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ACIDS & BASES

Taste sour

Taste bitter
Feel
Slippery

Naming Acids
Is there an
oxygen?

No

Yes

Use the Polyatomic Ion


Chart to find the
polyatomic ion. Is it the
found directly on the
Does it end in ate
chart?
No
or ite
Yes

Write Hydro for the prefix.


Then use the name of the
element changing the ending
to ic add Acid

ate

ite

Have the
polyatomic
end with ic
and add
Acid

Have the
polyatomic end
with ous and
add Acid

1 more

Use Per as
a prefix,
then the
name of the
polyatomic
making it
end with ic
Acid

Compare to ate
form of
polyatomic; does it
have 1 more
oxygen or two
2 fewer
fewer oxygens?
Use Hypo as a
prefix, then the
name of the
polyatomic
making it end
with ous
Acid

Naming Acids
HCl
H2SO4
H2SO3
HF
HNO3
HClO4

Acid & Bases


Definitions

Arrhenius
Acids: when dissolved in water would
increase [H+]
Bases: when dissolved in water would
increase [OH-]
Used
Brnsted-Lowry
most
frequently
Acids: proton (H+) donors
on exam!

Bases: proton (H+) acceptors

H+ in Water
HCl dissociates H+ and
Remember
it
into
Cl
H + O H
dissociates
in solution!

H O H

HCl(g) + H2O (l) Cl-(aq) + H3O+


(aq)
+

Cl H

O H
H

Hydronium
Ion (H3O+)

C
l

H O H
H

Chemists use
H+ and H3O+
interchangea
bly

Identifying Brnsted-Lowry Acids


&
Bases
HCl(g) + H O (l) Cl-(aq) +
2

H3O+ (aq)
NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+(aq) +
OH- (aq)
used
m
r
e
t
:
c
i
t
o
Amphipr
nces
a
t
s
b
u
s
be
to descri
ble of
a
p
a
c
e
r
that a
or a
d
i
c
a
n
a
acting as
se

Conjugate acids & Conjugate


Weak acids (often bases
symbolized by HA) do not
dissociate completely so are said to go to
equilibrium denoted by the double arrow.

HA (aq) + H2O (l)


Acid
H3O+ (aq)Base

A-(aq) +
Conjuga
te Base

Conjuga
te Acid

Every acid has a conjugate base formed by removing a proton


Everythe
base
has a conjugate acid formed by adding a proton
from
acid
to the base

Conjugate acids & Conjugate


bases +
Identify the
conjugate pairs
in this acid-base
equilibrium
equation

NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4 (aq) +


OH- (aq)

STO
P

re !
o
M di c
ac i

Ne
u

Acidic

tr
al

pH Scale
Basic
(Alkalin
e)
Mo
re
ba
sic
!

More Hydrogen
Ions

More Hydroxide
Ions

pH & pOH
pH = -log
[H+]

[H+]: Hydronium
concentration
* Remember H+ used interchangeably with
H3O+
+

pOH = -log
[OH
]
-

[OH ]: Hydroxide
concentration

When [H ] = [OH-]:
Neutral
+
When [H ] > [OH ]:
Acidic

Hydronium Concentration
& pH

pH = -log
[H+]
What is the pH of a solution with [H+] =
1.0x10-12M?
What is the pH of a solution with [H+] =
1.0x10-11M?

pH of monoprotic Strong
Acids
One
proton

What is the pH of 0.04M Nitric


Acid?

[H+] & [OH-]


When hydrogen ion concentration increases;
hydroxide ion decreases and vice versa.

[H ][OH ] =
-14 for a solution in
Calculate the H 1.0x10
concentration
which [OH ] is 0.010M.
+

pH & pOH
Since [H+] & [OH-] have an inverse relationship
pH & pOH are also related

pH + pOH = 14
If the pOH for a solution is 3.00, what is the pH? Is it
acidic or basic??

