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The essentials for managing effectively cross-cultural


employees within organisations

Savvas Evangelou
BA (Hons) International Business Management
International Research Skills

November 2015 January 2016

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1.0 Acknowledgments
My sincere gratitude towards my two unit professors Mrs. Lesley Strachan and
Mrs. Jayne Whistance for their constant support and guidance throughout my
journey of writing this report. I also feel the need to express my gratefulness
to the course leaders, Unit Leader and all my professors for their effort to
provide me with the best of their knowledge and for guiding me towards a
brighter future. Nevertheless, a keen thanks to my family who provide me the
essentials in order to be able to study in a University and live such a unique
life experience.

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Table of Contents
1.0 Acknowledgments.............................................................2
3.0 Abstract.........................................................................4
4.0 Introduction....................................................................5
5.0 Literature review..............................................................6
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Understanding culture..............................................................6
Creating harmonious work relations.............................................6
Cross-cultural synergy..............................................................8
Motivating employees...............................................................8

6.0 Research methods...........................................................10


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Ethics................................................................................10
Type and methodology of research.............................................10
Why interviews?...................................................................11
Design and methodology of the questions.....................................12

7.0 Results.........................................................................13
8.0 Analysis & Discussion........................................................22
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Creating harmonious work relations............................................22


Cross-cultural synergy............................................................23
Motivating employees.............................................................24
Chapter summary..................................................................25

9.0 Validity, Reliability & Limitations..........................................26


9.1
9.2

Definitions..........................................................................26
Implications.........................................................................26

10.0

Conclusion...................................................................29

11.0

References..................................................................31

12.0

Appendix..................................................................... 37

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5

Ethics checklist form............................................................37


Other reflections.................................................................38
Reflections concerning questions and research.............................38
Implications.......................................................................39
Employability reflections.......................................................39

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2.0 Abstract
Wide research has been conducted through valid secondary sources and
primary investigation through interviews pertaining to the subject of crosscultural management. The aim of this report is to provide an insight into the
essentials when managing multi-ethnic employees and to recommend
resolutions for various issues that a manager may undergo. The in depth
primary research was performed through a series of qualitative and focus
interviews to appropriate people who are associated with the topic, while
keeping in mind the importance of ethics. The questions were strategically
tailored with the intention of drawing information that can be produced into
conclusions. Finally, the data gathered from the responses were examined to
produce results and thereafter analysed to make the final conclusions.
Regardless of the vitality to draw advise from the experiences of experts
when making decisions, the investigation has shown that in particular
occasions their theories might be deficient. Nevertheless, the low degree of
validity and reliability of the research makes the final results unreliable.

The findings show that language is relatively a small component necessary to


communicate effectively, while other elements, which will be mentioned
through the report, are of foremost importance. Furthermore, it seems that
cross-cultural managers and employees can connect easier and build
harmonious relations, when broaden their knowledge of other cultures.
Additionally, encouragement within the team to develop a spirit of care and
support is significant in order to increase interconnectedness and trust among
the team members. Cultural differences should not be considered as an
obstacle that prevents efficiency, but as an advantage for companies. What
motivates each culture varies. However, we all have particular common needs
that motivate us.

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3.0 Introduction
The issue of managing effectively within organisations a mixture of crosscultural employees with dissimilar morals and perceptions is an extremely
vast area of research and numerous executives worldwide are unaware of the
essentials to successfully implement it (Tayeb 1996, p. 179). Furthermore, the
world is becoming progressively integrated and the occasions of companies
who hire multicultural staffing continuously increases (Rugman et al 2012, p.
134). As a consequence, the necessity to implement effectual cross-cultural
management is increasing dramatically. This is the reason for initiating
thorough research regarding the topic, for the purpose of creating an
overview of crucial components necessary to efficiently manage varieties of
cultural employees.

Therefore, an investigation on specialised books, articles and online sources


will be conducted with the aim of critically analysing the gathered
information and produce a literature review that provide to the discussed
problem. Afterwards, the report will include the research methods part, in
which the primary research and the methods used will be introduced,
including a description of the ethics utilised. Principally, the methodology
applied will be discussed and analysed in detail. A Methodology simply is the
techniques and strategies involved within the chosen methods with the
intention of generating the desired information and solutions (Pediaa 2015).

