the plane makes contact
with the cones along a whole
generator

The horizontal trace will be


perpendicular to a line that
joins the point of contact to
the centre of the sphere.

To see the tangent plane


perpendicular to the line from the
centre of the sphere to the POC we
must construct an auxiliary to see the
plane as an edge view

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V
To determine the traces of a plane which shall
be tangential to a given cone and a given sphere
using the cone method.

Draw a line from the centre


point in plan, parallel to the HT

First draw a cone around the


sphere which consist of the
same angles as the existing
cone.
Draw a line tangential to both
cones in plan (up to XY line),
this line represents the
Horizontal Trace.

Transfer this point up to the same


altitude as the cone in elevation, this
gives you a point on the Vertical Trace.

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Recap
1. What is meant by P.O.C?
2. Name 3 most commonly used solids?
3. Outline one thing about each object.
4. What is meant by the Loci method?
5. Why do we use Auxiliary views?
6. What does the abbreviations VT and HT stand for?

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