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Second order effects of MOSFET

Body Effect.
) on the threshold
The effect of bulk-to-source (reverse) bias potential of MOSFET (
voltage is referred as body effect. (to be explained with the help of figure)
The expression for the threshold voltage of a MOSFET with bulk effect is given by

is the threshold voltage of a MOSFET with zero bulk-to-source potential
is bulk effect coefficient and
is surface inversion potential.
Sub threshold region

Channel length modulation

As we increase the drain voltage in the saturation region, the drain depletion
region widens. This has the effect of widening the pinch-off region and thus
shrinking the channel by a small amount.

Mobility variation

FowlerNordheim tunnelling
When the gate oxide is very thin a current can flow from gate to source or drain by electron
tunnelling through the gate. This called FowlerNordheim tunnelling.



Drain Punchthrough
When the drain voltage is very high w.r.t source, depletion region around drain may extend to
the source causing current to flow irrespective of the gate voltage (even if it is zero).
Impact IonizationHot electrons.
As gate length of MOS is reduced, electric field at drain in saturation increases. For
submicron gate length , field can become so high that electrons are imparted with enough
energy to become HOT. These hot electrons impact the drain, dislodging holes that are then
swept toward the negatively charged substrate and appear as substrate current. This effect is
known as impact ionization.