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4.0 Literature review


The literature review is the procedure of investigating and evaluating
secondary topic related resources, with the aim of synthesising and comparing
their theories and produce work based on those previous sources and their
literature (Fink 2014, p. 3-5; Dawidowicz 2010, p. 5). In relation to the
reports topic The essential for managing effectively multi-ethnic employees
within organisations, the literature review will provide a brief understanding
of the meaning of culture based on previous work. Subsequently, it will
expand to its main purpose of describing what is essential for managers to
know in order to manage their diverse cultural manpower, by evaluating
existing theories. For instance, what is essential to know in order to maintain
harmonious relations within the group and themselves, how to direct crosscultural diverse potential and the basics to motivate each individual
effectively.

4.1 Understanding culture


As Geertz Clifford stated there is no such thing as a human nature
independent of culture (Jenks 2005, p. 6). Culture is a wide concept and
difficult to be accurately defined (Barker 2012, p. xxiii; Schneider et al 2014,
pp. 3-4). However, a definition, which provides an accurate meaning of
culture associated to the topic is, characteristics, values and belief patterns
inherited and developed by an individual from the surrounding community
(Brooker 1999, pp. 35-36; Smith et al 2009, pp. 2-4).

4.2 Creating harmonious work relations


Numerous people believe that if they learn a countrys language, they will be
able to communicate effectively with its people (Moran et al 2014, p. 35).
However, language is not the sole ingredient necessary to communicate

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between various cultures, since there are different perceptions, ideologies,
attitudes and ways of doing things (Ferraro 2009, p. 53). For that reason, to
communicate successfully in work with multicultural employees, one must
understand their codes and conventions and act accordingly (Thomas et al
2009, p.86).

In addition, one of the foremost issues that can be proven disastrous within
organisations is cultural misunderstandings or a disrespect of culture
differences (Branine 2011 p. 3). Moran et al (2014, pp. 37-38) underpin that
the

different

culture

thinking

patterns

and

the

altered

cultural

communication system might conclude into inadvertent misunderstandings


and being poles apart with the collaboration of the team.

An effective way to reduce cultural misunderstandings and improve


communication within the teams is firstly for the supervisors to increase their
knowledge concerning other cultures. Therefore, they will have a greater
awareness of which sort of attitude, other cultures accept or are offended by,
as a result, to reduce possible conflicts (Lister 2015). On the other hand, the
employers can arrange activities for the employees to learn more about
different cultures and especially the host culture, in order to make them
more open minded and accepting concerning the cultural differences (Duggan
2015; More 2015).

Moreover, when people from one culture join groups with different cultural
people, they might often find themselves feeling as if they are with strangers
and it is a natural reaction to feel suspicious and distant (Brislin 2008, pp. 2728). Thus, it is essential for managers to quickly create an atmosphere of trust
and comfort between themselves and the members of the group in order to
interact harmoniously (Maude 2011, p. 189). The bestselling author and
management expert Ken Blanchard (2010) suggests that leaders who

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demonstrate sincere care and act supportively, can have a profound impact on
building trust in relations. The same occurs for the employees, by encouraging
them to be concerned about each other and to be supportive, will facilitate
them to build trusting relationships.

4.3 Cross-cultural synergy


Hofstede et al (2010, pp. 4-5) claim that once certain cultural patterns have
been developed and conditioned within a person, they must be first unlearnt
before the person can develop new patterns and adapt to the culture.
Nonetheless, exceptional leaders have no need to change people. Because, of
the fact that individuals of every culture encompass diverse attributes and
ideas, an effective leader can take into advantage and synergise the range of
skills possessed by each individual to increase the teams efficiency and
productivity (Harris et al 2004, pp. 140-141).

4.4 Motivating employees


Within organisations there is no doubt that motivating employees is a crucial
key for successful and efficient operation (Silberman 2013). One of the most
famous employee motivational theories is Maslows hierarchy of needs
(Hartzell 2015). Maslow states that all human beings exhibit specific innate
needs that they subconsciously seek to satisfy at work and classify those
needs in five categorises (Mullins et al 2013, pp. 252-254). Maslow also
highlights the significance for all employers, to provide all those necessary
needs to the employees in order to encourage them to perform with their
highest potential and be happy (Mullins et al 2013, pp. 252-254).
Nevertheless, according to Hofstede et al (2010) the world is full of
confrontations. More specifically, the quote means that people across every
nation think and operate differently, depending on the mental programming
they went through and the mind-set developed by their local society. Similarly

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Lewis (2006, p. 142) argues that there is no international formula for
motivation. Consequently, it is essential for managers to distinguish the
cultural differences between their employees and choose motivation
methods, which apply to the standards of each individual (King et al 2012, p.
291-292; Woog 2015).

