You are on page 1of 31

InangLupa Strategic Consultation, April 7-8, 2016, Quezon City

Outline of Presentation
Factors affecting sustainability of agriculture
Climate hazards threatening agriculture and food
Effects and impacts of climate hazards on crops and
livestock
Responses and interventions to climate hazards
Issues and challenges to climate-smart agriculture

Agriculture accounts for about 11.3% of GDP


(The World Bank)
Value Added (% of GDP) from Agriculture Sector
12.7

13

12.5

12.3
11.8

% of GDP

12

11.2

11.5

11.3

11

10.5

10

2010

2011

2012
Year

2013

2014

Poverty Incidence
(1st Sem 2014, NSCB)

Shares in Crop Area (%)

Agricultural Subsectors
Crops
Livestock
Poultry
Source: PSA/BAS
Fisheries

2000-2014
51 %
16.8
13.7
18.5

Agricultural PRoduction (%)

Shares of Agricultural Subsectors to Total Value of Agri-Production


60
50
40
30

20
10
0

Crops

Livestock

Shares in Crop Area


Palay
Coconut
Maize

Crop

Fisheries

Agricultural Subsectors

Crop

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Poultry

2000-2013
32.4
25.05
18.7

Bananas
Sugar Cane
Cassava

3.2
3.05
1.55

Mangoes and fruit trees


Coffee

1.35
0.9

Rubber and plantation trees


Pineapples

0.95
0.4 Source: FAO

Some factors affecting sustainability of agriculture

Photo Courtesy: Curatola Fernandez, et al. 2015

Accelerated Population Increase

Land Use and Land Cover Change

CLIMATE
Rapid Urbanization and Migration
from rural areas to urban centers

CHANGE

Temperature increase

More intense weather and climatic events

Rainfall (mm)

Climate Hazards
Threatening Agriculture

Erratic rainfall patterns

Sea level rise

Reduced crop yields

Disturbed crop growing seasons


Losses and damages due to extreme climate
events (P26B per year, IFPRI-NEDA, 2015)

Decreased weaning rate and


increased mortality for livestock

Reduced growth rate of poultry

Effects and
Impacts of
Climate Hazards
on Agriculture
(Crops, Livestock &
Poultry)

Global Climate Change

Climate
Change
Mitigation

Greenhouse
gas emissions

Reduce magnitude of global warming


Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Primary focus on energy, transport,
land use

Climate change
Impacts

Climate Change
Adaptation

Reduce vulnerability to CC impacts


Reduce human and material losses
Primary focus on climate-sensitive
sectors and economic activities

Responding to Changing Climate

Mitigation and
Adaptation

Structural and
Non-structural
Measures

Technological
and Institutional
Options

Good
agricultural
practices

Technological Measures
Improved crop varieties
heat-, drought-, flood-, salinity- tolerant;
resistant to pests and diseases, etc.

Improved species of livestock and poultry

Improved agricultural water management


Efficient nutrient management

Use of improved crop varieties


Resistant to temperature increase
Drought-tolerant
Resistant to stresses (e.g. floods)

Sub1 rice variety is flood-tolerant

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Improved water management


Improve water use efficiency.
Synchronized growing season with water availability
based on seasonal forecasts.

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Rainwater Harvesting through series of Farm Ponds for Fish


and Crop Production (Lamut, Ifugao)

Agro-Forestry - Vegetable - Rice Production System


(Terracing in Kiangan, Ifugao)

Agro-forestry

Vegetables

Rice Terraces

Smarter Approaches to Reinvigorate Agriculture as an Industry


(SARAI) in the Philippines
Adaptive Planting
Calendar

Alternative Cropping
System

Site-specific nutrient
management
Improved water
management

Pests and diseases


advisories based on SCF

Crop suitability

Project SARAI initiatives addressing food security


and climate change issues in the Philippines

1. Crop forecasting system


2. Crop advisories for IPM, nutrient and
water management to improve yield
and revenue of farmers
3. Crop advisories for optimum planting
calendar for rice and corn
4. Crop advisories related to optimum water
management
5. Loss and damage estimation due to
climate extremes (e.g. crop area
mapped x estimated potential yield
per area in specific locality)

CLIMATE
FORECAST
CROP AREA
ESTIMATION

Crop Forecasting
System for Rice
and Corn

DOWNSCALING
CROP
FORECASTS

SIMULATED CROP YIELD

Crop area estimation


via remote sensing,
GPS reading, and
farmer interview

Managing Climate Risk: Crop Calendar

Determining weather-based dynamic


cropping calendar
1

Optimal planting window


based on medium-range
weather forecasts.