Strong Bases
es
d
i
x
ro
d
s&
y
l
h
a
t
c
Ioni kali me line
al
lka
h
a
t
i
r
w
als
vie
t
a
e
e
h
m
h
t
r
ea

pH of 0.30M
NaOH?

Strong Bases
Which solution has the higher pH, a 0.001M
solution of NaOH or a 0.001M solution of Ba(OH)2?

STO
P

Weak Acids & Weak Bases

are
y
e
h
rt
e
b
ak
m
e
e
w
m
Re
red
e
O
d
i
cons se the D y
u
l
beca omplete e)
c
t
NOT dissocia
e(
z
i
n
io

All substances
at equilibrium
are in soln (aq)

HA (aq) + H2O
H3O+(aq) + A(aq)
O
RH+(aq) + A- (aq)
HA (aq)

So we can use
Equilibrium Constant
Expression

Weak Acids & Weak Bases

ka
=

kb
=

[H+]
[A
]
[HA]

[HB+]
[OH
[B] ]

Equilibrium Constant
Expression
for acids
& bases
ka : acid
dissociation
constant
**every acid has its
ka =own**
stronger acid (more
dissociation)
kb : base dissociation constant
**actually protonates (accepts a
proton)**

Weak Acids & Weak Bases


Exampl
e:
What is the pH of a 0.20M soln HC2H3O2?

ka=1.8x10-5

HC2H3O2

(aq)

H+(aq) + C2H3O2-

(aq)

Acetic acid is a weak acid so will not dissociate


completely so we have to figure out [H+]
using:

[H+][C2H3O2-]
ka
[HC2H3O2]
=
then use pH = -log[H+]

What is the pH of a 0.20M soln HC2H3O2?


ka=1.8x10-5

HC2H3O2

(aq)

(aq)

+ C2H3O

2 (aq)

[H+][C2H3O2-]
ka
[HC2H3O2]
=

To determine [H+] at equilibrium use


ICE table
[HC2H3O2]

[H+]

0.2
0-x

[C2H3O
20]

*each acid
molecule that
dissociates gives 1
+
+
H
&
1
C
H
O
xx
2 3 2
So [H+] = [C2H3O2-]
initial concentration of
=x

Initial
+
xx
Change
0.2x
The value
of x (compared
to the
Equilibri
acid) isum
almost always insignificant so we just use the

initial concentration as the equilibrium concentration


for the acid.

What is the pH of a 0.20M soln HC2H3O2?


ka=1.8x10-5
Initial
Change
Equilibri
um

[HC2H3O2]

[H ]

0.2
0-x

0.2

+
xx

[C2H3O
20]
+
xx

[H+][C2H3O2-]
ka
[HC2H3O2]
=
(x)(x)
1.8x10-5
0.2
=

Weak Acids & Weak Bases


Example
2:
A student prepare a 0.10M solution of formic acid

(HCOOH) and found its pH at 25C to be 2.38. Calculate


Ka for formic acid at this temperature.

**go to smart notebook**

Percent Ionization
Rememb
er:

ka = stronger acid (more


dissociation)

Another way to measure acid


strength is:
[H+] equilibrium
Percent
=
x10
[HA] initial
Ionization
0

Percent Ionization
Example:
A 0.035M solution of HNO2 contains 3.7x10-3 M
H+; what is the percent ionization of this nitrous
acid?

STO
P

Polyprotic Acids
1+
proton

Sulfurous Acid
H2SO3
HSO36.4x10-8

H+ + HSO3H+ + SO3-2

ka1 = 1.7x10-2
ka2 =

ka2 is much smaller than ka1 (ease of


ionization)
it is always easier to lose first proton
than the second.