For instance, McClelland argues that one of the major motivational drives is
the need for possessing power (French et al 2015, p. 119). In contrast,
Hofstede through his worldwide research resulted at the theory of power
distance, which declares that the degree by which people in each nation
expect and accept power highly differ (Browaeys et al 2015, p. 26). As it is
demonstrated underneath by figure 1, Hofstedes research, demonstrates vast
variance between Austria and Bulgaria and the expectancy of personal power
by its people.

Figure 1: Austria & Bulgaria comparison

(The Hofstede centre 2015).

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5.0 Research methods


In this chapter the whole process and the rationale of the primary research
will be discussed. To put it simpler, specific methods used and their types will
be discussed and meanwhile the steps taken will be described. Particularly,
exclusive attention will be paid to the methodology used and the reasons for
designing the procedure in the particular manner.

5.1 Ethics
Undoubtedly, in the present era before initiating research, which includes the
participation of other people an ethical approach, is required by the law (Bell
et al 2014, p. 47). Thus, an ethics checklist was signed with the purpose of
confirming the fact that no harm or violation of rights will occur during the
research (See 12.1). For instance, physical and mental safety will be ensured,
confidential personal details such as names will not be exposed and no
disrespectful action will be taken against the rights of others (OLeary 2004,
pp. 52-54).

5.2 Type and methodology of research


The primary research will be conducted through structured interviews, in
which eight consistent questions will be asked to each individual who acquire
knowledge and is related to the subject and then the answers will be written
(Cooper et al 2011, p. 258). The reason for asking identical questions in each
interview is to gather answers that can be compared to each other with the
aim of making conclusions. Besides, the research will be qualitative because it
will be based on the understanding of behaviours and opinions, and the
information collected by the participants will be in depth (Blaxter et al 2010,
p. 66; Wyse 2011). On the other hand, a quantitative approach does not
provide the equivalent depth of insight of the mechanisms, as a qualitative

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research (Rhodes 2014). Therefore, a qualitative approach will not only guide
to the proof if the existed theory might be wrong or right, but it will also
facilitate the discovery of new theories (University of Wisconsin 2015).

Due to the supervisors instructions, 10 people will be interviewed, which is


not a satisfying proportion of people to collect data from, with the objective
of reaching valid conclusions. However, it is a sufficiently fair number to
reach some initial conclusions (Mason 2010). The ideal number of participants
in order to achieve a higher degree of valid conclusion highly varies on the
type of research, but for this research a sample of at least 80 individuals
would be a satisfying volume (Beech 2014; Teller 2014).

The chief criteria necessary to participate in the research are firstly,


nationality since the research requisite to interview people from a number of
various nations in order to achieve the desired results. Additionally, and most
significantly the occupation is crucial, which will indicate whether if the
participant encompasses experience and awareness pertaining to the topic of
the report.

Indisputably, the person being interviewed must be comfortable and feel


secure, accordingly the revenue is a crucial factor to achieve that (Gill et al
2008). Therefore, the place where the interviews will take place is in the
library, because it is an easily accessible area close to the university and it is
a familiar public place.

5.3 Why interviews?


The major purpose for conducting the research using long time, focus
interviews is because the interviewer can meticulously focus on the
interviewee and examine more traits such as, the body language and the voice
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tone, which a questionnaire will not comprise (Cameron et all 2009, pp.367368; Bell 2014, p.178). Evermore, in contrast to a focus group, an interview
affords enough time to a person to expand on the answer longer without
having other members becoming tired waiting (Bryman et al 2015, pp. 496497). In addition, interviews are more comfortable for the speaker, in order to
express personal thoughts without being influenced by other people (Evalued
2006).

5.4 Design and methodology of the questions


Before designing the questions, it is firstly essential to identify the problem
and then design the questions in a specific method, which will gather
information that lead to the discovery of solutions for that issue (Leedy et al
2010, p. 44). In that case, the issue is how to manage effectively crosscultural employees. Therefore, the questions must provide information
necessary to generate resolutions for effectual cross-cultural management.

