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Observing patterns by ecological

sampling. Controlled variables?


Abiotic factors, light, temp, soil,
water, humidity, o2 concentration,
pH, aspect slope angle

How do you execute random sampling?

Set up grid using tape measure, use


random numbers to generate points
to place quadrate to collect data

How do you execute systematic sampling?


Line transect, tape measure laid along
several zones to be looked at and quadrate
are used to record data at regular intervals

How do you measure abundance, density?

Density = presence of
organisms per quadrate

How do you measure frequency?


Percentage of quadrate
squares containing organisms

What do you use a pitfall trap for?

To collect invertebrates

What do you use a sweep net for?


To collect invertebrates in long grass

What do you use a pooter for?

To collect invertebrates in a container

What do you use a tullgren funnel for?

To collect organisms from leaf litter

What do you use a Bearman funnel for?

To collect organisms from water

Observing patterns by ecological


sampling. Possible evaluation issues?
constant changing of abiotic conditions,
movement of organism, sampling taken
within small amount of time, limitations of
only one study, consideration for safety of
organisms, disruption of normal habitat,
ethics of measuring wild organisms

The effect of temp of hatching


success of brine shrimp. Independent
and dependent variables?

Independent: temp Dependent:


number of shrimps hatched

The effect of temp of hatching success


of brine shrimp. Controlled variables?
Controlled variables: light intensity,
pH, salt content, presence of chlorine
from tap water, oxygen concentration

Optimal temperature for


brine shrimp eggs to hatch?

28 degrees, most eggs should hatch


between 25 to 30 degrees in this practical

The effect of temp of hatching success of


brine shrimp. Possible evaluation issues?
ethics of hatching shrimp under
different conditions, using animals in
experiments, may be a difference in
light at each sample, fluctuating temps,
not accurate salt measurements, may
not have counted exactly 40 eggs,
may miss seeing some baby shrimp

What stat test used for correlation?

Spearmans rank

What stat test used to compare means?

Student t test

What stat test used to compare medians?

mann whitney - u test

In what stat tests do you reject null


hypothesis if the calculated value
is more than the critical value?

student t test and spearmans rank

In what stat tests do you reject


null hypothesis if the calculated
value is less than the critical value?

mann whitney u test

How do you calculate degrees of freedom?

in your table, (columns x rows)-2

What level of confidence do you


ALWAYS refer to when drawing
conclusions from investigations?

95% confidence, 0.05 significance level

DNA gel electrophoresis,


outcome of this practical?
DNA will be separated out through the
agar gel, with the heaviest (biggest) DNA
strands near the wells and the lightest
(smallest) will be at the opposite end. The
DNA restriction ladder can be used as a
ruler to measure the size of the fragments

DNA amplification using


PCR, equipment needed?

Thermocycler, DNA sample, taq


polymerase, nucleotides, primers

DNA gel electrophoresis.


Equipment needed?
selected restriction enzymes, agar gel, gel
tank, electrical supply, micropipettes, DNA
sample, loading dye, UV light, camera,
buffer solution, DNA restriction ladder

DNA amplification using PCR,


what order of the temperatures?

94, 54, 72

DNA amplification using PCR, what


happened at diff temperatures?
94= denature, break hydrogen bonds,
makes DNA single stranded, 54 =
bonds form between primers and
template strands 72= optimum of
taq polymerase, bases placed in
position, extending strand from primer

Effects of different antibiotics on bacteria.


Independent and dependent variables?

Independent= antibiotic Dependent


= diameter of zone of inhibition

Effects of different antibiotics on


bacteria. Controlled variables?

concentration of antibiotic,
amount of antibiotic, disc sir,
bacterial species, temp, ruler

Effects of different antibiotics on


bacteria. Incubation time and temp?

48 hours, 30 degrees, upside down

Effects of different antibiotics on


bacteria. Possible evaluation issues?
Ensuring the discs are evenly placed
on the petri dish, having good
aseptic technique to prevent plate
contamination, age of antibiotic, if out of
date likely to be less effective, repeats,
accuracy of incubation time and temp

Measuring the rate of oxygen


uptake. Controlled variables?

no of organisms, temp,
time, amount of soda lime

Measuring the rate of oxygen


uptake. Equipment needed?
Respirometer, soda lime,
coloured liquid, organisms, cotton
wool, stop clock, marker pen

Simple respirometer. Adv and d.adv?

d.adv: does not allow you to reset,


control tube needed alongside, no
scale so measurements are likely to
be less accurate, adv: very simple to
set up, minimal number of connections
makes a good seal easier to obtain

U tube respirometer. Adv and d.Adv?


d.adv: tendency for connections to leak
in elderly models (making the equipment
useless) expensive, adv: does not need
to have an additional control as a second
tube balances out the effects of the
changes in temp and atmospheric pressure

Effects of exercise on tidal volume and


breathing rate. Equipment needed?

spirometer, kymograph, disinfectant,


eye protection, soda lime

Define the tidal volume?


The tidal volume is the volume
of air breathed in and out in one
breath at rest. The tidal volume for
most adults is only about 0.5 dm3.

Define the vital capacity?

Vital capacity is the maximum volume


of air that can be breathed in or out
of the lungs in one forced breath

Define breathing rate?


Breathing rate is the number
of breaths taken per minute.

Define minute ventilation?

Minute ventilation is the volume of air


breathed into (and out of) the lungs in
one minute. Minute ventilation = tidal
volume x rate of breathing (measured
in number of breaths per minute).

What is residual air, and


what does it prevent?
Some air always remains in the
lungs as residual air and cannot be
breathed out. Residual air prevents
the walls of the bronchioles and
alveoli from sticking together. Any air
breathed in mixes with residual air.

Investigating habituation to a stimulus.


Independent and dependent variables?

Independent: number of pokes


Dependent: retraction time

Investigating habituation to a
stimulus. Controlled variables?
replication using snails of
approximately same size and age,
equal handling history, drying out

Investigating habituation to a
stimulus. Equipment needed?

1 giant african land snail, 1


dampened cotton wool bud,
clean firm surface, stop watch

Investigating habituation to a stimulus. what


happens with repeated stimulation? why
does the snail take less time to re-emerge?
repeated stimulation = calcium channels,
pre synaptic membrane less responsive,
less calcium into pre synaptic neurone,
less neurotransmitter, action potential less
likely, fewer action potentials produced in
post synaptic motor neurone, less respons

Investigating habituation to a
stimulus. Possible evaluation issues?

Snails already handled before the


experiment may not react in the same
way, determining when a snail has fully
re emerged can be hard, lack of moisture
may encourage snails to stay longer in their
shell, measuring eye stalk length instead