0.8

Probability

Irregularity of wet & dry


seasons requires updating
of cropping calendar.

0.6

Pw
Pd
0.4

P200

0.2

0
1

11

21

31

Week No.

41

Adaptive Planting Calendar: Rainfall Requirement for Growth


Maturity
Flowering

Panicle Initiation
Tillering

Transplanting
Sowing

Vegetative Phase

Reproductive Phase

Ripening Phase

Development of Adaptive Planting Calendar


Reference Crop Evapotranspiration and Effective Rainfall, mm

Farmers can be advised


to plant on Week 16
and Week 43 to
optimize the
evapotranspiration and
maximum effective
rainfall, thus minimize
the irrigation costs.

0
1

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

Week Number (starting from March 1 - 7)


Evapotranspiration

* For irrigated farms

Effective Rainfall

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

51

Sample run of RTVMOD rice tungro virus disease model


1: IncidencePlants

1:

100

% Incidence

1:

(31-100%) immediate control (spray


insecticide against vector)
50

(11-30%) remove infected plants and


stubbles; organic spray against vector
(1-10%) remove infected plants and stubbles
1:
Page 1

1
0.00

1
30.00

60.00
Day s
RTVMOD
Run at 25 DAS
Days
After Sowing

90.00
3:44 PM

120.00
Sun, Sep 25, 2011

Crop advisory for IPM: Locust Advisory


No
El Nio
Expected?

Yes

Any abnormalities
that could affect
existing
vegetation?

No
Solitary phase not
likely to be disturbed

LOW

Any historical
occurrence of
locust in the
vicinity?

Yes

No

Situation favors the


occurrence of gregarious
and migratory phase of
locust

HIGH
Yes
Any locust
breeding sites in
the area?

Are the signs of


drought
apparent?

Yes

Scouting/Monitoring
for congregation of
nymphs and adults;
and egg fields

No

Locust model

Situation slightly favors


the occurrence of
gregarious and
migratory phase of locust

Population

MEDIUM

Spread direction
Wind direction/
speed

Host plants

Climate Risk Sharing & Transfer through AgriInsurance Program


PCIC traditional agri-insurance products

Weather index-based insurance (WIBI) products


Development of weather-based index
Implementation issues e.g. weather stations

Adaptive Planting Calendar: Rainfall Requirement for Growth


Maturity
Flowering

Panicle Initiation
Tillering

Transplanting
Sowing

Vegetative Phase

Reproductive Phase

Ripening Phase

Some Implementation Issues


in Agri-Insurance Program
Availability of reliable weather-based indices for agriinsurance products - e.g. indices based on rainfall, temp, etc.

Inadequate weather gauging network especially in agricultural


production areas

High premium for insurance coverage

Location map of
existing network of
weather gauging
stations in the
Philippines.
(PAGASA, 2011)

Effective and responsive agricultural

extension program (e.g. DA and LGUs)

Mainstreaming and sustainability of climate


adaptation initiatives

Good agricultural practices (GAPs) are also CCA


options that may be promoted

Effective coordination among agencies involved,


e.g. training programs, extension activities, etc.

Some Issues and


Challenges in
Climate-smart Agriculture

Concluding Remarks
Anthropogenic activities (including unsustainable
practices) and climate hazards threaten sustainability
of agriculture, and, indirectly, food security.
Advances in S & T provide opportunities to address the
adverse impacts of climate change.
Climate-smart agriculture involves use science-based
technologies and interventions to address climate
hazards as part of CRM, e.g. WIBI products.

Thank you for your attention.


<fplansigan@up.edu.ph>