There is a high importance to retain a short number of questions, which will


be precisely related to the issue, therefore, there will be just eight questions,
which are indicated in the appendix 6.1.

The philosophy of the questions is interpretivist, which will explore and


interpret the social differences among multi-ethnic people (Saunders et al
2012, pp. 106-107). In view of that, the study will be explanatory, which
means asking open questions in order to allow the interviewee to explicate on
his answer and provide a wide range of information for later analysis
(Saunders et al 2016 p.174-175; Cameron 2010, p. 319).

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6.0

Results

This section introduces the results produced by the primary research, which
will be analysed with the aim of making final conclusions in later sections.

Figure 2: Being uncomfortable with foreigners.

Do you often feel uncomfortable while working with different cultured individuals?

Yes
No

The First question as illustrated in Figure 2, resulted in three Yes and seven
No. The outcome shows that most people do not feel uncomfortable while
working with multinational teams, which is definitely not the expected
outcome. Particularly, most interviewees consider multicultural interactions
as a challenging and interesting activity in which they can learn new things.

Nevertheless, it is still apparent that on a few occasions employees might feel


uncomfortable because foreign people think and act differently as a few
interviewees stated.

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Figure 3: Cross-cultural inadvertent misunderstandings.

Have you ever felt offended from the opinion of a foreign person?

No7

Yes3

Additionally, when they were asked if they were ever offended by the opinion
of a foreign individual, surprisingly, only three persons replied with Yes.
Therefore, the responses prove that stereotypical ideologies and even
seemingly appropriate behaviour as a participant quoted, might cause
misunderstandings.

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Figure 4: Connecting characteristics among cultures.

Which characteristics make you feel more connected to a foreign person?


Understanding
Attitude
Interested
4
Engaging
Communicative
3
Friendliness

Open

1
Honest

Trustworthy

Language

Open-minded

Positive

Humour
Rationality
Friendly
Respectful

Words

Count

Weighted Percentage

Understanding

12.90%

Interested

12.90%

Communicative

12.90%

Open

9.68%

Trustworthy

6.45%

Open-minded

6.45%

Humour

6.45%

Friendly

6.45%

Respectful

3.23%

Rationality

3.23%

Positive

3.23%

Language

3.23%

Honest

3.23%

Friendliness

3.23%

Engaging

3.23%

Attitude

3.23%

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As it is obvious in Figure 4 the most frequent responses for what help the
participants connect to foreign people is understanding, interested and
communicative, each mentioned four times. The responses were analysed in
NVivo to produce the above word frequency table in order to identify the
most commonly mentioned words.

Figure 5: Does cultural-knowledge affect relationships?

Do you feel more comfortable and connected with foreign people who have knowledge regarding your country and culture?

No

Yes

Figure 5 indicates that nine participants generally feel more connected and
comfortable with international people who are knowledgeable regarding their
culture. The sole respondent who answered negatively said sometimes it is
creepy when they know too much about my country.

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Figure 6: Is language enough to communicate?

Do you think the only need to communicate effectively with someone is speaking the same language, or are there any other traits necessary to achieve effective communication?
8

Yes

No

As anticipated, most respondents argued that speaking the same language is


not the sole necessity in order to achieve effective communication. As it turns
out the body language, a friendly attitude and a sincere interest to
communicate are also necessary in order to communicate effectively.

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Figure 7: Cultural skills and attributes in work.

Do you believe that people from your country have particular skil s or attribute, that other nationalities have in a smaller degree and can be effective for companies?
10
8
6
Number of answers

4
2
0

Yes

No
Responses

The purpose of the particular question was to justify the thesis mentioned in
the literature review that each culture posses unique skills and characteristics
that can be beneficial for companies (See reflections in 12.2.1) (Harris et al
2004, pp. 140-141). Unsurprisingly, the answers were all Yes, similarly to the
examined theory. A few skills and characteristics stated were hard working,
modern, high ethical standards, multicultural and other languages.

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Figure 8: Qualities of an ideal leader in each culture.

The seventh question is aimed to identify the expected characteristics that an


ideal leader must have in each of the participants culture and thereafter,
distinguish the most common. The largest word in the above figure is the
most frequently declared characteristic, which in that case is caring voted
four times, followed by being knowledgeable and professional, which were
both reported three times each.