Polyprotic Acids
Name Formul
a

ka1

ka2

Ascorbic

H2C6H6O6

8.0x10-5

1.6x10-12

Carbonic

H2CO3

4.3x10-7

5.6x10-11

Phosphori
c

H3PO4

7.5x10-3

6.2x10-8

Sulfuric

H2SO4

LARGE

1.2x10-2

ka3

4.2x10-13

Relationship between ka &


*works for conjugate acid-base
k
b
pairs*

NH4+ + H2O
+
H
O
NH +
ple3r

Sim
form

ka
=

NH3 +

NH3 + H+
[H+]
[NH4+3]]
[NH
[H+]
ka x kb [NH
[NH4+3]]

NH3 + H2O
+ OH-

)(

NH4+

[NH4+]
kb =
[OH3]-]
[NH

[NH4+]
[OH3]-]
[NH

=
ka x kb = [H+] = kw = 1.0x1014
[OH-]

Neutralization Reactions
Strong Acid with Strong
Base
NaOH

HCl
EQ: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O (l)
+
+
Na
+
OH
Na+ + Cl- + H2O
H + Cl
+
H

Na+

Cl

OH-

NET IONIC: H+ + OH- H O

Neutralization Reactions

Strong Acid with Strong


Base
How many grams of Ca(OH)2 are needed to neutralize 25.0mL
of 0.100M HNO3?

2HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(s) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O (l)

Neutralization Reactions

Strong Acid with Strong


Base
How many grams of NaOH are needed to neutralize 20.0mL of
0.150M H2SO4?

Titrations

Strong Acid with Strong


Base
Titration: the process of combining a soln of known
concentration with one of unknown concentration.
Used to determine concentration of unknown soln.

Equivalence point:
when mol base =
mole acid
At equivalence pt
between strong
acids and strong
bases; pH = 7

Titrations

Strong Acid with Strong


Base
45.7mL of a 0.500M H2SO4 is required to neutralize
20.0mL of NaOH. What is the concentration of NaOH?

H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l)

Titrations

Strong Acid with Strong


Base
What is the molarity of an HCl solution if 27.3mL of it
neutralizes 134.5mL of 0.0175M Ba(OH)2?

Titration Curve
Strong Acid with Strong
Base

Moles base = moles


acid
All H+ neutralized by
OH-

Titration Curve
Strong Base with
Strong Acid

Other Neutralization
Reactions
Strong Acid & Weak
Base HCl & NH3
NH3 + H2O OH- +
H+ +
ClNH4+
H+ + Cl- + NH3 + H2O H+ + Cl- +
+
OH
+
NH
H+ + Cl- +4 NH3 + H2O H2O + Cl- +
NH4+
Product will be
conjugate acid of
H+ + NH3
weak base
+

NH4

Other Neutralization
Reactions
Weak Acid & Strong
Base HC2H3O2 & NaOH
HC2H3O2
H+ +
C2H3O2HC2H3O2 + Na+ + OHH+ + C2H3O2- +
HC2H3O2 + Na + OHC2H3O2-

HC2H3O2 + OHC2H3O2-

Na+ + OHNa+ + OH- +

Na+ + H2O +
Product will be
conjugate base of
H2O +
weak acid & water

Other Neutralization
Weak Acid & WeakReactions
Base HC2H3O2 & NH3
HC2H3O2
H+ +
NH3 + H2O OH- +
C2H3O2NH4+ +
HC2H3O2 + NH3+ H2O
NH4 + OH- + H+ +
C2H3O2HC2H3O2 + NH3+ H2O
NH4+ + H2O +
C2H3O2Product will be
conjugate acid &
HC2H3O2 + NH3
NH4+ +
conjugate base
-

C2H3O2

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH

When excess is
Strong acid or Strong
Example 1: 35.0mL of 1.5M HCN,
a weak acid (ka=6.2x10-10) is
base
mixed with 25.0mL of
final solution.
mol HCN= (0.035L)(1.5M)
(0.025L)(2.5M)
mol HCN= 0.052mol
0.062mol

2.5M KOH. Calculate the pH of the


mol KOH=

calculate #
of moles
first

HCN + OH+ CN-

mol KOH=

H2O

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH
Example 1
continued:

When excess is
Strong acid or Strong
Mole
HCNbase OH
CN
-

Initial
0.05
2
Change
0.05
Equilibriu
0
m
2
Now need to determine
M=
[OH-] at equilibrium (weak
conjugate base irrelevant
compared to strong OH-)
ICE
d
e
ifi
Mod o show
tt
char nge of
cha es!
mol

0.06
2
0.05
0.01
2
0
mol
L

0
+0.0
52
0.05
2
M=
0.010mol
0.06L

H2

Water is
excluded a
s it
is a pure li
quid
O

X
X
X
M = 0.17M
OH-

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH
Example 1
continued:

When excess is
Strong acid or Strong
base
M = 0.17M
OH-

pH
=13.24

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH

When excess is
Weak acid or Weak
base
Use: Henderson-Hasselbalch

[A ]
pH = pka +
[HA
log
]
-

Equation
[HB
pOH = pkb + +
[B]
]
log

[HA]: concentration of weak


acid @ equilibrium

[B]: concentration of weak base @


equilibrium

[A-]: concentration of
conjugate base @ equilibrium

[HB+]: concentration of
conjugate acid @ equilibrium

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH

When excess is
Weak acid or Weak
Example 2: 25.0mL of 1.0M HCl
is mixed with 60.0mL of 0.50M
base
pyridine (C5H5N), a
the
pHHCl=
of the
solution.
mol
(0.025L)(1.0M)
(0.060L)(0.50M)
mol H+ 0.025 mol
0.030mol

weak base (kb= 1.5x10-9). Determine

calculate #
of moles
first

H+ + C5H5N
HC5H5N+

mol C5H5N=
mol C5H5N =

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH
Example 2
continued:
ICE
d
e
ifi
Mod o show
tt
char nge of
cha es!
mol

When excess is
Weak acid or Weak
Mole
H base
C H N
HC H
+

Initial
Change
Equilibriu
m

0.02
-5
0.02
0
5

0.03
0.02
0.00
55

[HB
pOH = pkb + +
[B]
]
log

0
+0.02
50.02Remember, these are
representing the
5
number of moles so
need to calculate
concentration

Other Neutralization
Reactions pH
Example
2
continue
d:

When excess is
Weak acid or Weak
HC H
M=
M base
= mol
N

C5 H 5
N
0.005mol

M = 0.059M
0.085L
C5 H 5 N

5 5
+

[HB
pOH = pkb + +
[B]
]
log

M=
0.025mol
M = 0.29M
0.085L
HC5H5N+

pH
=4.48

Titration of
polyprotic
acid
pH=pka2
pH=pka1

Buffers
Solution with a very stable pH
.

Resist drastic changes of pH when small


amounts of strong acids or bases added
.

Made by placing a large amount of weak


acid (or base) into soln with its conjugate in
the form of salt

Buffers
Which of the following
conjugate acid-base pairs will
NOT function as a buffer?
1)C2H5COOH & C2H5COO2)HCO3- & CO3-2
3)HNO3 & NO3-

Buffers

ACI
D
Conjugate
Base

H2CO3 +

Any H+ ions
added will be
neutralized by
base, any OHions will be
neutralized by
acid

pH of Buffers
[A-]
pH = pka +
[HA
log
]

Example1: 0.20M HC2H3O2 and 0.50M C2H3O2- ka


= 1.8x10-5

pH=

pH of Buffers
[A-]
pH = pka +
[HA
log
]

Example2: 0.20M HC2H3O2 and 0.20M C2H3O2- ka


= 1.8x10-5

pH=

Selecting Buffers
pH=pka

(when concentrations of acid & conjugate

base equal)

pOH=pkb

(when concentrations of base &


conjugate acid equal)

so
..
Choose an acid that has
pka close to desired pH

Selecting Buffers
Which of the following would best buffer
a solution from a pH of 4 to 6?
1)Formic acid (pka = 3.7)
2)Uric acid (pka = 3.9)
3)Carbonic acid (pka = 6.3)
4)Acetic acid (pka = 4.7)
5)Hydrocyanic acid (pka =
9.2)

Blood as a Buffer