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Figure 9: Career motives.

Which of the below motivates you to remain in a job and work hard? (Rank the 3 most important).
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1st Choice

2nd Choice

3rd Choice

The last question aims to identify exactly what motivates each person in
work. Quite unexpectedly, none of the participants selected easy and secure
jobs or the chance to be creative. Evidently, the major choice appears to be
money, which had been chosen by everyone. Other popular answers were
Friendly and collaborative environment and Passion. Nonetheless, friendly
and collaborative environment was not a priority for any of the participants,
it was only ranked a second or third motive.

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Figure 10: British comparison.

British comparison
Q6

Q5

Q4

Q2

Q1
0

With the aim of testing the validity and reliability of the research, two more
guest British participants were interviewed. Thereafter, the responses of the
three British participants were compared with the intention of identifying if it
is possible to attain diverse results while using different participants. Judging
by Figure 10, it is obvious that the participants provided different answers in
every question, except from the first.

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7.0 Analysis & Discussion


In this section the theories used in the literature review will be compared and
correlated with the results of the primary research with the objective of
making the final conclusions.

7.1 Creating harmonious work relations


Two participants said that as long as a foreign person can speak a common
language, they are capable of communicating adequately with that person.
Nonetheless, eight participants said that language is not sufficient.
Oppositely, as confirmed in the investigation, additional factors than just a
common language are essential in order to communicate efficiently with a
foreign person. More precisely, it is significant to understand and respect each
others mind-set and standards, relative to the theory supported by Thomas et
al (2009, p.86).

Additionally, the results have proven that in a few occasions someones beliefs
or stereotypical ideologies concerning anothers culture or country can truly
offend them, even if the offender had not rude intentions. Thus, once again
the outcomes of the research have agreed with the theories included in the
Literature review (Branine 2011 p. 3; Moran et al 2014, pp. 37-38).

As discussed in the Literature review, particular theories argue that training


employees to broaden their knowledge regarding diverse cultures is a brilliant
manner to avoid unfavourable cultural misunderstandings (Lister 2015; Duggan
2015; More 2015). The specific technique seems applicable, because the
majority of people feel more understood by foreign individuals who have
knowledge and are sympathetic towards their values and standards. While,

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some others judge their values and standards without even making the effort
to learn about them and understand them.

Furthermore, it appears that the technique is not only capable of supporting


to reduce cultural misunderstanding, but it can also facilitate to improve the
relationships between the employees. This insight was originated by the
participants claims that they also feel more comfortable and connected with
people who know and understand their culture. Simply, international people
can express their beliefs without being criticised by others. Moreover, some
interviewees said that when a foreign person acquires knowledge about their
culture and country, they feel praised and more valued. Subsequently, those
people enjoy being around foreigners who demonstrated a sincere interest in
their culture and country.

Most respondents declared to be comfortable while working in an


international environment. Nonetheless, the minority professed that they
sometimes feel insecure with foreign people, exactly like the claim of Brislin
(2008, pp. 27-28). As a solution to the issue, Blanchard (2010) recommends
that leaders should be sincerely caring and supportive towards the staff.
Coincidently, the chief respond in what the respondents expect from their
leaders, is to be caring. To explain it simply, they expect their leaders to be
empathic listeners who understand them and support them. The same
includes their colleagues, since most of them desire to work in a friendly and
collaborative environment. Thus, the recommendation provided by Blanchard
(2010) appears to be theoretically functional.

7.2 Cross-cultural synergy


In favour of the theory of Harris et al (2004, pp. 140-141), the research
clearly indicates that people from diverse counties in several occasions

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encompass unique skills and attributes that can benefit the company. Yet, as a
few interviewees stated, each country operates in a particular culture and
employers require employees with skills and attributes that fit within the
certain culture. Consequently, Hostedes method of adapting individuals in a
specific culture, appear to be useful for implementation in contrast to what
was stated in the literature review (Hofstede et al 2010, pp. 4-5).

7.3 Motivating employees


Considering employees motivation, it was argued by numerous experts that
motivation methods vary in each culture (Hofstede et al 2010; Lewis 2006, p.
142; King et al 2012, p. 291-292; Woog 2015). However, money was found to
be present in everyones list of motivational requirements. This case
illustrates that particular motivational methods are applicable in every
culture as supported by Maslow (Mullins et al 2013, pp. 252-254). Likewise, 7
participants choose friendly and collaborative environment as their second or
third choice. Apparently, maintaining a friendly and collaborative environment
is not a priority for people, but is a significant background expectation for
almost again every culture.

McClellands theory explains that allowing employees to possess power is an


effective motivational method (French et al 2015, p. 119). In contrast, the
results of the research demonstrate that nine out of ten people are not highly
motivated by possessing power. Evidently, different cultures not only are
motivated with the same methods, but also acquire equal dislikes as to what
motivates them. However, if the answers provided could possibly be biased
because the participants wanted to avoid showing a cruel desire for
dominating and controlling people. Under these circumstances, possessing
power can be an actual motivator, but minor compared to the rest of
motivational methods in the list (Bell et al 2014, pp. 186-187).

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7.4 Chapter summary
Most of the findings obviously agree with stated theories. For example, that a
common language is not sufficient to achieve strong communication. On
particular occasions unintentional misunderstanding might occur in crosscultural communications. Knowledge regarding various cultures can improve
connectedness, trust and divert misunderstanding. Lastly, people from each
culture acquire unique abilities and traits, which can be taken into advantage
within a team. However, there seems to be a few conflicts between the
interview findings and the theories. Mainly, there is a link between what
motivate each culture and providing power to employees seems not to be
incredibly effective motive.

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8.0 Validity, Reliability & Limitations


Validity, reliability and limitations are three crucial elements to consider
while making conclusions through primary research. Thus, in this part each
will be defined. Next, their implications with the conducted research will be
discussed.

8.1 Definitions
Validity is the degree of integrity of the conclusions produced by a particular
research (Bryman and Bell 2015, p. 50).

Reliability is whether the outcomes produced in the research will be


consistent in identical research or upon reimplementation of the research
with different participants (Bryman and Bell 2015, p. 49).

Limitations are influences that the researcher has no control over and restrict
the research in particular ways (Bryman and Bell 2015, p. 328-329; Baltimore
County Public Schools 2010).

8.2 Implications
Possibly particular answers for the first question are believed to be biased
because of the human tendency to perceive themselves in a positive manner
instead of a negative (See 7.0) (Style 2011, p. 132). To explain it simpler, they
prefer to think that they are competent and in control of the situations,
rather than incapable of handling people from other cultures. This can be
assumed since most of the respondents justified their answer through a selfpraising statement such as I am open-minded or I can connect with anyone.

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Unfortunately, the responses received in response to the sixth question are
not entirely reliable since occasionally people might provide false answers in
a defensive stance in order to protect the image of their country and
therefore, their image (See 7.0) (Bryman and Bell 2012, p. 396; Deacon 2013,
pp.128-129).

Disadvantageously, as mentioned in the methodology, the interview consisted


of only 10 participants in accordance with the brief. In order to gather the
data necessary for analysis, the participants had to be from various cultural
backgrounds. As a result, there is a high probability that the collected data
can be unreliable, since any of the interviewees might encompass entirely
different perceptions than the general beliefs of their origin culture (Chang et
al 2012). According to Figure 10, even if respondents shared the same
nationality, they provided diverse responses. Correspondingly, the likelihood
of gaining different responses while involving entirely different participants is
high. Since the consistency of data is a vital requirement in order to generate
valid and reliable conclusions, the final conclusion cannot be regarded as
entirely valid and reliable (Shuttleworth 2008).

Moreover, in the methodology, it was described that the interview questions


were strategically designed to draw specific information necessary to produce
conclusions regarding the issue. Nevertheless, it appeared that particular
questions did not draw the expected answers. These questions were then
changed to avoid reducing the reliability and validity of the findings (See
12.2).

For the eighth question, there were solely six options available to choose from
(See 7.0). Thus, there were only a few options to choose and that increased
the possibility that participants would consistent answers. Therefore, the
research is inadequate to disprove that every culture acquires dissimilar
motivational needs.
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Evidently, the level of spoken English was limited for the majority of the
participants, since they came from a foreign country. This was a barrier to
express precise opinions by the interviewees in a limited vocabulary of the
language used for the interviews (University of Southern California 2015).

In an effort to demonstrate examples to make the participants understand the


nature of the question, the interviewer might have influenced the responses
of the participants (Bryman and Bell 2012, p. 397). Likewise, since the
participants knew the interviewer personally and his personal opinions, there
is a possibility that they had changed their exact opinions in order to avoid
conflict.

In case that any of the above actually occurred it means that the conclusions
might not be functional in particular cases as it might affect the validity of
the research.

9.0

Conclusion

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Through the extensive research and methodical analysis of the results, the
chief conclusions are as follows:

In order to communicate effectively with multi-ethnic employees, it is vital to


understand and consider their codes and conventions, rather than just speak a
common language. Furthermore, when companies are recruiting, they must
select candidates who possess a multicultural mind-set and are capable of
connecting with diversity, instead of solely choosing people who can speak the
required language.

As a manager it is essential to be aware of cultural variations and deal with


multicultural employees in an open-minded attitude. Particularly, managers
must create close relations with their staff with the intention of learning and
empathising with their values and standards. Likewise, they must educate and
provide training sessions to employees with the purpose of raising their
awareness concerning different cultures. As a result, this will help to establish
an interrelated and harmonious atmosphere within the team.

Indisputably, a supervisor must remember that listening carefully and


radiating a genuine care towards the staff can make a vast difference to
improve interconnectedness between them. It is vital to also encourage the
culture of care among the staff in order to procure them to bond and
collaborate efficiently.

When foreign candidates are recruited or currently work in the company, the
executive responsible must identify their unique skills or characteristics.
Thereafter, they should direct their potential appropriately to put them at an
advantage as a means

to improve the overall team

performance.

Nevertheless, if the individuals characteristics are not a fit within the


organisations culture, then those employees might find it difficult to adapt.

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Applying motivational methods within a multicultural organisation is


extremely tricky, because what works for each culture varies. However, there
are a few common motives that affect the majority of cultures, such as
money or friendly and collaborative environment. Correspondingly, the
manager can implement motivation approaches based on those resemblances
that are actually effective in cross-cultural groups. Yet, particular misguided
motivational techniques such as providing power to employees might not be
practical in a cross-cultural environment and might bring confusion when
implementing such motivational techniques.

10.0 References

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Barker, C., 2012. Cultural studies. 4th ed. Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE
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Bell, J. and S. Waters, 2014. Doing research project: a guide for first time
researches. 6th ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Blanchard, K., 2010. Building trust [Viewed 26 October 2015] Available from:
http://www.kenblanchard.com/img/pub/blanchard-building-trust.pdf

Blaxter, L., C. Hughes and M. Tight, 2010. How to research. 4th ed.
Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Blumberg, B., D. Cooper and P. Schindler, 2011. Business research methods. 3rd
ed. London: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Branine, M., 2011. Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practises.
3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Brislin, R., 2008. Working with cultural differences: Dealing effectively with
diversity in the workplace. 1st ed. Westport, Conn.; London: Praeger.

Brooker, P., 1999. A concise glossary of cultural theory. 1st ed. London: Arnold.

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Browaeys, M. and R. Price, 2015. Understanding cross-cultural management.


3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Bryman, A. and E. Bell, 2015. Business research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.

Cameron, S., 2010. The business students handbook: skills for study and
employment. 5th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education / Financial Times Prentice
Hall.

Cameron, S. and D. Price, 2009. Business research methods: a practical


approach. 1st ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Dawidowicz, P., 2010. Literature reviews made easy. 1st ed. Charlotte, NC:
Information Age Publishing.

Duggan, T., 2015. How to Overcome Cross Cultural Communication in Business


[Viewed

25

October

2015]

Available

from:

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/overcome-cross-cultural-communicationbusiness-134.html

Evalued, 2006. Interviews [Viewed 1 November 2015] Available from:


http://www.evalued.bcu.ac.uk/tutorial/4c.htm

Ferraro, G., 2009. The cultural dimension of international business. 6th ed.
Upper Saddle River, N.J.; London: Prentice Hall.

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Fink, A., 2014. Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to
paper. 4th ed. Los Angeles, California: SAGE.

French, R. et al., 2015. Organizational behaviour. 3rd ed. New York: John
Wiley.

Gill, P. et al., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research:


interviews and focus groups [Viewed 3 November 2015] Available from:
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Hartzell, S., 2015. The Needs Theory: Motivating Employees with Maslow's
Hierarchy

of

Needs

[Viewed

22

October

2015]

Available

from:

http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-needs-theory-motivating-employeeswith-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html

Hofstede, G., J. Hofstede and M. Minkov, 2010. Cultures and organizations:


software of the mind: intercultural cooperation and its importance for
survival. 3rd ed. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.

Jenks, C., 2005. Culture. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.


King, D. and S. Lawley, 2012. Organisational behaviour. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Leedy, P. and J. Ormrod, 2010. Practical research: planning and design. 9th ed.
Oxford: How to Books.
Lewis, R., 2006. When cultures collide: leading across cultures. 3rd ed.
London: Nicholas Brealey.

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Lister, J., 2015. Organizational Goals for Developing a Cross-Cultural
Employee

Matrix

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23

October

2015]

Available

from:

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-goals-developingcrosscultural-employee-matrix-34789.html
Mason, m., 2010. Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative
Interviews. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University [Viewed 31 October 2015]
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from:

http://www.qualitative-

research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1428/3027
Maude, B., 2011. Managing cross-cultural communication: Principles &
practice. 1st ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Moran, R., N. Abramson and S. Moran, 2014. Managing cultural differences. 9th
ed. London: Routledge.
More, J., 2015. How to Train New Employees on an International Level
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23

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2015]

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from:

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/train-new-employees-international-level12890.html
Mullins, L. and G. Christy, 2013. Management & Organisational behaviour. 10th
ed. Harlow: Pearson.
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2015.

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http://chronicle.umbmentoring.org/on-methods-whats-the-differencebetween-qualitative-and-quantitative-approaches/
Rugman, A. and S. Collison, 2012. International Business. 6th ed. Harlow:
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Thomas, D and K. Inkson, 2009. Cultural intelligence: Living and working


globally. 2nd ed. San Francisco, Calif.: Berrett-Koehler.
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11.0 Appendix

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11.1 Ethics checklist form

11.2 Other reflections

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11.2.1 Reflections concerning questions and research

During the first interview I noticed a couple of issues emerging. Firstly,


particular questions were expressed incorrectly and thus, they were
incomprehensible for the participants. Furthermore, the question was not
exactly accurate to draw the exact information needed for analysis. While
implementing the research it is crucial to find immediate solutions for
incurred problems and keep notes of the flaws with the aim of making
improvements for the following interviews (Davies and Hughes 2014, p. 220).
Therefore, I changed the mistakes in the question and endeavoured to make
them more comprehensible for the next interviews.

For instance, the sixth question initially was If you go abroad to work, do you
believe that you will bring with you skills and attributes that the locals will
not have, and can actually be beneficial for the company?. Therefore,
reflecting on the situation, I took the decision to change the question to Do
you believe that people from your country have particular skills or attribute,
that other nationalities have in a smaller degree and can be effective for
companies?. After testing the question, it seemed to be less complicated to
comprehend by the interviewees and could draw more accurate data
necessary for the scope of the research.

As a non-experienced researcher, I was worried that would have not gathered


sufficient data to analyse and generate conclusions. For that reason, I added
more questions than the fundamental ones with the intention of securing
enough data for more analysis than required. While I was analysing the data I
realised that the data gained from the standard question had been insufficient
for analysis. However, the information obtained from the extra questions was
enough to make the analysis and reach the word count. Subsequently, the
thought of adding additional questions proved helpful.

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Nevertheless, a few questions were unnecessary, because most of the answers
for those questions were not taken into account in the essay. More precisely,
the questions were a why, why not or give an example that was added in
every question because of the decision to make a qualitative research.
Reflecting on the situation, I will make sure that in my research that I will not
ask any unnecessary expanding questions to the participants, but I will at
least include two close-ended questions as a backup.

11.2.2 Implications

Furthermore, I observed that specific interviewees expanded openly in their


answers, while some others were more hesitant or uninterested to expand.
Nonetheless, since I needed qualitative information I had to find ways to
engage everyone and make them feel comfortable. A useful approach was to
ask why? and straight away have a guess on what the interview would say.
This encouraged them to deny or accept my guess and elaborate accordingly.

11.2.3 Employability reflections

Research and analysis is a crucial employability skill necessary for the


placement that I will undertake as an assurance and advisory consultant in
PWC. Executing the research and the analysis in the assignment was a great
opportunity to practise. As a result, I am prepared to conduct research and
analysis during my work placement.

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